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Toughest question of our times is how to maintain world order and is it possible at all? The kind of turmoil,middle east is in,Syrian crisis,emergence of ISIS and the controversial role of US,Russia,Europe in all this mess.

Currently more than 1 million refugees from Syrian and Iraq crisis are entering Europe and U.S and how they will be accommodated,that is a big issue,because there are differences within these countries about allowing them to enter.Right wing political parties and their followers are deadly against allowing them to enter in these countries.But on the other side are liberal,secular,democratic sections who want to help these refugees whole heartedly.So there is a war like situation all over the world.Overall the west is secular and secularism is accepted all over the world,as a way of life. politically There is a right wing strategy to target muslims as disturbing elements.Terrorism is cited as the cause for not allowing muslims to enter in their countries.ISIS is the result of communal right wing politicians who discriminate on the basis of religion.There is poverty and misery all over the world which is not addressed properly by these right wing politicians because of which unemloyment and poverty is more among muslim youth,which is being exploited by ISIS.Those who are claiming that they will destroy ISIS completely may be heading for a big confrontation,because now muslim countries also possess nuclear weapons.China has emerged as an Asian super power and it seems that,China is inclined towards muslim nations.Money wise also muslim nations have an edge over Europe and America.India’s present regime is consisted of RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal which are hard core right wing organizations and their anti muslim stand is well known all over the world.So now one side is U.S,Europe,India,Japan and other side is China,Russia,Iran,Pakistan and entire sunni section of middle east.Although there are differences between Saudi Arab and Iran about their Sunni and Shia beliefs but ultimately both are followers of quran and for the larger cause,they will consider west as their enemy.Fundamentalism prevails among muslims,hindus,christians,Buddhists everywhere and organized religion is the cause of this.Organized religion depends upon money,status,force and all want to be superior than the other.So a confrontation seems to be inevitable among the militant right wing sections of these various religions,to establish superiority and we are heading for a big war among various organized religions.The famous philosopher Hagel wrote about Dialectic which was about war between two countries,but now what we are going to see is something like Multilectic.

The western capitalist system provided a luxurious lifestyle to europeans and americans after the two world wars.But living a rich comfortable life brings an added responsibility that the other poorer sections of the world are also human beings and deserve the same comforts and if they dont get them then there is going to be chaos in the world.So now we can say that America and Europe failed to take care of the poverty of the world and the result of which we are witnessing today.Modern terrorism is the result of failure of capitalism to address the issues of poverty.China’s leaders had been addressing these issues in front of the world but America the super power had been ignoring these warnings.American films are full with romanticism and heroism which solve the problems in the film only.In reality romanticism does not solve the problems of the world.Philosophers have already written about the fascist nature of romanticism.So China seems to be more grounded to earth.China and Russia now represent the poorer section of the world and America and Europe represent the richer section.Europe is failing economically,militarily.It is not the super power as it was during world war.China has emerged as the super power of Asia and can pose a serious challenge to America in case of a world war.And we are heading towards a war between poors and rich,and poors have to win this war if poverty is to go from the world.Muslim nations are drifting from America day by day and they have started suspecting the intentions of America.America calls all these sections militants or terrorists,but the fact is that wrong policies of America in Iraq and Syria are responsible for so much violence in middle east.America has failed in middle east due to its right wing politicians communal agenda.Now they have to pay for it.When one is ethically wrong then however mighty it may be it can’t defeat the truth.Ultimately truth will prevail and the truth is that poverty and miseries have to go from the world.All human beings have to enjoy the basic amenities like a home,food,clothing and if they don’t get them then there is something terribly wrong with the world order,which has to be corrected by force.

I was reading a book titled”World Order” written by Henry Kissinger the ex secretary of state during American President Richard Nixon.When we read an American book then America is the hero of that book and all other countries are fringe elements,and the same is with this book also.China is given some prominence,but the central power is America and its contribution to the world order or we can say Disorder.Actually it is more of a disorder and responsibility lies with America for this disorder.The book only glorifies the American presidents for their efforts to bring world order.Poverty is never mentioned as the main reason for so much disturbances in the world.Africa has no reference in the entire book.So it is quite clear that Mr Kissinger lives in his own make believe world in which America is central and oil rich middle east,Europe,China,Russia are mentioned,and wars are mentioned in detail,and how America fought these wars.How to fight the poverty of the world Mr Kissinger?You have never thought over this it seems.Third world war is about poverty versus riches and the rich will be defeated and poor will win.If humanity has to survive then all humans have to be at par.There can’t be any difference among them.Differences are man made and they have to go.There is poverty and misery in Africa,South America,India,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Srilanka and many countries and it has to go.United Nations pays only lip sympathy to poverty of these nations.World Bank,IMF have not been able to raise the living standards of poor.So this can not continue for ever.If war is the solution then let it be,but poverty has to go.

Iran has stated that ‘West is their enemy and nothing good they are expecting from west for themselves’and Mr Hassan Rouhani has praised China for being sympathetic to them.I thought America is a better secular democratic nation than other democracies of the world,when Barack Obama was elected as president for two consecutive terms,but things are back to square one again.Blacks are not liked again,as we have seen in recent Oscar nominations that not a single black is nominated for oscars.Blacks have contributed so much in American music and films but it seems they have all forgotten now and it is only white world existing in Hollywood at the moment.All muslims,sikhs are suspected as terrorists.The picture is very bad all over the world and the world order is in total shambles.Every country is talking about crushing terrorism,but nobody is ready to talk about the root cause of terrorism and lack of humanity among all of us.How intolerance can be eliminated with intolerance.This is absurd.If we apply brute force to crush dissent then dissent is going to increase further.
American president Abraham Lincoln was deadly against slavery and differences between blacks and whites.He fought for equality of blacks and whites,but today America is again influenced by right wing politicians.All over the world,this picture is visible that there is a right wing section with extreme views of maintaining old traditions of white supremacy and bent to suppress dissent of poors,blacks,muslims,resulting in a war like situation.China is clearly not with America in this tussle although chinese are white people but because of their faith in marxist philosophy and Buddhism they don’t discriminate between human beings whether they are black or white,rich or poor,muslim or christian.

The west is under threat,and its end will impact India as well,Anne Applebaum,Washington Post columnist on foreign affairs and Pulitzer prize winning author raised this issue recently in an article.”Is this the end of the West as we know it?”Her article is being widely debated and argued that the liberal world order sustained on western military alliances and shared values is under severe threat.She said that west is two or three elections away from the end of the liberal world order,with the possibility of Donald Trump’s victory in the US polls,the likelihood of Britain’s exit from the European union and Marie Le Pen’s victory in the 2017 elections in France.Marie Le Pen has promised to leave both EU and the NATO,and opposes free trade and supports protectionism.It sounds like a doomsday scenario.If the US withdraws and becomes more isolationalist,then there will be no block on Chinese domination of Southeast Asia.Nepal was a 100% Hindu Rashtra ruled by Hindu kings till very recently,but today the scenario is changed altogether and there is total Chinese domination and leftists are having a major say in political affairs of Nepal.So China and Pakistan together can definitely influence the affairs of India sooner than later.It is not just the US,right wing politics is on the rise across large parts of Europe and India as well.

So Anne Applebaum has proved right in forecsting Britain’s exit from the European union after the referendum results going in favour of exit by a magin of 4%.David Cameron,the prime minister of Britain who wanted to remain with EU,asked for referendum,miscalculating and confident that majority of Britain wants to be with EU,got the jolt of his life time and had to resign after his defeat in the referendum.The second hurdle in the way of the end of the liberal world,according to Ms Anne Applebaum is US polls and Donald Trump’s victory in the elections will clear that hurdle.Here also she is proving right,since the ongoing surveys of US polls are showing Donald Trump leading the campaign and is ahead of his democratic rival Ms Clinton.So the last hurdle is Marie Le Pen’s victory in the elections in France,and if she wins then she will leave EU as well as NATO.So the picture in America and Europe is quite gloomy and Ms Anne’s prophesies are coming true one by one.In such gloomy scenerio Chinese domination of south east Asia is a sure sort eventuality.As it is China has very good relations with Pakistan and recently when there were lot of killings in Kashmir by Indian forces during the funeral procession of a commander of Hizbul Mujahideen named Burhan Wani,China took note of the incident.That means China is keeping an eye on the border areas of India and Pakistan and if there is a flare up between the two countries then China will be at the side of Pakistan,there should not be even 1% doubt about it.And in such scenerio US and Europe are not going to take sides because of the new leaders who are not interested in a liberal world and want to confine themselves to their own individual interests only.So this end of the liberal world is going to prove costliest for India,such indications are crystal clear whether our leaders are taking note of it or not.

Kashmir is not at peace and there is curfew in many parts of valley from 53 days,which is a damn serious issue but the prime minister of India Mr Modi is not much bothered and is currently on a foreign trip as usual.So many lives are lost and much more are blinded by pellet guns by security forces.There was so much hue and cry by opposition parties in both the houses of Indian parliament during the monsoon session,to stop the use of pellet guns by security forces on citizens of Kashmir who are also Indians,but all these cries fell on deaf ears of Government and till now security forces are continuing to blind Kashmiri protesters and even non protesters with their bloody pellet guns.If there are protests in other parts of India then these very forces never use pellet guns on them then why on Kashmiris?And then blaming Pakistan for all the trouble which is actually the creation of our security forces and wrong advises of our defence ministry and central government,is actually a travesty of truth.Our foreign policy about Pakistan and border areas is lacking vision and wisdom.There was a terror attack in Pathankot and we suspected Pakistan’s hand in this attack then what was the need to invite Pakistan for a joint investigation of this attack?It was a foolish act by our agencies and defence ministry.Now our PrimeMinister himself is blaming Pakistan for human rights violation in POK and Baluchistan which is again a foolish act because if our own house is not in order then how can we blame others for similar acts.Specially now when China is building a CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor) joining POK(Pakistan Occupied Kashmir),Baluchistan and Chinese border towns.It seems that our government was sleeping all along and suddenly woken up after disturbances in our Kashmir and now tryng to salvage the situation by desparate measures which can actually worsen the situation.The developments at our borders are such that they have the potential of disturbing the world order.China has already threatened us that if we have interfered in CPEC then confrontation may be in the offing.It is as volatile as middle east is currently and situation is getting out of our control.We can only hope for the best.

What is going on in Kashmir is dangerous.Seperatist leaders with whom our government was not ready to talk till yesterday,today are not ready to talk with anybody,neither with government nor with any opposition party,as if they are boldened by the protests of Kashmiris.Ofcourse Pakistan is behind them but if all the Kashmiris turn their back towards India and shout that they want Azadi then our bogey of shouting against Pakistan is futile.Kashmiris have to be with us if we want to justify our stand that Pakistan is behind all the trouble.We just can not join the right wing section of the world and sing the chorus of anti-muslim.That will not solve our problems.Kashmiris have to be taken into confidence otherwise the game is over.Even mosques are addressing the kashmiris for protesting against India and shouting for azadi from India.This has never happened before.The world has to be convinced that majority of Kashmiris are with us,otherwise nobody will take our side as far as human rights violations are concerned.Things are getting out of control very fast and China is also in now.There has to be an Indian leader whom Kashmiris can trust.There is a huge trust deficit,no doubt about it.

Swift developments are taking place in Jammu and Kashmir region of India.4 suicide bombers have entered Army Headquarters of Uri sector of our Kashmir and killed 18 soldiers and injured 25 soldiers on sunday morning,18/09/2016.Where was our Army,nobody knows.They entered inside army base,locked our soldiers from outside and thrown grenades on buildings and burnt our soldiers alive while they were sleeping inside.So flimsy but a true narrative of what happened.Now there is outrage in the country that we should attack Pakistan,as every time a terrorist attack is done,for a few days this euphoria is there,then things calm down till the next terrorist attack.Most vocal and dramatic is TV programme Newshour on TimesNow channel.It has become a laughing stuff and sort of an entertainment programme.Yesterday i heard them shouting menacingly,Arnab Goswami and Seshadri Chari saying Pakistan will be wiped out from the world map and they will not celebrate their next independence day.Too much of rhetorics,indicating that nothing is going to happen.They win the war in studio and go home and sleep.

Heard the speech of Nawaz Sharif,Prime Minister of Pakistan at UNGA(United Nations General Assembly)yesterday night,which was focused on Kashmir and he emphasised that there are human rights violations in kashmir and extrajudicious killings of women children and UN should interfere in the issue for self determintion rights given to Kashmiri people whether they want to live with India or not.United Nations is a dummy body which is good for nothing and they can’t help anybody.United states does not care for UN and whatever it has to do it does on its own without caring for UN.But our country is not US,although our leaders always claim that we are the super most country in the world.Nawaz Sharif now has become a hero for Pakistan after his speech.All Pakis are praising him that he so daringly raised the cause of Kashmir in UN,for his muslim brothers.He claimed Burhan Wani,a member of terrorist organization,Hizbul Mujahidin,as a martyr who was murdered by Indian forces.This approach may get sympathy among our side of Kashmir also since there is unrest in the region from 70 days and youngsters are sort of fighting a battle with police and BSF.our side is abusing Nawaz Sharif that why he has not talked about terrorist attack on our Army Headquarters in Uri Sector of Kashmir.Expecting this from Pakistan is sheer foolishness,how can we do that.He is not our person.Our Prime Minister Modi’s foreign policy specially with regard to Pakistan is a total failure.He goes to Lahore unscheduled,shakes hand with Pak PM and believes that Paki PM is his friend now,which is nothing but a self deception.Far far away from truth.Unsteady approach of our PM is the cause of dangerous situation we are in today,when we are left with only option of a war with Pakistan.If we can’t attack Pak and teach them a lesson then we are losers and Pak is going to gain a lot.No doubt that China is in the picture,because it has invested 46 billion dollars in China Pak Economic Corridor(CPEC),and it will like to safeguard its developed areas if there is a flare up.So in a way we have to fight with Pak as well as China.

Our government looks confused over the issue of avenging Uri killings of our Army personnel by terrorists.Our Prime Minister’s all bravado against Pakistan is evaporated it seems.Mr Narendra Modi has taken a complete U turn as regards his Pakistan policy.He used to critisize the earstwhile Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for not attacking Pakistan whenever there was a terrorist attack on our soil.Now he is behaving like a frightened person making himself a laughing stuff for the public.Already he has earned the reputation of a liar because of non-fulfilment of several promises he made during the elections.Now after Uri attack by terrorists and even his ministers reacting so angrily that we must attack Pakistan,Narendra Modi’s address to Pakistan to join his fight with poverty is the cruelest joke anybody can think of.He is fast losing his reputation of a brave man who was boasting of his 56″ chest during election campaigns,and promising to finish terrorism,arrest Hafiz Sayeed and teaching pakistan lessons.Today he is talking hopelessly of reconciliation which will disappoint all including his blind bhakt followers.

Donald Trump has won the American Presidency against all opinion polls declaring him a sure loser.Finally America has shown its true colour,of being a greedy,racist,characterless nation.Today i refer Anne Applebaum,the Washington Post columnist again as she said sometime back that we are 2 or 3 elections away from the end of liberal west.First among these 2-3 was Brexit,the referendum in Britain to leave European Union,in which she proved right and Britain opted for seperating fron EU.Second of her requirements was Donal Trump’s victory in US,which is also fulfilled today.Trump is the President Of America now.Her third requirement for the end of western liberal world as we know it is Marie Le Pen’s victory in 2017 elections of France.So we are almost surely heading towards that situation when China is going to dominate Asia and may claim for Super Power status by challenging America.Americans rejecting blacks,muslims and even females,are literally asking for their downfall.So be it.China and Russia together can definitely play havoc with this weak America.So we have to wait and watch as the things unfold.World order is definitely in shambles after Donald Trump’s victory.Specially i see dangerous developments in our Indian side which is already facing a war like situation with Pakistan.Kashmir is still not normal after about 4 months of bloody disturbances.They are burning schools,soldiers are dying daily in cross border firing.More unrest and disturbance is in the offing,that much is sure.

First ‘Brexit’,then ‘Itexit’,the trend is continuing as if there is a an anti-muslim and right wing wave going on.Euro,European Union and consequently World Order is in shambles after voters decisively rejected constitutional changes in Italy.Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi resigned after “The ‘no’ won in an incredibly clear way”.Next is France in line and there is going to be sure sort ‘Frexit’.So they can not hold Europe together,leave aside the world.Soviet Union already disintegrated,now Europe disintegrating,India still reeling under the monumental mismanagement and open loot and thugery of Modi government in the garb of ‘Demonetisation’.China helping Pakistan through CPEC(China Pakistan Economic Corridor) and taking advantage of current Indian government’s anti-muslim and anti-pakistan image.China is clearly emerging as the next super power and savior of poors and muslims all over the world.United States is fast losing its super power status due to right wing trends in Europe and inside America due to which a characterless person like Donald Trump is President of US today,a shame for the world.Where we are heading from here,God only knows.

An executive order by Trump will suspend the entry of any immigrants from muslim majority countries Syria,Sudan,Somalia,Iraq,Iran,Libya and Yemen.
The star of Iran’s Oscar nominated movie”The Salesman” Taraneh Alidoosti slammed Trump’s proposed ban on immigrants from muslim nations.She said that she would not attend the Academy Awards ceremonny in Hollywood because Trump’s move was racist and in protest against this she will boycott the event.Politically also there is lot of tension between America and Iran,since Trump has again imposed economic sanctions on Iran and Iran does not care about America and considers China its ally.China is constantly increasing its defence and attacking capacities as if challenging America.China is in a way challenging the advent of right wing politics in west.Are we heading for third world war due to rise of right wing aggressiveness in the west?God only knows.

Now elections in France are due and Trump effect is clearly visible in the campaign.The tide of french voters for the National Front and its candidate Marine Le Pen is surely linked with upsurge for Trump which surprised even the Republican establishment.With the largest percentage of Muslims of all EU countries except Bulgaria,the prospect of another wave of Muslim newcomers,combined with an immediate threat of terror attack,has tipped public opinion against immigration.

The real political crux is that it is hard to find someone as different from Donald Trump as Marine Le Pen.The family business she inherited is a political party.While Trump admires entrepreneurs and business people,naming more billionaires to cabinet positions than any of his predecessors.Marine Le Pen instead,has an economic programme that seems a resurrection of the old 70s French Communist Platform with systematic opposition to bankers,Europe and any economic reform.Whatever superficial similarty there might be between the movements of Trump and Le Pen,their rise in power would produce very different results.But Right wing politics is on the rise,that is proved again with Le Pen’s popularity,although this is also a fact that all these Right Wingers are having policy differences and are not united.

French far right National Front presidential candidate Marine Le Pen cancelled a meeting with Lebanon’s grand mufti after refusing to wear a headscarf for the encounter.Le Pen is among the front runners for the presidency and is using this visit to bolster her foreign policy credentials nine weeks from the April 23 first round,and may be partly targeting potential Franco-Labanese votes.The cleric’s press office said Le Pen’s aids had been informed beforehand that a headscarf was required for the meeting and had been “surprised by her refusal”.

Coming back to US and world order,George Bush junior declared a “New World Order”after third Gulf war in which he finished entire family of Saddam Hussein including Saddam,destroyed Iraq,imposed a puppet Shia regime and announced a Bush Doctrine which said,”The 20th century ended with a single surviving model of human progress,based on non-negotiable demands of human dignity”.Chief among those demands was”the rule of law,limits on the power of the state,respect for women and private property,free speech,equal justice and religious tolerance”.The president emphasised that the requirements of freedom apply fully to all people everywhere,to include”the entire Islamic world”.So while committed to eliminating threats before they emerge,the United States was no less committed to enforcing the non negotiable demands of human dignity.Bush expressed confidence that preventive war to change the way they live was going to work to the benefit of all.

Among the many perverse effects of the American cult of the presidency is the conviction that the outcome of any presidential election signifies something profound.This notion persists even though the average american votes for candidate A over candidate B not because A looks to be the next Abraham lincoln but because B seemd to be lesser alternative.Certainly that was the case of Jr Bush reelection in the 2004 balloting.But Bush chose to interpret his reelection as a divine mandate.He committed the US to the “goal of ending tyranny in our world”.He said in his presidential inaugural address-

From the day of our founding,we have proclaimed that every man and woman on this earth has rights,dignity,and matchless value,because they bear the image of the maker of Heaven and earth.Across the generations we have proclaimed the imperative of self-government,because no one is fit to be a master,and no one deserves to be a slave.Advancing these details is the mission that created our Nation.It is the honourable achievement of our fathers.Now it is the urgent requirement of our nation’s security,and the calling of our time.

In reality,as the course of the festering war in Iraq had amply demonstrated,indulging the conceit that America is history’s chosen instrument of liberation is more likely to produce grief than glory.And it produced Al-Qaida and ISIS(Islamic State of Iraq and Syria).

To be sure,Bush’s second inaugural qualifies as a thoroughly American text,the president reiterating sentiments voiced by more than a few of his predecessors.Yet the speech also bears the unmistakable imprint of self indulgent fantasy,of sobriety overtaken by fanaticism.Bush’s expectations of ending tyranny by spreading American ideals mirrored Osama Bin Laden’s dream of establishing a new caliphate based on Islamic principles.When put to the test,the president’s vision of peace gained by waging preventive war had proven to be just as fanciful as Bin Laden’s and hardly less pernicious.As adversaries,truly they were made for each other.

In the autumn of 2015,no one could say with certainty how the fight with ISIS was going to turn out.But victory if achieved,was likely to come at the expense of Iraqis and Syrians.Iran was going to end up the beneficiary,with the United states ill positioned to do much more than protests.This Obama appeared to recognise even if his more bellicose critics did not.

Would defeating ISIS actually solve anything?No,since the conditions that gave rise to ISIS would still persist.It was like foreign drug cartels and the American epidemic of drug abuse and addiction.You can pretend that attacking the former will reduce the latter,but you are kidding yourself.

In Washington,one subject in particular remained off limits;the overall progress of the US military project in Islamic world.35 years after Carter issued the Carter Doctrine,that project appeared further removed from completion than when it had begun.By almost any measure,the region was in greater disarray than it had been in 1980.Not only were American purposes unfulfilled,they were becoming increasingly difficult to define with any sort of specificity.

“It’s a generational problem”,”It was the chaos caused by ‘loosely connected groups’ that run from’Afghanistan across the Arabian peninsula into Yemen to the Horn of Africa and into North and West Africa’.The fact was that the United States by 2015 found itself mired in something much nastier than simply another Gulf War.The problem was bigger than Iraq and extended far beyond the Gulf itself.

Worse still,the issues under dispute were beyond the merely political.It was not just about oil or territory or the perpetuation of some dynasty but about ideology and religion.Thwarting the network of groups,”most of which are local,some of which are regional,and some of which are global”,was going to entail a very long contest,General Dempsey told members of a senate committee in july 2015.How long?How much longer than it has already run?The general did not hazard a guess.No one had a clue.

First round of French Presidential polls is over and gave a pleasant surprise in the form of Emmanuel Macron a left of the centre candidate leading Marine Le Pen,the Right Wing candidate who wants Frexit and who does not believe in unity.This is a positive developement and opinion polls are predicting an easy victory for Macron in 7th May election between him and Marine Le Pen.It is a set back for Donald Trump also whose anti-muslim rhetorics are causing more disturbance in the world.The impression before French elections was that there is a Right Wing anti-muslim wave going on in the world and due to which Marine Le Pen also will win the French Presidency,but now it is clear that a wrong impression was being created by Pro-Trump anti-muslim lobby which is exposed with Emmanuel Macron’s lead and certainty of his becoming French President.Donald Trump’s headache is increasing more day by day with North Korea challenging him to nuke US if he dared to attack it.Trump said yesterday,28th April 2017,that a major,major conflict is possible with North Korea.China and Russia have cautioned Trump about the possible consequences of this conflict.Russia is already up in arms after US missile attack on Syria and throwing MOAB(Mother Of All Bombs) at Afghanistan,even threatened US that they possess FOAB(Father Of All Bombs).

Emmanuel Macron is the new President of France for 5 years.A liberal,who believes in inclusiveness,united Europe,follower of Fidel Castro,having leftist leanings,all these qualities of Macron are more than enough to upset Donald Trump,the American President,a Right Winger,muslim Hater,a disgrace for the world.Not lagging behind is Prime Minister of India,another Right Wing Nationalist,anti-muslim,sanghi,who has unleashed a campaign against muslims who are killed on flimsy reasons of eating beef or carrying beef.Narendra Modi has appointed a religious head of some Mathh who is known for his anti-muslim character,as the chief Minister of the biggest state,Uttar Pradesh.He has unleashed many religious fanatics against muslims and instructed them to shut their slaughter houses on flimsy reasons.Soon there is going to be a civil war like situation between hindus and muslims.The effect of this muslim hate atmosphere can be clearly seen in Kashmir where majority of muslims in the valley are now on the roads and pelting stones and opposing the presence of army tooth and nail.They are asking for liberation from Indian army as if they are forcibly occupied whereas the fact is that the Kashmir valley is an Indian territory,but due to Modi government’s anti-muslim activities,Kashmiris have developed this anti-hindu feeling.They need a healing touch from hindus,a feeling that we are their own bretheren,but till this anti-muslim Right Wing fanatic government of modi is there,that healing touch for muslims of valley is not possible at all.So the situation in the valley is quite grim and Pakistan is taking the advantage,since China has also come out openly in support of Kashmir and Pakistan.A situation for conflict is clearly developing in this region which is not good for the world order,specially knowing that all the countries involved are equipped with nuclear weapons.

China-India stand off from more than one month is a very serious issue threatning the world order.The stand off is due to Doklam which China claims as its own territory and asking India to remove its forces from there immediately as a precondition for a dialogue.India’s stand on the issue is not clear at all because all along our line was that it is Bhutan’s land and India has a treaty with Bhutan to protect it.China says that if Bhutan has any issue with China,it can directly talk to them and why India should interfere in this bilateral matter and if India did not stop it and remove its Army from Doklam then China can very well enter Pakistan Occupied or Indian Kashmir and interfere as well in that bilateral dispute.Now Sushma Swaraj,our foreign minister has further confused and complicated the matter by saying that China’s road construction in Doklam is a risk to our security.If that land is not ours then why should we give such statements.China is right in saying that if Doklam is Bhutan’s land then Bhutanese army should be there,not Indian Army,which can at the most back up Bhutanese army,but if not a single soldier of Bhutan is in the front then China’s objections look logical.In hindi they say”muddai sust gawah chust”,Bhutan is not saying a word from one month and we are confronting China which is nothing but asking for trouble.If the reason is that we want to project Modi as a bigger leader than Xi Ping in front of America and Europe,or in the eyes of Modi followers and RSS then the situation chosen by BJP is totally unconvincing and full with danger of wrath of China,a totally confrontational approach which is neither good for domestic consumption and nor good for international consumption.It is a foolish approach which gives liberty to a far bigger power to side with Pakistan and inflict lethal damages on us.A war like situation is prevailing on Indo-Pak-Chinese border which definitely threatens the world-order.

The stand off continues and getting more serious day by day.If we read Chinese news People’s Daily and Global Times then it seems there can be a war between China and India any time now.But if we watch Indian TV channels then it is only Modi Modi and internal politics.Personally i think Indian media not taking it seriously is foolishness.China has a scientific base and Mao-tse-Tung was a Marxist and Marxist philosophy has some scientific base which eminent philosopher Bertrand Russel also recognised,but Fascism has no scientific base and is based on the belief that only some particular races deserve to rule.India currently is passing through a phase when the ruling party is encouraging fascism.So in a way we are seeing a confrontation between Communism and fascism.China represents communism and India represents fascism.A sort of History repeating itself.20th century Germany was under Nazi regime of Hitler who is the hero of RSS,an organization currently behind the problems of India,which believes in Fascism and wants to drag India towards this inhuman,unscientific system.RSS backed BJP government confronting China,if looked in this context has dangerous consequences and like Germany if God wants India to get rid of Fascism then China has to be taken as seriously as Russia for Germany during the second world war.Russia played most important role in destroying Nazi Germany and Hitler and became a super power consequently.China is an Asian giant and wants to become a super power and has the capacity to achieve that.So what India has to do is improve itself taking inspiration from China,cooprating like a good Asian partner instead of confronting and challenging like Hitler which can bring destruction in Asia.Statistics say that China is a bigger power than India at present and we have to accept this fact.But God also has designs which we can’t understand,so we have to keep our fingers crossed and see the unfolding saga of Asia in coming days and months.Let us hope for the best.

Donald Trump threatens Kim-Jong Un of North Korea of Fire n Fury the world has never seen before if he dared to any misadventure in any part of America.Kim Jong does not seem to fear from this and retaliates verbally to hit with 4 nuclear headed ballistic missiles a few kilometrs from Guam an American territory.China cautions America to observe restraint.United Nations imposes economic sanctions on North Korea.North Korea angry and blames America for this and vows to retaliate with nuclear attack on America.Both Trump and Kim are war mongering and do not have a good image as leaders,so they are creatning a frightning atmosphere in the world and something dangerous can happen in the near future.World order is in jeopardy due to leaders like Modi,Trump,Kim Jon and either the people should remove these leaders from their respective countries or they should make themselves prepared for World War3.They have to make a choice and that too without wasting time.Nuclear weapons in the wrong hands are a most dangerous proposition and a threat to the world.

So Trump’s threat of fire and fury went in vain it seems,because North Korea has dared to launch a ballistic missile of 2700 KM range and flying over Japanese territory and falling in Japanese waters.This proves that North Korea neither cares for Trump nor the economic sanctions.Japan has reacted calling this action as”Unprecedented Threat”.Currently US,Japan and South Korea are consulting each other for a fitting punitive action against North Korea,but China and Russia are cautioning them to observe restraint because if they attacked North Korea then there may be a World War3 in the offing.China seems to be the beneficiary in all this scenario.North Korea will certainly react wildly if its nuclear facilities are attacked and it can damage American cities in retaliation.China and Russia have veto power in UN which they can use against US also if it is too unreasonable.America destroyed Iraq just because George Bush did not like Saddam Hussein and similar situation we are witnessing today between America and North Korea.Donald Trump does not like Kim-Jong Un and therefore he wants to destroy North Korea.Personal enemities are becoming the reason for destroying a nation.Therefore Russia’s suggestion to US is quite convincing but will Donald Trump heed it?That is a billion dollar question and we have to wait and watch for a while to know how Mr Trump will react.

There is no stopping of North Korea’s Kim Jong-Un who has now successfully tested a hydrogen Bomb said to be much more powerful than Nuclear Bomb,so much so that there was an earth quake of 6.3 magnitude as a result of this test.This bomb can be loaded in a long range Ballistic missile,which is the next coarse of action by Kim,as per the North Korean news agencies.Donald Trump’s Fire n Fury which the world has never seen before is not visible now also.In fact Donald Trump himself is dumbstuck after the long range missile launch passing over Japan and immediately after that this successful Thermo-Nuclear test.He is not able to decide about which option on his table is suitable.Earlier he said dialogue is no more the option with this rogue nation.Now he is not saying anything at all.The tried and tested formulae of economic sanctions have failed like in Iraq.Now the next option is to attack and destroy North Korea like Iraq destroyed.But the danger here is South Korean population of millions adjoining North Korean boundary which will be endangered if North Korea hits them.Another problem is American population in Korean cities which is in tens of thousands which will have to be evacuated.So big dilemma for US,but North Korea has no such qualms.It can hit wherever it wants.So Mr Trump after raising the bar so much,is now not in a position to maintain that fury.This actually exposes Trump further and shows his inexperience in handling such dangerous issues.China and Russia are taking full advantage of the situation,and now we understand the reason behind Russia’s role in getting Donald Trump elected as POTUS.

Verbal duel between Donald Trump and Kim-Jong Un is continuing and it can be said that Kim is a clear cut winner in this.Trump’s speech in United Nations had reference to Kim as “Rocket Man”on a suicidal mission and America will destroy North Korea in defence to its allies also.Kim branded these threats of Trump as Dog Bark and that Trump due to his old age was mentally deranged.Kim has emerged as a bold young man who can challenge America,the super power so vigourously.Trump’s reputation is already in doldrums in his own country and it seems that Kim is very well aware of Trump’s position at home and is taking full advantage of the situation.Trump is a confused man who is sometimes blaming China,sometimes South Korea for Kim’s ambitions,but i think Russia is correctly assesing North Korea that they will eat grass but never abandon their thermo-nuclear ambitions.If United Nations is the world body to look after the affairs of all nations then who gave United States the rights to interfere in the affairs of other nations,specially when US itself posseses the deadliest weapons of mass destruction.US is fast losing the status of super power due to Donald Trump’s reputation and the hegmonist policies of the nation.

We thought George Bush junior was unfair and hegemonist when he attacked Iraq and killed Saddam Hussein and his family,and the action looked like a settling personal enmity rather than a just action for world order.Now Donald Trump wants to further disturb the world order by doing what even Bill Clinton and George Bush did not do fearing the backlash.He has declared Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.This is the height of idiocy and anti-muslim tirade and the result is for everyone to see,there are rocket attacks,missiles attacks and violent reactions.Even the biggest ally of US,Saudi Arabia has expressed its anger against Trump.It seems that World War3 is not far off now.Donald Trump is not able to handle the current issues of the world because of his inexperience and lack of sincerity,whether is is North Korea,Middle East or Russia.He knows only confrontation it seems and because of his old age he confronts wrongly most of the times.China is taking full advantage of Trump’s idiosyncrasies and acting like the new super power of the world. World order is definitely in shambles due to Trump’s idiotic moves.Already war is going on in the middle East and Russia has started preparing for the world war,North Korea is threatening to attack US,Japan with nuclear headed ICBM.What is this going on and where we are headed for? God only knows.

Turkey,an important European NATO ally is the new entrant in Middle East crisis,which is disturbing the world order more than any other region.Syria is using chemical weapons to eliminate the rebels,a Russian fighter jet downed and pilot killed by Al-Qaida,7 Turkish soldiers killed.So the war in middle east has escalated and Trump is threatening everybody from Russia to Iran to Turkey.As it is Trump’s relations with entire Europe are not at all harmonious.China is observing all this and criticizing America from time to time.Cold war has started again and America looks like a weaker side.Technology has advanced and it is available to all countries small or big,so taking pride and boasting about one’s strength like Trump is doing is over reacting and can have little or no impact over even North Korea.Money is also not a criteria to be proud of since China has more money today than America.China Russia Turkey Iran nexus can be Fatal for America,Trump has to understand this.If he does not understand then he will be made to understand which of course will disturb the world order,for which this time Trump will be held responsible in place of Hitler.

An 8 year old girl child kidnapped by hindu brahmins of Jammu region of India,held captive for many days inside the store of a hindu temple,drugged and gangraped by a purohit and policemen,then murdered,can there be anything more inhuman than this?This girl child is from muslim community and now hindus of the locality are up against the lawyers who want to book the culprits and get them punished.The hindu bar association wants to protect the rapist and murderer purohit.The same hindus who came out in support of Nirbhaya in large numbers are not interested to punish the rapists of this 8 year child.Modi government has miserably failed to give justice to muslims,dalits,farmers,students,poors.Upper caste rich and powerful hindus seem to be the only beneficiaries of this government.Election in India are in 2019 and largely people may not vote for the incumbent government but the torturous conduct of central government and the state governments ruled by BJP is playing havoc with the lives of ordinary persons which is unbearable for them.Those who are vocal opponents of Modi government are not feeling safe at all because they are attacked by Modi supporters.It is a very bad state of affairs.there is no rule of law.It is like a Jungle law,Powerful and mighty will eat the weak.This kind of regime is not good for world order.It is not good for even one day.Jammu and Kashmir region is a totally disturbed area today and this brutal rape and murder of an innocent muslim child will further alienate the muslims of Kashmir who are already alienated by army and police brutalities there.War clouds are hovering over in Syria,Israel,J&K which are capable of turning it into a full fledged World War3.

Donald Trump,POTUS,famous for his idiosyncrasies has done it again.He has cancelled the nuclear deal with Iran which was executed by Barack Obama,the earlier President of US.Europe has totally disliked this move of Trump.Not only this but Trump has proposed more economic sanctions against Iran.Attacks on Syria are increased by US and Israel both inspite of warning from Russia that these may lead to World War.The pretext is same which was used against Iraq by George Bush,that Syria is using chemical weapons against its own persons.Iraq was destroyed and now Syria is being destroyed.No inspectors have visited Syria and it is not verified whether Syria actually possesses these weapons.How long Iran and Russia will keep mum on these attacks on Syria and Palestinians?There will be retaliation and then China also will have to support Iran and Russia.With Europe disliking the cancellation of Nuclear deal with Iran,US is getting isolated day by day.Only England seems to be siding with US apart from Saudi Arab and other tiny Sunni Arab nations which are actually not a force to reckon with.So why is Trump showing so much muscles and pride to weaker nations,which may prove very costly to him now.He does not understand actually that today US is not the only super power of the world as was the case during Iraq destruction .

Now Benjamin Nethanyahu,Israeli head has threatened to kill Bashar Al Assad of Syria exactly in the same manner as George Bush threatened Saddam Hussein,ofcourse with the backing of Trump.Trump is threatening Iran and Israel threatening Syria as if Iran and Syria are plum cakes which US and Israel will eat and relish without any hindrance from other nations.UN is already objecting to US on its declaration of Jeruselam as Israel capital.Europe is objecting but US and Israel are pushing their agenda of finishing Palestinians by hook or crook.This is a very dangerous game they are playing endangering the world order.Today Syria,Palestine and Kashmir are the regions which can any time trigger a world war.Russia is well aware of this and so Putin has cautioned Russians to be well prepared and take care of the inevitable world war in the offing.

The signatories for Nuclear Deal between U.S and Iran are European Countries also but Donald Trump unilaterlly severd the deal without caring for Europe’s views which are clearly against Trump’s decision.Economic sanctions against Iran also are not liked by Europe.There is Economic War going on between China and America which is also a bad developement. Trump is almost acting like a dictator and coercing all nations to toe his line to severe economic relations with Iran.India is also pressed by America to severe economic ties with Iran and stop buying oil from Iran.Modi,the current PM of India has agreed to toe Trump’s line which is a very bad move because we are buying oil from Iran from long time.This way India will be completely isolated in Asia,since Hasan Rouhani,the president of Iran has made it clear that if India will not buy oil from Iran then Chabhar port project which currently India is doing,will be taken back from India and will be given to China.This can have dangerous consequences for India since China will succeed in circling India strategically.China is already helping SriLanka,Pakistan,BanglaDesh,Nepal in developing their infrastructure and port facilities and now Iran also in China’s Kitty will be a golden opportunity for China due to the blunders of Modi Regime.India will be in grave danger from China in such circumstances.China has territorial claims in our areas like Arunachal Pradesh,Laddakh etc and once China is convinced that India is much weaker then together with Pakistan it will force its claims on India which may be dangerous for world order and may be beneficial to China and Pakistan.

Iran has now threatened America and Israel that it will retaliate if attacked by the two countries.Economic sanctions on Iran are being strengthened by Trump and this will have its repercussions. This is not a uni-polar world now when US was the superpower and was doing whatever it wanted.Now China is challenging US and emerging as another superpower and Russia and Iran are clearly backing China as at par with America.So the world has become bipolar as during US and Soviet Union days.So US has to get used to this new bipolar world order and if Trump attempts some adventures in such situation,then these may prove costly for America.

Trump has threatened Saudi Arab that it can’t survive for 15 days if America removes it’s Army from Saudi Arab.This is high time muslims ,whether Sunni or Shia,should come together otherwise America will go on exploiting them,divide and rule is the policy of America.Iraq and Iran fought for 8 years with no result,and America strengthened Saddam Hussein,the then president of Iraq,just to fight with Iran.Once the Iran Iraq war was over,Saddam Hussein was useless for America and the entire world knows how Saddam Hussein and his entire family was brutally killed by America.So America is capable of finishing Saudi Arab or any other muslim nation individually.But if all muslim nations are united,including Saudi Arab and Iran,then America will find it difficult to challenge them.

A significant threat for world order in Asia is bitter relations between India and Pakistan,and the bone of contention is of course Kashmir.India alleges that Pakistan is breeding terrorism in Kashmir through terror outfits like Jaish-e-mohammed,Lashkar-e-taiba etc,and Pakistan’s stand is that there are human rights violations in the Kashmir valley by Indian Government and therefore Pakistan is duty bound to give moral support to their Kashmiri brotheren.On 14th february’19 there was a terrorist attack in Pulwama by a suicide bomber who rammed an explosive loaded vehicle in an army covoy of some 2500 CRPF personnel,resulting in an explosion of a bus full with CRPF personnel,killing 40 personnel instantly.In the valley this was an improvised kind of terror attack and Jaish-e-mohammed took the responsibility of this operation.The attack has outraged us Indians immensely and there was a cry for revenge from Pakistan.

As always Modi government has tried to politicize the situation.IAF went inside Pakistan border and bombed some areas in Balakot of Pakistan which naturally was an aggression of Pak territory for which Pak vowed to retaliate.Modi and Amit Shah instigated their followers to spread lies that India has killed 300 to 400 terrorists of JeM in the air strikes which Modi government has not been able to prove till today.International media which is more reliable than our Indian media never agreed to this much damage by Air Strikes.Now the families of martyrs of Pulwama also are questioning about the claim of modi government.Nobody believes about their claim of killing 300+ terrorists in Balakot,even our Airforce statement also defied this and said that they have no idea about the casualities in Balakot.So as usual this was also a white lie of Modi cabal to gain political advantage of the situation.

America sent inspectors in Iraq to search for WMD(weapons of mass destruction)and they could find none.That was the time when America was behind Iraq and Saddam Hussein and both were destroyed by America.Now America is behind Iran and wants to destroy it,so first to cripple Iran economically it imposed economic sanctions on Iran,pressurising countries for not buying oil from Iran.Now the news is that oil tankers and ships carrying oil passing from Strait of Hormuz are being destroyed by unknown forces and America is confidently saying that this is the handiwork of Iran,with the same confidence with which they used to claim that Iraq is possessing weapons of mass destruction.So America wants to destroy Iran,that is very clear,but will it succeed this time,because China has emerged as a super power now and challenging America now.China being an Asian super power has to see to it that no Asian country is harmed unduly and unfairly by western powers.So this is a direct confrontation between China and America now and if America will flex its muscles too much then it will have to challenge China backed by Russia.It is going to be hell for America this time.

America and Iran continue to confront each other.America was on the verge of attacking Iran and backed out at the last moment.Then British Navy seized oil tanker of Iran containing 2 million barrels of oil,considering the cost at 70 dollars/barrel,the total cost will amount to 140 million dollars,which is not a small amount.Donald Trump said that he backed out from attacking Iran because 150 Iranians would have died in that attack.Now he has connived with British Navy and seized their oil,which will kill thousands of Iranians.what is this madness.Iran is pushed to the wall and it has no option except to retaliate.Now Iran has threatened that if its oil tanker is not returned then it will not allow other oil tankers to pass from strait of Hormuz.So it is a war like situation in middle east waters and America is solely responsible for that.British Ambassador reacted over this situation and called Trump “incompetent” in his letters which angered Trump and now the news is that British envoy had to resign.World order is in shambles due to the idiosyncrasies of Donald Trump,which is objected by democrats and even some republican,because they do not want a war with Iran but Trump does not know anything else except to bully other nations and if they don’t toe then attack them.It is going to cost him heavily this time.

Now there are dangerous developments in India which threaten the world order.The government of India under the veil of secrecy cancelled the Amarnath yatra in the midway and asked all the yatris and other tourists staying in Kashmir to immediately leave the valley and return home.Two ex chief ministers Mehbooba Mufti and Omar Abdullah are arrested ,40000 CRPF personnel more are brought to valley,internet services in valley are stopped,curfew is imposed,as if entire Kashmir valley is under house arrest.No body knew why all these panicky moves were made,for two days,and suddenly a bombshell is thrown by Home Minister,Amit Shah in upper house at 11 AM yesterday,05/08/2019 that a bill is introduced which abrogates articles 370 and 35A about special status of Kashmir and J&K is bifurcated in two Union territories,one Jammu&Kashmir with Lt.Governor and a Vidhan Sabha,and second Ladakh with Lt.Governor and no vidhan sabha.This is dangerous move capable enough to disturb the word order,but BJP government backed by RSS and intoxicated with money and power could not use the mind and think about its fatal consequences.Pakistan has already reacted and said thay are totally with Kashmiris and do not accept this bill and are even ready for a war.Dangerous days ahead surely for both India and Pakistan,It is literally Modi vs Imran Khan,and an imminent war is in the offing which may turn out into a world war.China will no doubt back Pakistan and may grab some more territory of Ladakh.World order is in shambles surely.

Finally Imran Khan has convinced OIC(Organization Of Islamic Cooperation)to convene a meeting of its members and discuss excesses of Government of India on Kashmiris ,like cutting off their Internet connection from 5 months and deploying additional forces and arresting leaders of all political parties except BJP.If OIC passes a resolution against India,then this will be a serious set back for our foreign policy.Situation in Kashmir is very bad and China has already declared that in the eventuality of a war between India and Pakistan,China will side with Pakistan undoubtedly.

Another serious development which threatens the world order is at the border area of Iraq and Syria.US airstrikes against a pro-Iran group called Kataib Hezbollah Militia,which hit three locations in Iraq and two in neigh-boring Syria,killed 25 and wounded 51,including commanders and fighters,and the toll could yet rise.This has triggered anger in Iraq caught up in mounting tension between Tehran and Washington.Thousands of Iraqi and Iranian Shiites  have gathered around US embassy in Iraq and smashed the windows and doors of the embassy and gate crashed inside.American staff was seen fleeing from the embassy.Iran and Iraq are calling for Americans to withdraw from Iraq.

The American presence has become a burden for the Iraqi state and a source of threat against our forces,said Lebanese Shiite outfit Hezbollah which is separate from the targeted faction Kataib Hezbollah.This is a dangerous situation which can escalate the already going on conflict in the region.

There are very serious further developments in Iraq lately,senior Iranian commander Qasim Soleimani and Iraqi militia commander Abu Mahdi Al-Muhandis are killed in American air strike on a convoy in Baghdad airport. Iran has vowed to take severe revenge.Mourning of 3 days have been announced in Iran.Funeral procession of commander Soleimani will be taken out in Iran as well as Iraq.He was revered in both the countries as a hero,since he finished ISIS and Al-quaida who were holding half of Iraq some time back.He fought terrorism in Iraq and defeated it.By killing him America actually sided with terrorists,like it is helping terrorist outfits in Syria.Donald Trump is putting America in danger by doing these foolish acts.Now whatever will happen in the region,only America will be held responsible,and a lot,a dengerous lot is going to happen.World War3 seems in the offing.Iran is not alone,but it has powerful friends like China and Russia.

So Iran has retaliated and attacked American air bases in Iraq by 22 ballistic missiles,and according to American military sources 11 American soldiers are injured and severe damages to air bases occurred. Ali- Khamenie , the spiritual leader of Iran said that this attack was a slap on the face of America and an appropriate revenge of the killing of their commander Qasim  Suleimani .Another diplomatic victory achieved by Iran is that Iraqi government pursued by Iran has passed a resolution that American military should immediately leave Iraq.Donald Trump has threatened Iraq to impose sanctions if Iraq forced its military to go from Iraqi soil.This is nothing but highhandedness.If a country does not want your presence on its soil,you have to get out of there.It seems that Iran has a better say in the affairs of Iraq compared to America,may be because of Shia presence in Iraq as well as Iran.Iran has influence in other surrounding countries,as Lebanon,Syria,Yemen etc.So Iran poses a serious challenge to America in this region,and the limited American forces can be in danger if Donald Trump behaves adamantly and does not withdraw his forces in this region.

Now America says that 34 Americans were injured in missile attack by Iran on American bases in Iraq.There are continuous missile attacks on American embassy and American Air bases in Iraq.There are protest marches in Baghdad by Iraqis asking for withdrawal of American forces from Iraqi soil.Considering this development it is clear that Iran has achieved a moral victory over America in Iraq and Trump must have realized that killing of Suleimaani and Muhandis was a blunder for which America is paying a heavy price.It was a self goal by Donald Trump and now America will have to withdraw its forces from Iraq asap,otherwise it will be endangering their life for sure.

There were deadly rocket attacks on an Iraqi military base hosting American forces,killing two Americans and one British soldier and injuring 12 others. The attack was on wednesday,11/03/2020,evening.Iran-Iraq are asking for immediate withdrawal of American forces from Iraqi soil and this attack is in line with the demand of pro-Iranian militia groups and Iraqi pro-shia groups as well.Within hours of this attack, suspected US led coalition air strikes by three planes targeted Iran aligned Iraqi fighters in Syria,killing 26 fighters. This will escalate the war in the region where Iran led forces have an edge,since Lebnon and Syria and Iran are all neighboring countries where Iran is in a position to fight. America should seriously rethink to withdraw its forces if the entire region is not interested in their presence.If they can withdraw from Afghanistan,then why not from Iraq? After all Iraqi oil is not American property, so following democratic norms,it should peacefully go instead of flexing its muscles inside other’s property,and endangering world order .

The latest information is that 16000 Americans are dead and 300000 Americans are infected with deadly Corona virus called Covid-19.Not only that but total number of deaths are 100000 due to this virus,which include thousands of Italians,French,Germans,Spanish,British,almost the total composition of American allies who fought together in Iraq war.The total number of infections consisting of these American led countries are said to be 1,600,000 due to this virus which originated from China’s Wuhan city in November 2019.China sealed this city and dealt with the virus on war footing and controlled it from spreading in other cities.But it spread like a wildfire all over the world.But surprisingly the friends of China like Iran,Russia,Korea,Pakistan,Bangladesh etc are less infected than American allies,as if a war is going on and China led forces are winning the war as far as number of infections and fatalities are concerned.Coming to our nation India,7000 infections and 200 deaths are reported so far due to covid-19.The less number is attributed to less number of tests conducted,and experts opine that this number will increase multifold as soon as the tests are increased.Total tests done so far are 100000 in a country of 1,350,000000 people.Maharashtra has reported 1500 infections out of 30000 tests conducted. The government here has delayed action due to overconfidence,and suddenly announced a complete lockdown of India for 21 days from 25th march,without giving a preparation time to unorganised sector,due to which millions of migrant workers with their families were seen walking on the roads going to their villages without food for days. Many of them must be infected with the virus.WHO has warned India that mere lock down will not be enough and more n more tests will have to be conducted. But many days were wasted by our government and only in April they have ordered rapid test kits from other countries,so the fast track tests may start only in the third or fourth week of April 2020,and only after that we will get to know the actual number of infections which would have spread more due to the delays. This virus has changed the nature of world order and what would remain will be known only when the virus is contained all over the world.

Covid-19 is continuing and spreading its tentacles all over the world and now India is also fast catching up with other nations as the latest figures show that she has already outnumbered China in number of infections.Total number of positive corona cases in India is now 86000 and China 82000,so India is 4000 cases more than China as on 16/05/2020.

Covid-19 onslaught is on and  latest figure of +ve infected patients in India is 192,000 as on 01/06/2020 and she has outnumbered European countries Turkey,Germany and France and is currently number 7 in the world in corona infections. The daily rise of new infections in India is now 8500 per day. With this speed the number of infections may rise to 300000 in 15 days and we may beat Spain,UK and Italy by 15th June 2020 and the funniest part is that Government has announced easing of lock down from 1st June 2020, even opening malls,parlours,gyms etc in many cities, which can actually harm and infections can further rise, so India is now hottest spot as far as corona is concerned and her only competitor seems to be Brazil right now, let us see who will win the race ultimately. The manufacture of a corona vaccine still seems quite far and the total infections all over the world have crossed 6 millions and fatalities more than 300,000. A new world order is in the offing, Donald Trump has declared that America has nothing to do with WHO and the reason he gave is that WHO is being controlled by China. We can ask him a question that who was controlling UN when Iraq was completely destroyed by US without even getting prior sanction of UN for attacking Iraq? Germany and even European union have already expressed their displeasure over Trump’s move. They were not happy even when Trump broke the nuclear deal with Iran. So clearly Trump is isolating himself only by these idiosyncrasies and giving China a leverage in this new world order.

Covid-19 cases in India are now 413000, and we have beaten France,Spain,UK and fast catching up with Russia,as our daily rise of corona positive patients is now more than 15000 and that of Russia is 7to 8000,the total number of cases in Russia are 567000. So we will outnumber Russia in another 3 weeks. We Indians are at present number 4 corona carrier in the world and soon will become number 3,most likely by middle of july 2020. This is very serious situation in India and as if this was not enough, China has started provoking us by entering into our borders in Galwan valley of Ladakh. From ancient times Galwan river and valley are well known Indian territory and suddenly China has started erecting its structures here and claims that this area belongs to China. When Indian Army objected to this blatent intrusion in our borders and tried to remove their tents Chinese attacked them and killed 20 of Indian soldiers incuding one colonel and injured more than hundred of our soldiers,and taken hostages more than 20 of our soldiers. So the situation at Ladakh is very grave and our soldiers fought bravely but Chinese were about 10 times more than Indian soldiers so ultimately they overpowered. This violent incident has disturbed us Indians as well as the world order, as the world is already fighting an epidemic which has spread like wildfire.The total number of corona cases in the world are now 8.4 million and they go on increasing,the hottest spots being Brazil and India. This border issue is now an additional burden which India may find very difficult to bear and perhaps China has calculated all this before entering into our borders. Has China discussed this with Pakistan and Nepal also before embarking on this intrusion, if so then a dangerous game is designed against India,since Pakistan and Nepal also have border issues with India. Where this all is leading to? Certainly not good days ahead….

Today is 05/07/2020 and we Indians have beaten Russia and are world number 3 corona carriers,as positive covid-19 cases of India are now 675000 and that of Russia are 673000. Now only Brazil and United States are ahead of India. Rate of daily growth of cases now in India is more than 24000 whereas that of Brazil is 6 to 7000, so with this rate we will catch up with Brazil also in the first week of August 2020.

As expected India has beaten Brazil and is now number 2 corona carrier in the world.The total case load of India has now crossed 4 millions and daily growth rate of corona +ve cases in India is now more than 80000 daily which is highest in the world.At the moment America is number one in the world with more than 6 million cases,but considering the fastest growth rate of India on daily basis India is going to beat US also very soon and will achieve the distinction of world number one corona carrier in a few months time.So its actually Trump versus Modi and Indians can take pride in the fact that Modi is going to beat Trump and become corona champion of the world. Will this affect the world order? China and Pakistan having their agendas at J&K and Laddakh borders are keenly watching India battling covid pandemic so badly and both the neighbours almost covid free can think of some adventures at the borders,and if that happens then India may find the developments difficult to handle. Let us hope for the best, truth shall always prevail.

(TO BE CONTINUED )

Acting

Recently participated in the workshop for Acting (Level 1),conducted in October,2014 by Anupam Kher’s actor prepares.

JP’s Total Revolution & Current Political Scene In India

JP’s total revolution call in 1970s and subsequent victory of Janata party in elections,then government formation headed by late Morarji Desai,breaking of the party by fanatic hindu groups(led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani)who refused to surrender their RSS cards,was a bitter lesson for all Indians who participated in the revolutionary process initiated by Jaya Prakash Narayan.The lesson was that the fanatic hindu groups(RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal,Shiv Sena and BJP)can not be a part of any secular democratic movement in India and they can be only the part of their single point movement of anti-muslim Hindu Rashtra. Arvind Kejriwal,Manish Sisodia, Gopal Rai,the leaders of ‘Aam Aadmi Party’seem to have learnt this lesson and hence the situation is encouraging in the sense that,these leaders are apprehensive of BJP and its communal agenda.Moreover BJP is involved in so many corruption scandals also, and AAP is quite sensible to keep a distance from this rigid and militant political party.

Tomorrow 28/12/2013 is a historic day for us Indians that Aam Aadmi Party, is following the footsteps of JP’s total revolution,is forming the government of Delhi Assembly,setting example by chosing Ramlila Ground as the venue for Oath taking ceremony.And not only that but the AAP leaders refusing to accept the security cover offered to them,and announcing that they will reach the venue by travelling in metro.Congratulations to them by all of us Indians,for their heroic acts,and setting revolutionary, anti-corruption, secular, democratic standards in Indian politics.

Political situation in India is quite confusing at present.But the emergence of AAP is definitely an indicator of the mood of average Indians,which is totally against the system prevailing.They want to revolt and uproot this rotten system in which some individuals are presented by the media as national icons(few of them from corrupt political system,few from corrupt sporting industry,few from
corrupt film industry and few from corrupt corporate sector).We can count these individuals on fingers and they are literally the rulers of this vastly populated nation,and one hundred twenty crores persons are their subjects and Indian media is asking them to worship these individuals,as if these 1.2 billion have no identity and no existense at all.What kind of democracy we are living in?Even worse than that it can happen if the communal outfits of India are handed over the reins of power,they will convert the minorities areas(the areas where muslims,christians,sikhs etc are living)into whore houses.

When we talk of political scene in India,then we have to keep this fact in mind that our nation is part of the world at large and not a separate unit.So whatever is happening in the world currently,can’t be overlooked or neglected.The happenings taking place in all parts of the world will have a definite impact on our country,specially the political events all over the world.Only some years back, America was considered as the only super power of the world,and had almost a final say in the affairs of any other country of the world.But today this is not the case any more,after the miserable failure of America’s foreign policy in Syria.America wanted to remove Bashar Al-Assad,the president of Syria following its success in removal of Egypt’s Hoshni Mubarak and Libya’s Col.Gaddaffi.But the fact is that China and Russia have completely outmanoeuvred America in its latest game. Iran also is proving a difficult ball game for America and even in Pakistan, after getting so much financial aid from U.S,it is not able to contain its own public which is totally anti-America.On the other side China has emerged as the super power of Asia and is at par and even in some fields ahead of America. America’s middle east policy is proving to be a failure and exposes it as a greedy and corrupt nation. Osama bin laden was considered to be America’s enemy no 1,but today in Syria, America is seen to be helping Osama’s Al-quaeda for throwing out Syria’s current regime led by Assad.America’s envoy recently meeting with Narendra Modi, also should be seen in this backdrop, which definitely lowers the prestige of United States in our part of the world,that is Asia.

Political developements in India are quite swift and the latest is that Aam Aadmi Party(AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal,has tendered its resignation alongwith all its ministers and MLAs after a chaotic session of Delhi Assambly,yesterday(14/02/2014), in which Congress and BJP jointly did not allow Kejriwal, to present his anti-corruption Jan Lokpal Bill.Immediately after the resignation,some news channels on television,showed that more than 80% of the public liked this move of Arvind Kejriwal.This clearly shows that the public in India is impressed by AAP’s crusade against corruption,and since the party has decided to contest the Lok Sabha elections which are due after two months,a very impressive performance can be expected from the party, like in Delhi Rajya Sabha elections earlier.

Indian media plays pro-active part in poltical moves and all the newspapers and TV channels are biased in this regard,although they always claim that they are merely reporting the political events without any bias. The selection of panellists during a TV debate,the time allotted to them for airing their views,and the reactions of the TV anchor make it amply clear that the particular channel has an agenda,so the conclusions can not be truthful and unbiased. One example here can be cited about Narendra Modi.Many TV channels inform about his various rallies going on,and they inform like this,”BJP’s Prime Ministerial candidate….Modi”.Now all the channels must be knowing that this is a false and misleading information.It is right in America when they declare the names of individuals as the Presidential candidates,since they have a Presidential system there and the American public choses its President directly.In India we have a different Parliamentary system, in which during Loksabha elections public votes to chose the Member Of Parliament of various constituencies.Any member of parliament can become the Prime Minister Of India,if he has the majority of loksabha members supporting him.So Indian media is playing a fraud on the nation and Indian public,when they give such type of wrong information.Still the dates of loksabha elections are not declared by the election commission,and these elections will elect the loksabha members.People of India do not vote for the election of Prime Minister and in fact there is no such election in India,in which public has such choice.There is lack of education in many parts of India,specially in north India a vast section(more than 50%)is illiterate and politicians take advantage of this situation for their satanic designs.So the media’s role should be to educate this illiterate section of India,but what Indian media is doing is further misleading and fooling them for financial benefits from beneficiary political parties.So in a way media is also indulging in corrupt practices,being hand in glove with corrupt parties like BJP and Congress.Literate sections of India should not act as helpless bystanders in this situation.On the contrary they should educate the masses about these finer points with fearlessness.

Another example of media’s bias is broadcasting of opinion polls and surveys much before the elections,which are nothing but the exercises for influencing the public with their concocted datas.Major private TV channels are funded by either Congress or BJP or by the corporate houses who are donating heavily to both these parties.One recent case of this partiality in opinion polls is Assembly elections in Delhi,where a newly formed Aam Admi Party was also contesting alongwith major parties Congress and BJP.I was impressed by the conduct of this new party and was almost 100% sure that it is going to win many seats and even i forecasted that it is going to form the government,when i saw that voting was going on till 9 p.m.Honesty and truthfulness are most important when we are collecting datas and trying to reach out conclusions scientifically.I am not a psephologist but i could reach at correct conclusions,but many exit polls claimed to have been conducted scientifically, declared an outright victory for BJP and a poor showing by Aap,even forecasting that this newly formed party may not get a single seat in Delhi.The results of Delhi elections were as per my expectations,and Aap formed the government and BJP fell short of simple majority against the scientific(or socalled scientific) exit polls.Science in India is tainted with corruption.Again now the same biased opinion polls are in the market for Loksabha elections for which, even the dates of polling are not yet declared by the Election Commission of India.These opinion polls are not at all done scientifically,but they are done sinistically to influence the voters,as if they are bloody fools,which is not the case in reality.Significantly, again in these opinion polls(as in Delhi Assembly elections)Aap is being shown in poor light,not securing total seats even in double digit.My gut feeling is that these biased and unscientific polls are again going to be wrong,and Aam Admi Party(AAP) is again going to win much more number of seats(at least 10 times more that the latest opinion polls prediction).Ultimately truth shall prevail because Science and mathematics are also based on truth,which is a casualty in India,specially in psephology of Indian media.

Communalism is one of the biggest issue affecting the Indian politics,used by political parties as their vote bank,although when questioned these parties deny this truth vehemently.BJP and Shiv Sena take the cake in this regard using Hindu fundamentalism as their biggest asset(at par with Muslim fundamentalism in Pakistan)(I would request the readers of this blog to read my earlier blog”Fundamentalism In India”)and denying shamelessly about this blatent display of communalism.Thier various militant outfits like RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal etc constantly indulge in violent acts on the pretext of protecting Hindu religion,although Hindu religion is totally against violence and is most tolerant religion and actually does not need such cruel and violent protection.Mahatma Gandhi was and is the leading light as to how a Hindu can be a torch bearer for Truth, non-violence,love and peace(please read my blog titled”Truth,Non violence,Love and Peace Vs Destructive Forces”)and BJP and Shiv Sena have never stood for these ethical virtues.That’s exactly the reason as to why these communal parties have not been able to spread themselves beyond the fundamentalist sections of Hindus.Aam Admi Party has lately realised that Communalism is a big issue in India,even bigger than Corruption,and i welcome this realization by the party,although a bit late, but it is never too late. This mindset will actually help this party to understand other non-Congress and non-BJP secular parties and develop a bond with them.Because if they take the stand that corruption is the only issue in India and all political parties are corrupt,(as they took the stand earlier),then they were isolating themselves from the mainstream,but now they have made themselves quite clear that if there arises a crisis situation of seat adjustments,post elections,then they would undoubtedly put their weight behind the secular group of parties.So there is going to be a definite and very important role of Aam Admi Party in the coming LokSabha elections,that of cutting the votes of Congress and BJP,and winning a sizable number of seats and during the Government formation,to help non-Congress non-BJP secular group to form Government.As about the question of who is going to lead this Government as Prime Minister of India,since the politics has become all about numbers,whoever will win maximum number of seats,among the secular formation of parties,will lead the Government of India.one of the serious contenders is Arvind Kejriwal also.As far as BJP and Shiv Sena are concerned,they always represent the Fundamentalism of India,and oppose tooth and nail the secular credentials of India established by Mahatma Gandhi,Jawahar Lal Nehru and Sardar Patel,which they will continue to do so till they are completely marginalised.

Rallies of BJP for Narendra Modi are another example of rampant corruption in India,but if somebody points this out to any party spokesperson,he or she denies it outright,because the party believes in hypocrisy,not democracy.So much is out in videos,news about how BJP is giving contracts of paying Indian Rs 500/- per person in Rallies,using trains, buses,trucks,cars to transport them to the venue of Rallies and providing these persons food,tea and even muslim scull caps to present thousands of them as muslims.Then Modi himself using private planes of Adani group for his personal use,and he does not think it necessary to answer querries about all this to anybody.In the process Narendra Modi and company are becoming the biggest symbol of corruption in the country.Arvind Kejriwal has written him letter inthis regard,asking for a reply to which he said in one of his rallies that he does not think it necessary to answer his opponents.This can not be the behaviour of a democrat,since democracy thrives on solving the issues by discussion,even with enemies.So it is not any surprise that day by day Aam Admi party is becoming more and more popular,and Arvind Kejriwal is becoming more and more aggressive in his crusade against corruption.Their road show in UP from 01/03/2014 can be said a success in which the local public responded positively and encouraged by this response,Sanjay Singh and Manish Sisodia,the two members of Aam Admi Party declared in their Kanpur meeting with local public that they would like Arvind Kejriwal to contest the Loksabha seat of Varanasi against Narendra Modi,if the public present there approves this choice of theirs.And the public in Kanpur wholeheartedly and roaringly approved this proposal of Aap.So now it can be said that if Narendra Modi decides to fight from Varanasi(which is still undecided because Murli Manohar Joshi another senior hindu leader of BJP is not ready to relinquish his Varanasi seat)then Arvind Kejriwal will challenge him and so the seat can not be safe for Modi.Now this much is 100% sure that no seat in UP is going to be safe for Modi if Arvind Kejriwal is his opponent,since Arvind’s name has become synonymous with honesty and crusade against corruption and communalism.There is definitely public anger in the air against corruption and communalism,and this anger will definitely show in the coming LokSabha elections.Prehaps he may opt for Bihar but there also Modi can not be safe since Sharad Yadav or some other fire brand leader of Ram Manohar Lohia and Jaya Prakash Narain will certainly challenge him. So Modi’s road is getting blocked everywhere except Gujrat,but how long Gujrat is going to be safe for Modi,that is also debatable because from 05/03/2014 Aap is starting its campaign in Gujrat,where Medha Patkar is already a big name due to her great movement of rehabilitating displaced and affected villagers of Gujrat.This is a fight of truth against lies,of honesty against corruption,of secularism against communalism,and in this fight Modi is a loser,it is only a matter of time.

Election dates are declared for the 2014 lok Sabha elections,which will be held in 9 phases and first phase of voting will start on 7th April 2014 and the other phases will stretch upto second week of May 2014. Counting of votes will start on 16/05/2014.Model code of conduct is applicable to all the political parties which are in the fray.I think the Election commission of India does not have sufficient resources to check all the parties whether they are conducting themselves as per the prescribed conduct,so with their limited capacity and staff this Commission is going to target the poorer parties more.Even the big national parties like Congress and Bjp with the connivance of media financed by their supporter buisinessmen are up in arms to destroy the parties like AAP.Election commission can not touch the big sharks,so naturally small fishes are the food on offer on some or other pretext given by these big parties.Public of India has to see through this game of big parties and Election commission of India,and exercise the vote using their mind,so that the poorer sections and poorer parties are empowered so that they can not be exploited by these big sharks in future.This is a wake up call for common people of India to snatch power from vips and rich parties.God also helps those persons who help themselves.

Today is 16/03/2014 and we Indians are celebrating the festival of colours,called Holi and i wish everybody a happy Holi.Coming back to political developments here,there is a lot to offer.Aam Admi party’s road shows and rallies in Gujrat,Mathura,Maharashtra and Karnataka were concluded successfully and it has definitely made an impact on the public, although media was in no mood to give it any credit so it has not covered most of the rallies and instead it was indulging in negative publicity of AAP,probably at the behest of their bosses who seem to have their buisiness interests in their mind,thereby covering the rallies of Rahul Gandhi and Narendra Modiwho are the choise of media for purely financial reasons.Although one of them represents the party famous for so many scams, and the other represents a party famous for corruption as well as communalism.people are fed up and angry with these two parties, but the media who have this false illusion that they are the king makers,do not want to offer the public a decent and viable alternative,because of their petty,greedy economic motives as in all other buisinesses.BJP’s and Congress’s top leaders are feeling insecure which is showing in their announcement of seats.They are looking for a safe seat for Narendra Modi and finally they have declared Varanasi seat for him to contest and one more seat they will offer him from Gujrat.Sitting MP of Varanasi and a vetern leader of BJP Muri Manohar Joshi was eased out of his seat to make room for Modi inspite of Mr Joshi’s reluctance to do so and even after other senior leaders of the party voicing their concern for this undemocratic way of functioning by party president Rajnathsingh and Narendra Modi,the so called Prime Ministerial candidate.But nobody in the party wants to challenge Modi,because this party and its partner in Maharashtra,Shiv Sena do not believe in democracy.Bal Thackrey the Shiv Sena Supremo used to say that,’He does not believe in Lokshahi,but he believes in Thokshahi.’But India believes in democracy and it has worked here,so such fascist forces like BJP and Shivsena got to be challenged electorally,and thanks to AAP and Arvind Kejriwal who has declared today in his Banglore rally amidst thumping cheers and approval of the public present that,he is going to challenge Modi and contest from Varanasi seat.This declaration makes 2014 Loksabha election an interesting fight in which on one side is the Kaurava Sena of Narendra Modi,Rajnathsingh,Amit Shah and so on and on other side Bhagwan Shri Krishna and the Truth.Every body knows that ultimately truth shall prevail,non-violence,peace,love shall prevail but fight has to be there, in which,Lust,anger,greed,too much attachment to materialism and false pride will be defeated.So Indian electorate, get ready for an epic battle ahead.

It is 28/03/2014 today and swift political developments are occurring here specially in BJP cabal.It seems that the militant section of this party headed by Rajnath Singh and Narendra Modi has become shameless advocate of extremism in its cadre.There is no respect for saner and senior members of the party and in the name of winnability,they can induct any militant or even terrorist in the party.Gunda elements of the party are prevailing everywhere,like they threw ink and egg on Arvind Kejriwal and other AAP members in varanasi when they were on their way to address their rally in which the cheering crowd approved the candidature of Arvind Kejriwal by raising hands and big applause.Narendra Modi definitely faces a stiff challenge in Varanasi in the form of Arvind Kejriwal.Perhaps he is in for a big shock like Sheila Dikshit in Delhi.Remember that she was also a three time chief Minister of Delhi and got defeated by a novice named Arvind Kejriwal.Some sort of history is in the making in Indian politics,that much is sure.Coming back to the wrong inductions in BJP,first they inducted Pramod Muthalik,that infamous Ram Sene chief who had misbehaved and beaten ladies during valentine days in Banglore,and when there was lot of hue and cry within the party,he was removed from the party.So now Mr Muthalik is a rebel and challenging BJP as an independent candidate.Now the latest news is that they have inducted a muslim militant named Sabir Ali,who is said to be the friend of famous terrorist Yasin Bhatkal.So it seems that the militant section of BJP has a soft corner for hindu and muslim militants of India and there is an internal war going on between these fanatics which include their parent organizations,RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal,their partner Shiv Sena on one side and on the other side there are senior members of the party who criticize talibanization of the party.Not only communalism but on corruption also party seems to be a divided house. Recently the senior member of the party Sushma Swaraj objected to the induction of Yedurappa and sriramulu in the party since they were ousted from the party and were jailed also because of their corrupt deals.But they did not care for her objections and gave tickets to these tainted persons to fight the elections,so it is clear that Duryodhana and Dushasan of the party want to win the war by any means,forgetting the truth that Lord Krishna is watching everything and ultimately only truth shall prevail.

‘Conflict Of Interest’ is a very interesting topic which has its political ramifications all over the world. For instance Sunny muslim world has problems with America and similarly America has problems with Sunny muslim world.Russia has problems with America and America has problems with Russia.In Hagel’s language it is called ‘Dialectic’ and in such situations the philosopher anticipated wars.China in such situations is clearly seen to the side of Russia and Shia Iran and in this part of the world America has become a laughing stuff for sure.Recently when crimea separated from Ukraine and merged with Russia,there was a lot of hue and cry by America and even it imposed economic sanctions on Russia.But Russia does not take these sanctions seriously and even jokularly remarked that America will be more affected by these sanctions since Americans and their president will not get Russian Vodka and red caviar for their lavish American party life.Even India thinks that these economic sanctions on Russia will hardly have any effect.Saudi Arab and its Sunny muslim friends also are not happy with America after its failure to oust syrian regime and its inability to contain Iran’s nuclear ambitions.Saudi Arab is seriously considering to develop nuclear energy,if Iran becomes nuclear bomb capable in near future,because Iran was and is cosidered a permanant threat to Saudi regime.Coming back to India this conflict of interest is harming BJP and it has become a divided house openly even before the voting is started.The division is clearly visible between senior and saner elements of the party and militant and aggressive section of the party. Militant section of the party headed by Modi and his bosses in RSS want to induct hard core militant hindus and even muslims in the party,but there is stiff opposition from the senior and softer members of the party.Pramod Muthalik and Sabir Ali are two examples of conflict of interest within the party,first their induction and then their ouster shows the war within the party is out into the open. ‘Oaganizer’is the mouth piece of RSS exactly as ‘Samna’ is the mouth piece of Shiv Sena,which has disclosed today that it has taken an opinion poll in the country and found that 43% of people want Modi as India’s Prime Minister.Now first of all except RSS members or their sister concerns like Bajrang Dal,VHP, and their political representative BJP,rest of India does not read this ‘Organizer’and among these readers also only 43% want Modi,that means among the followers of these hindutva vadi groups also,a bigger percentage(57%)does not want to see him as PM.So the writing is clearly on the wall that no chance for Modi,even RSS admits that.

‘Manifesto’of a political party is the most important document,a vision document which explains the party’s view point on various policies,like economic,foreign affairs,agriculture,law and order and so many other policies.Now the biggest joke of this election 2014 of India is that the most favourite party of electronic media(or rather most favoured party of media,obviously because of reciprocatory economic favours,it is always give and take in buisiness)BJP has not released its manifesto till today 04/04/2014 and the first phase of voting takes place from 07/04/2014.So what are the policies of this so called national party,nobody knows,but all the TV channels in their opinion polls have declared this party led by Modi,the winner.What better example can be there about the rampant corruption perpetuated by the media of India.The failure of BJP to release its manifesto is once again due to serious divisions in the ranks of this party. On one side is the Modi brigade of militants and on the other side Shiv Sena and Bajrang Dal brigade,and the bone of contention is said to be the Ram Mandir to be included in the manifesto.Just recently RSS in its mouthpiece ‘Organizer’published its own opinion poll in which it was claimed that Ram Mandir is no more an issue with the people of India,then who are these people inside BJP who want to make Ram Mandir again an issue.RSS will not reply this,or for that matter they don’t reply to anybody,they are the self appointed lords of India,who want everybody to listen to them,without questioning them.Election code of conduct says that 48 hours before the voting all political parties have to stop their campaign,and they can not publicize any poll related matter through electronic or print media.So on what basis people of India analyse BJP,or consider them for voting.In such situation only fanatics having blind faith can only vote for BJP,and there is no doubt that there is a vast section in India related to VHP,Bajrang Dal,Shiv Sena,RSS who will vote for this divided house.After all if they can go to Ayodhya and demolish a masjid illegally and then feel like a hero,going to a polling booth and voting blindly is rather an easier activity for them.They are ready to sacrifice violently even to make Modi their Prime Minister.But the problem here is that the other vaster,saner,secular section of India will never allow them to play with our mother India violently,to destroy the secular,democratic fabric of India.Bharat mata ki jai,Inquilab zindabad.

Election Commission of India is not coming out cleanly in this election 2014 Loksabha,it seems.I will try to prove it by giving some examples of recent incidents.One leader,ex MP named Rashid Massood stated in some rally in UP that if Modi will try to do in UP what he has done in Gujrat,he will be cut into pieces because UP has 44% muslims compared to Gujrat which has only 4% muslims.The fellow was immediately arrested.Now in response to that Vasundhara Raje the chief minister of Rajasthan said that we will see that who is cut into pieces after the election results are declared,which is an equally provocative statement in my view.But there is no action against Vasundhara Raje so far by election commission. So what is this going on?If you are a hindu and a powerful one at that,then nobody can touch you and you can dance naked on the road,but if you are a muslim even if powerful,law and order will not spare you if you provoke.What kind of signals election commission is sending to minorities communities.The good part of India is that still more hindus are good human beings and the percentage of fanatic hindus is less,but in future if this balance is disturbed for which efforts are going on in full swing,then what will happen?All minorities will be in grave danger as it is in Pakistan.So election commission of India should prove its credentials as a neutral body and should not be seen as taking sides of powerful hindu fanatic groups.Lately Amit Shah the right hand man of Narendra Modi also gave a provocative speech but he is not yet arrested,and election commission has asked this criminal to explain the contents of his speech.This fellow Amit Shah was barred from entering into Gujrat by Supreme court and he was in jail and out on bail.So the treatment of election commission towards hindus and muslims is biased and definitely muslims will be hurt with this.If there is free and fair election then this kind of treatment with muslims will unite them against BJP,although this may not be the thinking of election commission.There is a definite strategy to make India more communal but educated and intelligent Indians will not allow this and such nafarious designs will always fail as in the past.

Today is 14/04/2014 and voting for loksabha 2014 is going on in phases.Atmosphere is charged and provocative speeches are in vogue.Finally election commission has taken some action and banned Amit Shah of BJP and Azam Khan of SP from speeches in any rally.Amit Shah’s case was quite old and he was given too much time to explain his side whereas Azam Khan was not given any notice or time to explain,so here also election commission’s bias is clealy evident.This kind of favour to militant hindu leaders will make minorities of India further insecure.It is very clear that election commission is soft towards Congress and BJP,even in the case of election expences.Why there is no enquiry about Modi and Rahul Gandhi’s election expences which are far far more than the stipulated limits fixed by election commission.Entire public of India knows that hundreds of crores are being spent on Modi and Rahul Gandhi’s image make over through TV and other media sources.So why election commission is pretending as if it does not know any thing about it.EC can send notice to BJP and Congress to furnish details of expenditure on Modi and Rahul Gandhi’s campaign.Indian public is fed up and angry with the rampant corruption prevailing and EC has given one more reason to think that nothing is going to change in this country and a complete uprooting of the prevailing system only is the solution.

When JP started his revolution,then BJP was not existing.JP was confronting only one evil named Congress and he successfully combated this evil and defeated it.Now in 2014 the evil named Congress is not alone and it has got a partner in corruption and communalism in the name of BJP.So the problems of our great nation have increased multifold.Time to time various fronts were formed and a non Congress and non BJP government formation was tried but it was very difficult to keep these two evils at bay.So the politics in India was confined between Congress and BJP and regional parties although improved their clout in their respective states,but the government at the centre was not possible without the support of either Congress or BJP.The era of a single party forming a government with clear majority was over.It was possible to form government at centre only with the help of several parties called allies and such governments called coalition governments.One coalition was centred around Congress which was named as’United Progressive Alliance'(UPA) and another coalition was centred around BJP and was named’National Democratic Alliance'(NDA).Both of these coalitions have run the governments at centre,but unfortunately both these coalition governments have indulged in rampant corruption and communalism,and they have not focused on the improvement of public life and the day to day problems of average people.public was angry with these coalitions and were looking for an outlet to vent their anger and frustration.But how to challenge these two sharks Congress and BJP with the solid backing of Indian buisiness corporates.It looked almost impossible and India’s fate seemed sealed between these two corrupt and communal combinations.But remember that shlok from Gita’yada yada hi dharmasya glanirbhavati Bharatey…’and really wonders have started happening.We saw movements taking place against corruption and communalism by various NGOs all over India and Indefinite fasts by Anna Hazare and Arvind Kejriwal for a powerful “Jan Lokpal Bill’ at the centre.UPA succumbed to immense pressure by Anna and Kejriwal and tried to finalise a Jan Lokpal Bill but everything proved futile because there was no agreement on CBI and ministers also to be under Jan Lok Pal was not agreeable to government.For India Against Corruption the purpose of Jan Lok Pal was to book so many corrupt of India and punish them but the Congress and BJP were not ready for that overhaul and cleaning of the administration, because many of their own ministers,MPs and MLAs were involved in so many scams and corrupt deals.So finally Arvind Kejriwal decided that if his team wants a corruption free and communalism free India then they will have to defeat the Congree and BJP politically.This was a big challenge,in fact bigger than Jai Prakash Narain took in his days,because BJP was not existing that time.BJP is a big force in India playing communal politics supported by militant hindu groups like RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal and Shiv Sena an anti muslim political party existing much before BJP. Anna Hazare due to his past RSS connections ditched Arvind Kejriwal,but several other social activists joined him and finally Arvind Kejriwal formed a party named “Aam Admi Party” which is a force to reckon with today and it has challenged both Congress and BJP which needs courage and conviction both.It is a great development in the history of Indian Politics and needs to be admired irrespective of the election results.Actually i wanted him to challenge Modi during assembly elections of Gujrat but they say it is never too late,and may be God wanted it this way.God bless AAP and i wish this party a huge success in Loksabha 2014,so that Indian Parliament is full with lots of honest,secular democratic MPs.

Today is 20/04/2014 and what i have written about election commission of India earlier,is proved convincingly with the day to day happenings here. The officials are soft on hindu corrupt and communal elements and harsh on similar muslim elements.There is no action against Vasundhara Raje and Amit Shah is also let off but Azam Khan was banned even before the dead line given to him for explaining his side.Now the latest salvo is from a prominent BJP leader from Bihar who said yesterday that the critics of Modi have no place in India,as if India is an ancestral property of Modi.Where is election commission now,perhaps they will examine the statement for some days,then they will issue a notice to this fanatic and he will be let off after due apology.Azam Khan is anti national and Giriraj Singh is a true patriot according to only true patriots of India like BJP,RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal,Shiv Sena,Ram Sene who have the exclusive rights of patriotism in India.Giriraj Singh further said that Modi baiters will be bundled out to Pakistan after the elections,assuming that Modi will be the prime minister of India.Although this is a highly wishful thinking,but the threat to muslims and other several critics of Modi is dangerous for the the freedom and secular,democratic nature of our society.People of this country should take note of this development and think before voting for fanatic political outfits sponsored by militant religious organizations.Election commission also is showing its bias against muslims,by not taking immediate action against hindu fanatic leaders like Giriraj Singh.The commission should not only be neutral while acting against provocative statements,but it also should be seen to be neutral by majority and minority communities,which is not the case.Muslims have started suspecting the intentions of election commission,which is not a healthy development,for the image of our country known as secular,democratic republic.

Another skelton has come out tumbling from Modi’s cupboard full with bloodthirsty fanatic minority baitors.This latest name is Pravin Togadia who’s slogan is’joh hindu hit ki baat karega,wohi desh par raaj karega’,remember this slogan from Ayodhya riots days.Now he is caught on camera to attack one muslim who has bought a property quite legally,but in a hindu dominated locality.Has this fellow commited a crime,if legally speaking,not really.But in state of Gujrat under the chiefminister ship of Mananiya Narendra Modiji,this muslim fellow has committed a henious crime for which he should be punished,so Pravin Togadia is instructing his followers to take over his property by force,by attacking him with stones,tometos etc.This is happening in Gujrat,one of the states of our secular democratic republic of India.Girirajsingh is still roaming scotfree after his provocative statement of packing all Modi baiters to Pakistan,and now this Pravin Togadia instructing hindu bhakts of VHP to attack a single muslim and this all is happening during election campaign,a free and fair election of 14th Loksabha of our great nation.Where is Election Commission Of India,nobody knows,perhaps it will wake up when a frustrated muslim will go mad after this treatment by Girirajsingh and Pravin Togadia,and give a provocative statement,then this commission will raise to take punitive action against this muslim militant who has dared to provoke the peaceloving hindus of this great nation.Where is the law and order?I pray to God to infuse sense in the biased atmosphere,so that a level playing field prevails so that all Indians can vote peacefully and freely,and elect an impartial secular democratic government.Bharat mata ki jai,Inquilab Zindabad.

Sixth phase of polling is over and voting of Indian voters is complete in 349 seats out of 545 total seats.I also exercised my vote in Mumbai on 24/04/2014.Still voting for 196 Loksabha seats is balance.One by one Modi’s militant brigade is getting exposed and people have started seeing through the real face of Narendra Modi and his lieutenants.Still Modi has not taken any action against Pravin Togadia after his poisonous statement against muslims a few days back.Modi is the chief minister of Gujrat and Amit Shah is Home Minister and both of them in their rallies are talking about justice to all in their socalled would be government at centre.But in their Gujrat state Togadia is threatning muslims of grabbing their legally purchased property,beating them,spitting on them and Gujrat government can’t touch this Togadia.I remember Atal Bihari Vajpayee telling Modi to fulfill his Rajdharma,which Modi failed to do in 2002 and he failed again now in 2014.When he can’t handle law and order in his state Gujrat,then how on earth India and Indians can rely on him for maintaining law and order in such a vast and diverse nation.It is simply impossible for a person from Sangh Parivar who is known for safeguarding the interests of a particular community.So the possibility of Modi becoming the Prime Minister of India can be completely ruled out.After Pravin Togadia,another militant person from Shiv Sena named Ramdas Kadam spoke provocatively against Muslims in Mumbai rally where Narendra Modi was present on stage when this Shiv Sainik Kadam was speaking.Another fanatic hindu named Subramanian Swami is in news from yesterday,since wiki leaks have found out from his past records that he was passing information about Indira Gandhi to America.So this Swami was in a way working as American agent and passing classified information,which is nothing less than an anti national activity.So much about these self proclaimed patriots of Sangh parivar,for whom those who do not toe their militant hindutva line of thinking,are traitors and not fit to live in India.Indians are sensible enough to understand these fanatic hindus and marginalise them as they have done so far,and save the nation from communal strife.All Indians should vote and vote sensibly.Bharat mata ki jai…

It seems that BJP is getting frustrated day by day which is evident from the statements of their supporters.The kind of language their followers use in various social networking sites is disgusting.Many of the followers of Modi are using abusive language,threatning on twitter.I have experienced this personally,so i can confidently say that the ground is slipping beneath the feet of Modi and his followers.Even the money power of thousands of crores is failing to sustain their confidence because they are on the wrong side.They know that this is their end game like that of Kaurav sena fighting the epic battle of Mahabharata.Bjp will exist but Modi hype will be over after this election.God has taken care of India and the world,and will always take care,Modis will come and go with their nafarious designs.Modi’s staunch supporter Baba Ramdev also is gone berserk nowadays and after his recent remarks about Dalits and Rahul Gandhi,Dalits are up against him and will not vote for BJP for sure.One by one BJP is getting set backs from its own supporters,not good signs for BJP.There are already talks of the formation of a secular front government after the provocative speeches of Girirajsingh,Pravin Togadia,Ramdas Kadam,Amit Shah,Subramanian Swami etc of BJP.All the Modi’s men.People should know that they are the real face of Modi,which he is hiding in his rallies managed and directed by crony capitalists.But they say’joh chup rahegi zubaney khanjar,toh lahu pukarega aastin ka…”sacchai chhup nahin sakti banawat ke usoolon se,ke khushboo aa nahin sakti kabhi kaagaz ke phoolon se…’.They can’t hide the truth for long,let them try,public is seeing through them already,that’s why frustration.

Two phases of voting of 105 Loksabha seats are still balance but Modi has already declared victory for himself and he is already acting like a fanatic hindu prime minister of India.There are killings of innocent muslims in Assam after his arrogant and communal statements and his partner in militant hinduism Amit Shah declares Azam Garh as the factory of Terrirism and BJP gives all out support to these two fanatics.Election Commission as i have already written earlier is surely pro militant hindutva this time,otherwise by now Modi and Amit Shah would have been in jail.But public in Bihar,UP and West Bengal is giving them a luke warm response,and is not fearing at all.So BJP is getting desparate and this desparation is showing in their campaign which is turning communal by hour.They are trying to polarise so that they can garner hindu votes but they are failing miserably.AAP has dented Congress and BJP vote bank and SP and BSP have their own sizable following of muslims and low caste hindus who are solidly behind them this time also.In Bihar RJD of Lalu Yadav has once again halted BJP’s march like he had earlier stopped Advani’s rath yatra and arrested him.Overall the picture is gloomy for BJP in Bihar and UP and these two states are going to be the cause of Modi’s waterloo.Because BJP is contemplating to come to power only if UP and Bihar give them sizable seats,and BJP tried to play dirty politics of communalism for achieving this and failed.North East,West,South of India do not care for BJP because they consider it a communal hindu party which is a fact.The literacy rate also in these parts of India is much higher than North which is actually the only part where BJP has its presence and due to which this party tries to spread fear through its militant outfits RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal etc.Mostly their followers are traders who are half literates,tax evaders and over ambitious.This time they have thought to exploit the centiments of hindus all over India in the name of developement and with the support of hindu media and hindu corporates,and initially they could fool around for a while,but Modi and his militant brigade of hard core sangh Parivar could not hide their true face of muslim haters from public for long,and the real Modi(Model Of Dividing India)now stands exposed and rejected in front of India.There is no wonder if Modi loses and Arvind Kejriwal wins the Varanasi seat of Loksabha,the polling for which will be held on 12thMay,in the 9th and final phase of this election.

9th and final phase of polling is on 12th may,but Modi and his lieutinants are already a frustrated lot,perhaps due to apprehension of a losing battle.Otherwise nobody has heard in the history of Indian politics about BJP or Shiv Sena going for a Dharna.Yesterday(08/05/2014)BJP’s famous faces Arun Jaitly.Ravi Shankar Prasad,Amit Shah sat on a Dharna and what was their demand?Varanasi returning officer Pranjal Yadav,a DM should be sacked from his post for not allowing Narandra Modi to hold a rally in BaniaBaugh.Modi on stage in a rally was shouting that Election Commission is not impartial and it is biased against him.Ridiculous.Seeing that all his supporters after giving highly provocative statements against muslims are still roaming freely,i had the impression that Election Commission is soft on militant hindutve and this attitude is helping Modi and his brand of fanatic hindutva.But fanatics are fanatics afterall,they can’t even recognize between friend and foe,thats why Modi considers Election Commission as his enemy.There is no difference between Duryodhana of Kaurav Sena and Modi of BJP.Mamta Banerji compared him to an “asshole” without losing any time.Now this Pranjal Yadav,District Magistrate whose dismissal BJP has demanded is a very respected figure in entire Varanasi due to his good deeds and good works of development allover.He is known to be an upright officer and Election Commission has rightly refused to respond to BJP’s unreasonable and vindictive demand.Now BJP is up against Election Commission also.Varanasi public knows these facts so BJP has an egg on its face certainly,and it will go against BJP on 12th May.Arvind Kejriwal has emerged as a serious challenger to Modi in all this hullaboo,and even offered Modi for a debate on various issues in front of the people of Varanasi,at a time and venue of Modi’s choice.But Modi known for his adamant nature,and his reluctance for participating any public debate,is unlikely to accept this challenge,and this will benefit nobody else but only Arvind Kejriwal,who is playing his cards like a clever politician.It will be no wonder if Arvind Kejriwal emerged as the winner on 16th may,and if that happens,he would have done a great service to the nation,comparable to a real hero.Bharat mata ki jai..

Today is 13/05/2014 and the 9th and final phase of polling was completed yesterday.The exit polls by media and the swords by BJP are out in the open.They do’nt want any thing else other than Modi as Prime Minister and a BJP government at the centre by hook or crook.Media is playing to their gallery since they are getting crores of rupees for that,so no wonder that some exit polls are giving NDA even 300 to 400 seats although counting will start on 16th May but victory is declared for BJP.I studied one of the exit polls by Times Now channel which has given NDA 249 seats out of which BJP is given 210+ seats which also seems a impossible figure since out of these BJP has 28 seats from Bihar,and 52 seats from UP which is highly unlikely.The reason is that in Bihar there is a resurgence of RJD and alongwith Congress they have given a good fight to BJP as per the reports.Bihar has total 40 seats so at the most it can be 50-50 between RJD and BJP and some seats can be expected by JDU also,so going by these trends BJP can expect not more than 15 seats.Same is the case in UP where it is caste politics totally and BJP and Congress which are parties of high caste people,have lost ground long back and they are 3rd and 4th parties and SP and BSP are the main parties in UP.So BJP can not expect more than 15-20 seats in UP,they should not be surprised if they get even lesser than that.So the total tally of BJP in UP and Bihar can not be more than 30-35 seats.So where does that leave BJP totally,when out of 210 we deduct 45-50 seats of UP and Bihar,the figure remains 160-165,and that is the more realistic figure BJP is likely to get.When we talk of allies,then we know that Modi has abused every regional leader of some importance,whether Mamta Banerjee,Jailalitha,Mayavati,Mulayamsingh,Navin Patnayak,Shard Pawar,he has not spared anybody,so nobody is going to rescue him from numbers crunch.Therefore the possibility of a secular front government with the outside support of Congress is very much there and can not be ruled out atall.Now the billion dollar question is how the BJiPans and Sanghis will react to this scenario once it becomes crystal clear,because violence is in their blood and once this paid media hype and euphoria created for the purpose of TRPs is over and reality is out,it will bite.Shiv Sainiks used to warn that if Bal Thackray was arrested they will burn the entire Bombay city.If similar situation arises and Modi Bhakts declare that if Modi is not made Prime Minister,they will burn entire India,then Indian Administration will have a tough job at hands because Modi is used to enjoy such scenarios as Bal Thackray enjoyed.He will say that he does not like such conduct by his followers but will not do anything else to stop them from this rampage.So after 16th May lot of fireworks can be expected once the actual results are out.These are really trying and testing times for India and Indians.Because Indian media has become a stooge in the hands of corporates who are supporting fanaticism and extremism.God save India.Bharat mata ki jai…..

They have already started abusing Sonia Gandhi’s family,and asking them to pack their bags and go to Italy.Critics of Modi and who have not voted for him are also warned to leave the country.Never in the history of elections in India,such anarchic and hostile behaviour was experienced by free Indians.I pray to God that at least Modi should not become the Prime Minister otherwise more than 50% of indians will be declared Pakistanis.Modi was chief minister of Gujrat when his supporters were on a killing spree in 2002,and he was not doing anything to stop the mob frenzy and similar scenes can be again expected throughout India in Modi led BJP government at centre.Modi can be compared with Bal Thackeray in this regard.Violence is in their blood.President of India has to be ultra careful because BJP will play all sorts of tricks to grab power,even will claim dubious support of allies and verification of such support thoroughly will be crucial in the situation.In the past Atal Behari Bajpayee was invited to form the government and he failed to muster the required number.Modi will definitely be short of numbers and in such situation he has hardly any friends to improve his tally.BJP could not get even 4 MLAs to form government in Delhi Assembly and similar situation is likely to arise for LokSabha also and President’s role and sincerety will be very crucial and keenly watched this time.I pray to God to save India from religious fundamentalism,and maintain our secular,democratic,republic of India as well known in the world.

So the most frightning and worst development has occured in the history of Indian politics,which is that Modi and his supportors have won the 16th loksabha elections getting absolute majority on their own.Media and Modi brigade at this moment is celebrating this dangerous development without caring for the repercussions.Sangh Parivar and its chief are going to remote control the Prime Minister Modi and his government.This jubilation and euphoria will remain for some days and then hard realities will emerge.Muslims are certainly going to feel the brunt of Modi supporters sooner than later.Togadias and Shiv Sainiks and Bajrangis are going to play havoc with the lives of muslims and muslims are going to react and therefore lot of fire works are in the offing.Let there raise a muslim voice from the valley of Kashmir.Gandhiji was ready to give up his life or even making Jinnah the Prime Minister of India to avoid the partition,but partition happened and even after that hindu-muslim problems remained till today.Kashmir is still the bone of contention between India and Pakistan and nobody hopes that Modi will solve this issue but even then he has got this overwhelming support because there is an under current of anti-muslim in hindu psyche which is successfully exploited this time by Sangh Parivar using Modi,Indian corporates and Indian Media.But this is a dangerous game they have played with everybody.Farukh Abdullah has alredy stated during the elections that if Modi becomes Prime Minister then he would not like to be the part of India.So would he approach Pakistan to help separate Kashmir from India,and would it be so easy,or another war between India and Pakistan is in the offing?Shiv Sainiks and Modi supporters are known for attacking Indian muslims and branding them as pro-pakistanis,now being in power they will feel more encouraged to misbehave with muslims and their female sections.who will be able to control them?In Pakistan hindus are in minority and they are suffering ill treatment from majority community and same situation can be expected in India also now.Because fundamentalism is not different from religion to religion,whether it is hindu fudamentalism or muslim fundamentalism,it is one and same.whether hindu Sangh Parivar or any muslim fundamentalist group,they are same,and they propagate their religion and hate other’s religion.Very soon focus is going to shift from Israel Palestinian to Kashmir and hindu-muslim and the new government is surely going to be biased towards hindus,and this is going to have serious consequences for sure.India is now a Hindu Rashtra ruled by Sangh Parivar,let us admit this bitter fact.The concept of a muslim prime minister was never acceptable to the hindu psyche and therefore India’s secularism remained a pseudo-secularism,mostly they preferred a hindu brahmin prime minister.That’s why Jawahar Lal Nehru,although an athiest,left of the centre thinker,used “Pandit” as prefix to his name.Not only that but he saw in Atal Bihari Bajpayee,another brahmin from north India,a future prime minister of India.So much for the secularism of India.So when the term pseudo-secularism was coined about Indian variety of secularism,it was instantly accepted.Now with the emergence of Modi brigade as the new power centre of India,that pseudo secularism also is gone and our country is no different from Pakistan,both are not secular democratic republic,but they are religious countries,one based on Islam and the other based on hindu religion.Both the countries could have lived peacefully with their religious identities,but for the bone of contention,that is called Kashmir.All along i was opposing Modi and fearing from the prospect of Modi and Sangh Parivar coming to power,but now i feel that this is a better development since they would not be able to drag the Kashmir issue any more,since both sides are militant in nature and they believe in action not diplomacy.Very soon we can see war clouds hovering over the sub-continent,and using ‘Sholay’s’dialogue we can say”Joh dar gaya,samjho mar gaya….”.Bharat mata ki jai..

About Kashmir India’s stated position is that Kashmir is an integral part of India.If so then why there is POK(Pakistan occupied Kashmir) and why India has never fought on this serious issue,I mean when India won the war against Pakistan and liberated Bangla Desh,then why this Pak occupied terriotory of Kashmir was not recaptured.Pakistan’s position on Kashmir is that Kashmir is a disputed territory and should be resolved by giving Kashmiris the choice of self determination.There are so many terroristic activities,and infiltration due to Kashmir so India and Pakistan have to solve this problem otherwise there can be no peace in the valley and India and Pakistan.The Government of India has to realise that the situation will become too dangerous to handle once American Army leaves Afghanistan at the end of 2014.Because there are so many new players neighboring Afghanistan,like Kazakastan,Kyrgistan,Turkmenistan,Tajikistan,Uzbekistan who after disintegrating from Soviet Union are available for fighting against India,and Pakistan with ISI can use them alongwith Taliban to settle the scores with India.Pakistani Taliban,many terror groups don’t care for Nawaz Sharif,the Prime Minister of Pakistan,like India’s Fanatic groups don’t care for Government here.Although Narendra Modi and Nawaz Sharif have won the elections in their countries but both of them are backed by militant religious organizations.So when Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah could not avoid Partition because of hindu-muslim differences,it seems to be impossible to achieve any breakthrough by present hardline right wing regimes of both countries.Modi and Nawaz Sharif can not be compared with Gandhi and Jinnah,and there are 100% chances of militants of both sides taking over them and bringing the situation to flash point.That seems to be the only possibility in the circumstances.Writing is on the wall,and whoever will read first will be the beneficiary.Karmic cycle will catch with everybody,and God only will decide the fate of this sub-continent.Bharat mata ki jai…..

Voting percentage of BJP in the recently concluded 16th Loksabha elections was 31% and with this percentage the party has achieved the majority in the lower house of Indian parliament.That means 69% of valid Indian voters have not voted for BJP.Total Indian voters this time were 55crores out of which only 17crore voters have voted for BJP and 38 crores that is more than double have not voted for BJP.So if we consider voting percentage then more than 2/3rd of Indian voters are non-BJP.Among these voters about 35% do not vote at all.In western countries like Australia about which i know that if somebody does not vote then he or she has to pay a fine of 250 australian dollars that in Indian rupees amounts to about Rs.15000/-.So every citizen of Australia votes and voting percentage in that country is 100%.Why our country can not ensure 100% voting by taking tough measures like imposing fine for not voting.In the present conditions the parties forming the governments are not enjoying the support of majority of population and it is a farsical representation.Coming back to Nawaz Sharif’s visit to India,our BJP leaders reliance on Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan is foolish act because he has lost the presidential election there and a new president is to be sworn in.Hafiz Sayeed threatened Nawaz Sharif of consequences if he visited India and even after threats he dared to come and extended the hand of friendship but Modi failed to cash on that golden opportunity because of his and his partners RSS and Shiv Sena’s militant hindu nature.So one side is militant hindu and other side militant muslims of Pakistan Army and mujahidins like Hafiz Sayeed who is emitting venom like this is the final jehad against India to liberate their kashmiri brothers,so we would not have to wait much for a full fledged war between India and Pakistan.At the most by this year end,and both countries have nuclear weapons in their arsenal,so this time it is going to be quite a bloody war,which i think 17 crore Indians have opted themselves knowingly.I wish them all the luck which they need actually.

Now the government at centre has completed 30 days and people have started to realize the blunder of voting for this useless stuff.prices are rising more and more,ministers are involved in all sorts of controvercies like rape,false affidavits,corruption and the latest is that thousands of Indians are stranded,kidnaped in Iraq and no help is given to them and media which is completely hand in glove with government is presenting a false picture of everything.There is a vast difference between what the ministers are speaking and what there deeds are.Everywhere there is hue and cry but the ministers are not bothered at all.They are enjoying to the hilt,their newly acquired power.Corporates who have invested thousands of crores in campaign of Modi are now busy in recovering that money with profit,thats why the prices of everything have started soaring further.This was bound to happen but people of India were fools not to realise it beforehand.Majority must be fool has proved right instead of majority is the rule.And their miseries are not going to be shortlived because the image of present rulers is anti-muslim in muslim world and this can prove fatal in coming days and months for sure.The ISIS(Islamic state of Iraq and Syria) alongwith Al-Qaida have captured many cities in Iraq and it is now understood that many oil rich countries are giving moral and financial support to them.Indirectly we can say that entire sunni muslim world is united and their next target after Iraq can be India since ISIS has declared India its enemy and released some video also about instigating Kashmiris for Jehad and offering them help from Afghanistan side and this seems realistic also Since NATO forces and American army are leaving Afghanistan by the end of this year.So the situation will be exactly like Iraq after American forces left the scene.ISIS gathered force and attacked the American imposed government of Iraq and won over them.Afghanistan will be a repeat performance and once captured,India their enemy is going to be their sure sort target,and Pakistan in the circumstances,being a sunni stronghold,will only be a willing partner in this onslaught.So India should read the writing on the wall and should be well prepared for this attack,any time.

The first Railway budget of BJP led NDA government which was presented yesterday 08/07/2014,did not at all go well with the masses and people are already feeling cheated by the government.They made tall claims like Bullet trains to be brought,and so many other high speed trains,but how they will do it and where from so much money(9 lakh crores for bullet trains)will come,there was no clarity at all.A vague explanation was that PPP(public private partnership)and FDI(foreign direct investment)will bear the entire cost of these new projects.When Congress led UPA government proposed FDI in retail which was actually a profitable and workable idea and America’s Walmart was ready to invest in retail chains in India,then BJP and their Kirana traders agitated all over the country and opposed FDI tooth and nail.Now for Bullet trains the same BJP is inviting FDI,but which foreign country would like to invest in this risky buisiness.I will explain that why this is risky for them.What i have come to know is that separate barricaded tracks are required from one city to other city for proposed Bullet trains,without any level crossing to maintain such a high speed of minimum 300 km/hr.The cost of a Bullet train is calculated to be Indian rs.60000 crores and fares calculated on the basis of this cost for this train are minimum rs.7/- per km.So if we want to travel a distance of 1000 km,the fare we have to pay for this is rs.7000/-,which is more than the present air fare.So where from these passengers will come who can afford such a hefty sum for Bullet trains.And where from these spaces will come to construct the all new railway tracks.There is a rich class in the country which travels by air at present,which can be targetted for Bullet trains,but that percentage is quite miniscule and they also calculate the cost and may prefer air travel ultimately.Middle class of India is a miser class and quite well to do middle class families also prefer to travel in ordinary 2nd class without A/C compartments.So all this feasibility and profitability and social conditions about availability of spaces in congested by-lanes,will definitely be studied by would be foreign investers,and i think no foreign country will be interested to invest in such a losing proposition.Instead it would have been far better to improve the present Railway which is okey considering Indian living conditions,specially because millions of poors are travelling by Indian Railway and can at least afford the passenger class travel.Government should improve the facilities of poors in trains,which sadly were none in yesterday’s budget.Only very tall and hollow promises for rich,but rich also have started realizing that this fooling around will not work for long,the result was that the stock exchanges crashed after this railway budget by record 600 points.People have started realizing that there is a vast difference between the talking and the deeds of these BJP cabal.They said they will control the price rise,but prices are increased further in all essential commodities and railway fares were increased by 15% by this newly elected government just before the budget.They promised to bring back the Indian money in swiss banks,but now they are just fooling around on this subject.Corruption by UPA,no new cases against any UPA leader are taken up,on the contrary a very big ‘Vyapam’ scam by BJP leaders in MP is in the news.Many ministers in BJP government are having dubious credentials.So how long this government of double standards and false promises and claims,which BJP has mastered over during the election campaign,will survive is the top most matter of speculation,and very soon betting game may start about the period of survival of this government.

There is a very vast difference between the talks and deeds of this government which is becoming crystal clear to the public of our India.They talked so strongly against terrorism and said that immediately after coming to power they will bring Dawood Ibrahim and Hafiz Sayeed to India and punish them for their terror acts in India.Now what are their actions on this count,nothing,no talks.Modi has become a silent figure on all these serious issues.Now a very senior aide of Baba Ramdev is in news all over because he went to Pakistan and met none other than Hafiz Sayeed,the international terrorist,the accused in 26/11 attack on Mumbai,and the most hated person In India.This Indian named Ved Prakash Vaidic campaigned for BJP and is known to be very close to Sangh Parivar of which Modi and other leaders of BJP are the members.And see the temerity with which he is justifying his meeting with the terrorist,that he went to interview him as a journalist,and the said interview is not published anywhere even after 15 days since this interview took place.If this is not sedition then what it is,and why this man is not arrested so far?Because BJP thinks that any journalist can meet anybody and BJP is in no way concerned with this incident.BJP may not be concerned but the Government of India has to be concerned with this serious issue.The government has to come clean on this otherwise public will have doubts about this meeting that Mr Vaidik went on behalf of this government to do some secret deal,and the result of this all will be that the faith of public about the seriousness and force of this government to fight terrorism,will be shaken.And it was the faith of public in Modi’s promises about fighting terrorism,corruption,price rise,which gave him clear mandate to form the government and fulfill the promises.But sadly none of the promises are being initiated convincingly,leave aside fulfilling them.So the popularity of this government is fast eroding.The same public which has brought them up can bring them down also,they must use their mind and think about it.

So many controversies are raked up by the new government at centre about Pakistan,communal differences that there is a feeling of insecurity among the vast sections of non-hindus in India.Narendra Modi said that Pakistan is a gone case and has no strength left to combat with India therefore it is engaging in proxy terror war,but the ground reality is totally different from Modi’s rhetoric and the fact is that Pakistan is continuously provoking India by indiscriminately firing at the border from several days and it is not an act of terrorists but Pakistan Army is openly doing it at Kashmir border,which is an open declaration of war against India.Another example of Pakistan’s open challenge to Modi is calling for a meeting with separatists of Kashmir at Delhi by none other that Pakistan’s ambassador to India.Instead of responding to these open provocations, Modi,the lion of BJP,the current PM of India is looking for excuses which expose him and people can see through him and compare his attitude before elections and after elections as far as Pakistan is concerned. It is easier for BJP to engineer hindu-muslim riots and provoke hindus to attack muslim minorities and create a civil war like situation,but the party is finding it difficult to engage in a full fledged war with Pakistan fearing a fitting response,specially since Pakistan posseses nuclear weapons and it does not fear from Modi’s rhetorics.So Modi and BJP are caught in a big dilemma and hence they are taking the entire nation for a ride which may prove fatal for the party,and so they have no choice except to show the same guts against Pakistan which they showed during the campaign of elections 3 monthe back.Now the latest salvo is from RSS chief Mr Mohan Bhagwat,who has stated that India is a Hindu Rashtra,making it clear that he has problem with Indian,Hindustani culture existing from centuries.So what does he think about the vast sections of muslims,sikhs,christians,Buddhists,Jains,parsis etc.Does he call them Hinustani,Indian or Hindu and if they don’t want to be called as Hindus then what does he intend to do with them.Will he join Togadia,GirirajSingh,Ashok Singhal to kick them out of India.Mr Mohan Bhagwat has to clarify his stand on these questions.So i think that there is an atmosphere of insecurity in India.

By now Indian masses must have understood the dubious role of Narendra Modi,that is outwardly he talks of development and economy just to play the time,and inwardly he encourages hindu fanatics to achieve the goal of Sangh Parivar which is his mission also being a member of sangh parivar.Muslims and Pakistan are the enemy no 1 of Modi and sangh parivar,like jews were the enemy no 1 of Hitler.The latest hindu fanatic to be unleashed on India by Modi and sangh parivar,after Giriraj Singh,Pravin Togadia,Ashok Singhal,Swami Aseemanand,Varun Gandhi is Yogi Adityanath who is emitting venom against muslims,like muslims have hetched a conspiracy of”Love Jihad” to lure hindu girls and convert them in to Islam,as if hindu girls are idiots and can be trapped easily.Sangh Parivar is a Male and Brahmin dominated organization and it looks down at females of India and RSS can be compared with Taliban in this respect.Modi’s liking for Japan is exactly like Hitler who was also fond of Japan because all the super powers of that time,Britain,US,Soviet Union,France,Italy and China were out to finish Hitler who was inhuman,insane and anti-Christ.All the help of Japan could not save Hitler from his doom.The latest anti-muslim rant by yogi Adityanath,MP of Modi’s BJP is that muslims are the cause of all the riots in India and wherever muslims are in majority,only those places are affected by riots.He,like a bloody fool wants to say that although muslims are in minority but they want to be beaten and killed by hindus,the majority community.Anybody can understand that this is a communal statement but there will not be any action against him because the government at the centre headed by Narendra Modi is actually the patron of such elements,and a vast section of hindus are favouring this militant attitude of BJP and this communal and anti muslim approach is their main election plank on which they want to climb in UP.But fortunately people have started seeing through their game,the proof of which is the latest by-poll results of 18 seats in 4 states,Bihar,Karnataka,Punjab and MP where BJP lost many of its storgholds like Bellary in Karnataka,and specially in Bihar RJD-JDU alliance have defeated BJP in 6 out of 10 seats contested.So the writing is on the wall that Indians are rejecting communal and hate politics of BJP.Encouraged by these results all secular parties have started coming together to beat communal BJP,which is a good trend and i am sure that the forthcoming assembly elections in Maharashtra,UP,Haryana and Jharkhand will be quite upsetting for BJP after which this communal outfit will start counting its days for its exit from the national scene,like Nawaz Sharif government in Pakistan has already started counting its days.Corruption and communalism has no place in 21st century,let the dirty politicians of this sub-continent understand this pretty well.

So i was right that all the coming assembly elections will see the defeat of Modi brigade. The result of 33 assembly seats of UP,Rajasthan,Gujrat and West Bengal,Assam are no different from the earlier byelections of Bihar,Karnataka,MP n Punjab.BJP has lost many of its strongholds in these states and it is fast losing groung all over India.People are rejecting its communal politics and its hate campaign by fanatic leaders like Yogi Adityanath,Sakshi Maharaj, Menka Gandhi and so on and so forth.In UP by-elections BJP has won only two seats out of eleven and Samajwadi Party has won 8 seats which is almost three times of BJP which is actually a shameful defeat.In Rajasthan Congress has defeated BJP by winning 3 seats out of 4 and BJP could manage only one seat which is equally shameful.In Gujrat,which is Modi’s Nazi empire,Congress has made inroads again and won 3 seats defeating BJP.So secular forces have made a powerful come back,which is certainly a bad omen for communal BJP,its Sangh Parivar,Vishva Hindu Parishad,Bajrang Dal.All these fanatics are being marginalised,which is a good sign for peace loving nation like India.These fanatics want to make our country another Pakistan and this design of these militant outfits is being rejected by secular outfits which are ganging up and fighting unitedly against this menace called BJP.God bless them otherwise if BJP is allowed to flourish by allowing to harass muslims then more dangerous forces than BJP like ISIS and Al-Qaida can play havoc with India.So we have to marginalise these hindu fanatics to counter modern terror outfits like ISIS and Al-Qaida who in the name of protecting Islam and Muslims may harm violently to the innocent people of our nation. So we have to check fundamentalism,whether hindu or muslim,it is one and same.Communalism like terrorism,has no religion and they destroy all religions ultimately.

For once i am all praise for Udhav Thackeray that he has shown the mirror to Narendra Modi although it has costed him the 25 years ties with BJP. Udhav has asked for his name to be projected as chief minister of Maharashtra like they have projected the name of Modi as Prime Minister,and this was a just demand since Shiv Sena has stood behind Modi when nobody was supporting him.But power brings arrogance and BJP after forming central government with Modi as PM is intoxicated with power,thats why they do not care for their age old genuine ally. This split wide open between BJP and Shiv Sena is a God sent opportunity for secular forces in Maharashtra,who were demoralized due to the saffron wave engulfing the nation some time back but as Udhav rightly admitted that there is no more any wave in the country and now this split.It seems God is out to help the secular forces to regain power considering the great threat the militant forces pose to India.This threat to India is from many corners because militants can not solve any problem through peaceful means.Pakistan has already raised its voice about Kashmir after Modi and BJP coming to power and now China has increased its border incursions multifold and the latest is that Chinese President after visiting India and meeting Modi,has instructed his army to be war ready within a week.Several terrorist outfits are issuing threats to India in the name of protecting muslims in India,and that is also after Modi became the Prime Minister.The general perception is that Modi is anti-muslims and there is a historical back ground about it. Modi is associated with Sangh Parivar from childhood and there are several other extremist hindu organizations like VHP,Bajrang Dal etc which are at loggerheads with muslims and they do not understand the international repercussions of illtreating muslims.Modi never takes any action against the members of these militant outfits.Then Gujrat riots are still in the memory of Indian muslims and even now many individuals of BJP spit venom against muslims.So in this backdrop if Modi praises muslims once in a blue moon then it can only be considered a political move and muslims can also see through such kind of hollow statements and their bruised ego can not be healed with such rhetoric. So overall impression is that this central government is communal in nature and during sensitive issues it can take the side of hindus even at the cost of victimising muslims.So the sooner we get rid of it the better for our secular democratic republic.God is also helping us in this cause and we are definitely moving forward towards this goal.The victory of secular forces in Maharashtra and Haryana assembly polls will be a major step towards this goal.God bless us.

Ghar Vaapsi,that’s what they are calling to reconverting Muslims and Christians by luring them with money,liquor,BPL card,Aadhar card etc. The backbone of BJP,all the militant Hindu outfits like Bajrang Dal, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, RSS, Hindu Jagran Manch etc are systematically polarising the Indian society for political gains. Their main target are Muslims of India and they propagete this falsehood about them that they were all originally Hindus and were forcibly converted to Islam by Muslim invaders. This ia a blatant lie and nothing else. Today Muslim population all over the world is more than Hindus and is only second to Christians.The fact is that there is history written by eminent historians and philosophers about all religions and their spread all over.India had been a problem ridden country and her geogrophical boundries also were drawn by foreigners and not Indians.India’s caste system was and is totally biased and looks down at low caste hindus as unequals by powerful and rich hindus and this was essentially the reason of Hindus attracted towards other religions. So Hindu caste system prevailing then and now is responsible for the large scale spread of Buddhism,Islam and Sikhism in India.Now very same caste Hindus who are responsible for oppression and torture of their own brotheren and not allowing them to enter in temples,are taking high moral ground and holding Muslims and Christians responsible for forcible conversion.Many of the followers of these militant hindu outfits are half literate or illiterates,but their leaders are certainly aware of these historical facts,and are even fooling their own followers. An altogether new religion named Sikhism came into existence only because of the Hindu-Muslim clashes in that era,some 600 years back.Millions of Hindus converted to Sikhism following the teachings of Guru Nanak and other Gurus,which were compiled in to Guru Granth Sahib, cosidered as the 11th and last Guru of Sikh Dharm.What do these Hindu outfits have to say about these conversions of Hindus into a new religion?Who forced these hindus to convert to Sikhism?Do they have any answer? No,absolutely no.So this bogey of forcible conversion is based on lies and unfortunately the Prime Minister of India,who is keeping mum on the issue of ‘Ghar Vaapsi’is supporting this fraudulent process and understandably so,because being a RSS card holder he does not have any other option except to toe the line of Sangh Parivar which is the Gangotri of all these militant outfits.

BJP is a communal party with communal agenda,irrespective of its rhetorics about developement and all that. Its survival depends upon polarising hindus and non hindus.Recently this real face of BJP was stark naked during Modi’s silence on conversion issue and several controversial statements of Sangh Parivar about their agenda of Hindu Rashtra.The results of Jammu and Kashmir assembly elections is a further proof where 33 candidates of BJP out of 34 lost their deposits in Kashmir valley and in Jammu region with hindu population BJP won 25 seats.This is a dangerous trend for India where hindus and muslims are totally polarized and BJP is solely responsible for this trend because it has never happened before. BJP goes on justifying these trends with foolish arguments but people of this country have to understand that such developements can create the conditions of a civil war between hindus and muslims like it has happened in 1947. Lust for power and money is the driving force of BJP and earstwhile Jana Sangh and they believe in Zamindari,Thakurs, Brahmans and oppression of low caste hindus and muslims from thousands of years.They do not believe in reforms of old feudal structures and want to continue with status quo and are deadly against any revolutionary movements.They did not even support the freedom movement by so many freedom fighters and majority of Indians.Like feudal lords they always want to eat the fruits of hard labour by toiling masses of India.Thats why BJP is the party of mostly traders and buisinessmen.

Election dates for Delhi Assembly are declared by election commission as 7th february and counting of votes on 10th february.BJP has started giving sops to poors just before the declaration of dates but the slum dwellers and poors by now know this game of central government and corrupt leadership.Modi has declared in an election rally in Delhi that Arvind Kejriwal is an anarchist and he should join the naxalites.This is a most shameful statement of the century by the Prime Minister of India and if the President of India had the guts then he should have removed the Prime Minister immediately from the post.How can the PM tell anybody to join naxalites,instead it is his duty to bring naxalites to the mainstream politics.Jai Praksh Narain during Janata Party rule in seventies has invited all extremist elements of society to surreder weapons and join the mainstream society,which was a correct move and Gandhiji also preached non violence and asked extremists to shun violence.Today we are ashamed of our central leadership of BJP who although displays photos of Gandhiji but believes in the ideology of Nathuram Godse.I remember a song from an old film which correctly explains the mindset of present BJP leaders and specially the PM ,

Sachhaee chhup nahin sakti,banavat ke usoolon se !
ke khushboo aa nahin sakti,kabhi kagaz ke phoolon se!!

Today is the 66th Republic Day of our mother India and i greet all my fellow Indians on this happy occassion.

A quick update of events all over the world is important i think.The most important developement of this time is the crash of oil prizes in the market which may go below 50$ per barrel in days to come.This is not a natural developement in the past also and now also.Two countries are being economically destroyed with ruthlessness which are Iran and Russia.Iran is already under economic sanctions and dependent on oil income completely which it is not getting in cash but somehow managing only if oil prizes are 120$ per barrel,but below this prize Iran may not survive even for months.Russia is also facing economic sanctions and Iran like situation exists for Russia also.So who is trying to ruin these two countries and why?It is not at all difficult to understand that this is none other than United States Of America.Now we have to analyze that why afterall America is doing that specially when we know that many prominent families of America have stakes in Saudi Oil Industry.This reason also is not difficult to understand,which is sheer failure of middle east policy of US.This starts from the blunders of George Bush senior and then junior in Iraq and that also for the greed of oil wealth in middle east.United States destroyed Iraq and Saddam Hussein and imposed a Shia regime in Iraq which proved totally incompetent and impotent in establishing a civilized government as publicized by America,and this proved that America was totally incapable to understand Iraqi society and its problems.The result was an upsurge of a revolt against America and its imposed Shia government,by powerful section of Sunni muslims who were getting silent hidden support from rich sunni muslims all over the middle east which culminated into ISIS which is considered today a more dangerous terror outfit than Al-Quaida.So whether Al-Quaida or ISIS,their creation is due to bunglings of America in middle east.Similarly America failed in Syria also where it was found joining hands with Al-Quaida to oust the government led by Assad,who was getting support from Russia and Iran.So the current manipulative tactics by America to bring down the oil prizes in internetional market are out of frustration due to its constant failure in middle east.Prizes are decided by demand and supply,so if the the supply is more than the demand the prize will come down,it is as simple as that and the countries having huge oil reserves like Saudi Arab and America can do that.Saudi Arab will not be affected by the current low prize of oil because of huge revenue already earned by selling oil in last many years and America can convince Saudi that hitting Iran economically is actually to Saudi’s advantage.Saudi Arab always considers Iran a threat because of their age old rivalry concerning the control of holy shrines of Mecca and Medina.So America is playing this dangerous game of taking advantage of Shia-Sunni divide in the muslim world.Once the muslim world realized that America is like that monkey who is eating the bread of two cats by making them fight,what will happen then?China is also watching all this.Crony Capitalism is infamous,just not for nothing.

Counting of votes for assembly elections of Delhi is over and the results are what i have expected,AAP has routed both BJP and Congress beyond repair. Out of 70 seats of Delhi assembly AAP has won 67 seats which is unbelievable for all psephologists and media persons,but i was expecting 70 out of 70 for AAP.BJP is completely wiped out in Delhi and has won only 3 seats which is most shameful for a party which is ruling at the centre and campaigned in Delhi with all its ministers and Modi the messiah of the party.leaving all their ministerial duties for which public is paying them with their hard earned money.The message is crystal clear that BJP’s communal agenda is not acceptable to the public of Delhi and they are interested in water,electricity,full statehood for Delhi which AAP can provide them and BJP can not.BJP is not accepting it but this election is clearly a referendum against Modi and Amit Shah,their hidden support to capitalists,their silence on several communal utterances by their communal leaders and ministers.BJP can not change because communalism is its major plank on the basis of which this party is formed by bringing together all communal outfits like RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal,Hindu Mahasabha.All the big talks of sabka vikas and all that is hugwash to cover their real goal and the public of Delhi knows it more than rest of India and full credit to AAP and its leader Arvind Kejriwal to exploit this knowledge of Delhites and to expose BJP’s real face in front of not only the entire nation but the whole world.Kudos to AAP and its brave leaders who so daringly confronted the might and money of central government which with full backing of Ambanis and Adanis attacked AAP left and right but failed in its misadventure because truth always triumps.BJP is a farce and the sooner India and Indians know this truth,the better for all of us Indians.Bharat mata ki jai…

A quick update of events all over the world and where do we stand in the world.Europe for sure is turning left,not due to the exploitation of labor,but actually it is anti-austerity section which is gaining momentum after leftists won the elections in Greece.Spain is next in line which may see a leftist government very soon.So leftists are actually anti-establishment sections who are opposing the austerity measures imposed by governments in Europe who are following the directions of world Bank,IMF to reduce the burden of billions of dollars debt.Leftists have found an easier way to get rid of their debt burden,that is win the elections,form the government, and write off the debt of your country.Greece has already done that,Spain is in the line of doing it,and next can be France and Italy.Where all this development will leave the Euro is a matter of serious concern and debate,but that is the age old fight between left and right.

Another development is in the middle east where currently fighting is going on between Shia and Sunni factions.This is no different from left and right.Saudi Arab and other Sunni factions including ISIS represent the right which includes Al-quaeda and other militant groups also,and against this powerful section is Iran which can be said to represent left because Iran wants the control of Mecca-Medinah and such movements put Iran to the left side and make it anti-establishment.What is the role of United States in all this.U.S stands totally exposed in all these developments.Currently Yemen is the centre of activity and Saudi Arab is bombing in that country and there are Houthis who are rebel shias who want to oust the present sultan and the sunni regime.Not long ago United states has destroyed Iraq and imposed a puppet shia regime after killing Saddam Hussein and his family members.On the other hand the same United states is protecting all the sunni shahs and sultans and emirs of middle east who are controlling the oil wealth of their countries.So America the super power and upholder of democracy,protecting the kingdoms of middle east and trying to crush Iran which is a republic and has a democratically elected government.So what is America upto and what does it want?I think America wants only power and money,and that also by hook or by crook.It is because of America’s wrong policies that firsr we saw the rise of Al-Quaeda and now the formation and rise of ISIS.America has bungled in Afghanistan,Iraq,Syria and now Yemen,everywhere in middle east,America has left its bloody stupid foot prints.

Now what is the current state of affairs in India?It is a total mess.Modi’s cabal has put the things in total doldrums.There are attacks on christians and churches are being damaged.Rapes are going on more than the usual.No punishment to culprits,on the contrary it seems that the perpitrators are being encouraged and promoted.Giriraj Singh was made minister when he threatened Modi opponents with dire consequences like sending them to Pakistan.Senior members of the party like L.K.Advani have become the moot spectators and are viewing the horrors of Modi and Shah like Dronacharya and Bhishma Pitamah of Mahabharata.

Modi government is not only anti minorities but it is anti-farmers and anti-poor,there should not be any doubt about it.”Narendra Modi,Kisaan Virodhi” is a good slogan coined by Sonia Gandhi which is quite appropriate.Narendra Modi is here to serve the interests of militant hindus and corporate sector and he will go to any extent,and all his outbursts of pro-vikaas and pro-poor are tactics to fool around for which he is rigorously and religiously trained from childhood in RSS camps.So he is an evil par excellence.He has taken a vast section of indians for a ride and this section was under the illusion that he is like some hindu deity and will remove all their miseries and will deposit lakhs of rupees in their accounts,which was never to happen.So slowly and gradually people under Modi’s influence are coming out of it after facing the realities of life and his false promises.

one year of this Modi cabal is complete and there is no sign of any”achhe din”,on the contrary poors and farmers of this country are facing very bad days of their life.Modi’s ministers are totally ignorant of the woes of people and are talking arrogantly in response to all the problems of people.Nothing good is happening right now in India.It is a total chaos.Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi,the joker minister of Modi said in a programme that those who can’t live without eating beef should go to Pakistan,then another minister of HRD,Smriti Irani has threatened IIT Madras students who were criticizing Modi,IIT Bombay and IIT Delhi Directors resigned due to high handedness of this HRD minister who is not at all qualified and educated for handling this ministry for matters related to education.

Just when this Modi led BJP government was boasting of a scam-free one year,a huge bomb shell has fallen over them in the form of Modi-Gate or Lalit-Gate,a multi crore scam in which many of the ministers are involved.External Affairs Minster in the Modi cabinet Ms Sushma Swaraj is said to have favoured Lalit Modi a fugitive,who is facing several charges of money laundering,dealing in black money.During the previous regime of UPA Lalit Modi’s passport was cancelled and a look out notice was issued against him,and the then external affairs minister Mr P.Chidambaram wrote to British Authorities to hand over this fugitive to Indian Government and not to help him in any immigration applictions otherwise the relations between the two countries will be strained.What Ms Sushma Swaraj,the new external affairs minister of NDA government led by Mr modi has done is,over ruled the decisions of previous government and issued a new passport to Mr Lalit Modi,helped him in getting visa from British authorities for travelling out of London.A conflict of interest is also clearly established against this senior minister because her daughter is fighting the cases of Lalit Modi as a lawyer in courts of India.Not only that but Ms Swaraj’s husband also is an associate of Lalit Modi in his shaddy dealings of money laundering,hawala dealings from more that 20 years.There is a huge public uproar in the country for the resignation of Ms Sushma Swaraj.Prime Minister is keeping mum from 5 days on this one of the biggest National Scandal,because of this his popularity his diminishing very badly every day.It seems that there is an internal war going inside BJP resulting in the leakage of all relevant documents which disclose very clearly the involvement of the minister in helping this criminal fugitive named Lalit Modi.

Ms Sushma Swaraj is definitely guilty of favouring a fugitive and her excuse that she helped an Indian because his wife was going through a surgery in Lisbon and Lalit Modi wanted to be at her side.This is all bull shit because the minister has not treated him as a criminal at all, otherwise she would have warned him to report Indian authorities once her wife’s treatment was over.But she allowed him to move freely all over the world and never bothered to bring him back.As if Lalit Modi was a respected citizen of India and all the previous ministers Of earlier UPA regime were criminals who charged him with several cases of money laundering and declared him a fugitive who was running away from Indian courts and evading to face law.When he was in India then Lalit Modi’s cases were being fought by that famous lawyer of criminals,murderers and smugglers named Ram Jethmalani who was just eating black money accumulated by Lalit Modi like Ms Sushma Swaraj’s husband and daughter were eating.Lalit Modi lately realised that his offences are so serious that no amount of black money or a horde of criminal lawyers could save him from going to jail,so one fine day he ran away from India and was declared a fugitive.Now BJP and Ms Sushma Swaraj are trying to present Lalit Modi as a decent man through media channels purchased by them.This itself is an act of sedetion but who will charge them,since they have occupied the central government by lying and false promises and unfortunately 31% of half literate and illiterate Indians have come into their trap.Lately these people have realised that they were fooled,but now they have to bear this fraud government for another 3 years and 10 months.But if they felt that they can no more bear this cheat,criminal,corrupt and communal government there can be a mass revolt in the country like it happened during JP’s total revolution.God only knows what is in store for India.

This Modi gate or Lalit gate is engulfing the entire BJP goverment and daily new disclosures are telecast in news channels.Now Rajasthan chief minister of BJP Ms Vasundhara Raje is said to have appeared as a witness in London for felicitating his immigration papers for stay in london,since he was declared a fugitive by Indian government. Ms Raje is said to have signed a document stating that she is favouring Lalit Modi on the condition that this fact should not be disclosed to Indian authorities.This also is a clear case of sedition and that time Ms Raje was leader of opposition in Rajasthan Assembly.Not only that but her son Mr Dushyant also was involved in cases of black money transactions.

Mr Prime Minister Narendra Modi is keeping mum from last 5 days,and so many jokes are going around about him,that he is on Lalitasan,since not a single tweet he has made about these disclosures.BJP is desparately trying to defend the indefencible trio of Ms Swaraj,Ms Raje and Mr Dushyant and in all this mess it is fast losing credibility,specially Narendra Modi is becoming a subject of jokes.May be they are in a dilemma as to what to do.Modi Gate seems to have the potential of rattling this communal government on corruption charges,a double whammy which may well be the beginning of their end.

It seems that the bad days of Modi led BJP government have started,because as if ModiGate and LalitGate were not enough,HRD minister Smriti Irani is charged with filing wrong affidavits in Election commission’s office and a Delhi court has accepted the cognizance of this offence and she will be tried in the court from next month.Pankaja Munde a minister in the BJP government of Maharashtra is in controversies for awarding contracts withour proper tendering process.Vinod Tawde education minister of Maharashtra is having a fake degree certificate from a college which is not recognized by Mumbai University.From last three days there are three murders of a young journalist of India Today group,a dean of Jabalpur Medical college and a trainee sub inspector of Police department,and all these killings are related to the biggest scam of all known as “Vyapam Scam”in BJP ruled Madhya Pradesh and its Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chauhan is being compared to Yamraj becuse some 46+ persons have died in mysterious circumstances during last two years and all are said to have been related to Vyapam Scam in some way or other,some of them witnesses,some accused.2000 persons are arrested so far in this scam.Chief Minister’s conduct is highly suspicious but since Government at centre is run by BJP,therfore Mr Chauhan is not asked to resign so that a fair probe can be possible.So one after another scam in BJP ruled states and in centre also have completely demolished the myth created by BJP that there were no financial irregularities during the one year of BJP government.Not only that but the cases of bomb blasts by hindu terror groups,in Malegaon,Ajmer,Samjhauta express are not being persued after the Modi government has taken over.That proves that BJP is a far bigger evil of India than Indian National Congress because BJP is communal as well as Corrupt,whereas Congress if compared is involved only in corruption,but so far we have not read about Congress sponsoring any terror groups or defending and protecting them in the name of hindu nationalism.

Now it is more than one month and the prime minister of our country is still silent on important corruption scandals,even he is not talking inside the parliament house during the monsoon session which is on from last fortnight.Opposition is demanding the resignations of Ms Sushma Swaraj,Ms Vasundhara Rajr,Mr ShivrajSingh Chauhan who are facing corruption charges,otherwise they are not ready to listen to anything which seems quite fitting reply to BJP’s behaviour during UPA regime,no talks before the resignations of tainted ministers.

Another blot on the credibility of BJP government on 30th of july 2015,they have hanged Yakoob Memon,the brother of Tiger Memon,for master minding the 1993 serial Bomb blasts in Mumbai.After seeing the coverage of those blasts,it becomes clear that Yakoob was implicated in the case just because he was a family member of Tiger Memom.Nowhere in the case history of those Bomb blasts,Yakoob is mentioned as actively participating in the operation.All over it is Tiger Memon,whether hobnobbing with Pakistani agencies,or meetings in Mumbai,it is all Tiger Memon.I read in the news papers that he was charged with arranging finances for the team which was sent to Pakistan for training and then bringing arms and ammunition in Mumbai.Yakoob was a chartered accountant and was handling the finances of the family many years before the blasts.So this benefit of doubt definitely he deserved that how could he know about his brother Tiger’s activities just because he was arranging the finances,unless his brother tells him the truth and it is quite possible that Tiger was hiding the truth from his brother Yakoob.What has happened is a travesty of justice and there can be serious consequences of this,if Tiger and Dawood know for sure that Yakoob was not involved in this anti national operation.The bomb blasts were the result of 92-93 riots in which more than 900 persons were killed and as per Shri Krishna commission report,Shiv Sena and its Chief late Bal Thackeray were the main culprits who engineered these riots and targeted minorities selectively.Memon family also was target of Shiv Sena and their properties were destroyed and burnt by their goons.The report of Shri Krishna commission was rubbished by ShivSena-BJP state government of that time calling it anti-hindu and no action was taken on any of the militants of ShivSena or BJP.Shri Krishna the living retired judge stated yesterday that no zeal was displayed in implementing his report as it was shown for hanging Yakoob Memom.What further proof is required to prove communal bias of BJP or ShivSena,and these shameless parties specially BJP goes on telling the nation that they are not biased against anybody and all are listening this rubbish of BJP.Muslim organizations out of India are reacting sharply over the hanging of Yakoob Memon that it was wrong,even United Nations has critisized the capital punishment.God only knows what is going to happen,but the signals are not at all good for our nation.

Bihar elections are round the corner now and latest opinion polls are showing Nitish Kumar led JD(U) having an edge over BJP.BJP has still not dclared its chief ministrial candidate so far like they have done in Delhi assembly elections which proved a fatal mistake and BJP lost Delhi very badly.But surprisingly BJP has not learnt a lesson from Delhi assembly elections and this is clearly an advantage for Nitish Kumar who is acting chief minister of Bihar and quite popular leader in Bihar.BJP is totally depending on Narendra Modi and his famous rallies which now turning out to be item numbers having only entertainment value but not more than that.Narendra Modi had four rallies in Delhi in which he abused Arvind Kejriwal and called him an anarchist,but voters rejected Modi’s comments and elected Arvind Kejriwal with thumping majority.Now in Bihar Modi has done two rallies in which he has started abusing Nitish Kumar and questioned his DNA.This is going to be disastrous for Modi and BJP for sure.If BJP loses Bihar and chances are surely more about this possiblity,then it is going to be a big set back for this communal party,and certainly a big morale boaster for secular forces of our country who can then seriously attempt to defeat BJP nationally and Bihar will definitely get the credit of starting this movement.Due to rampant corruption in the country,communal parties like BJP are not disqualified here,otherwise in other secular democracies of west they will never allow such parties having backing of communal outfits like RSS,VHP,Bajrang Dal etc to contest elections.Similarly such muslim parties also like AIMM or Muslim League should be banned,but only a corruption free and truly secular governments can take such daring action.We Indians should strive for such truly secular,democratic,corruption free republic.Bharat mata ki jai…

Today is 17th September 2015,Ganesh Chaturthi is being celebrated all over Mumbai by installing lord Ganasha in pandals all over and dancing and music is going on everywhere.The dates for elections in Bihar are declared by election commission starting from 12th October 2015 and voting in 5 phases bifurcating in pre Dassehra and post Dassehra.Nitish Kumar seems to be surging ahead than Modi in popularity contest as far as Bihar is concerned.He has the advantage of being the chief minister therefore BJP tried everything in their book to oust him from chief ministership like luring Jitanram Manjhi originally NitishKumar man,in their fold.But BJP failed in that attempt for which now it has to pay.Another disadvantage of BJP is no credible face of a leader representing Bihar,so total dependence on Modi is harming the party,specially when after one and half years of governance at centre Modi wave has already started waning because of non-fulfilment of all the tall promises made during Loksabha elections.The situation is turning out to be exactly like Delhi assembly elections and NitishKumar in opinion polls is most favoured chief minister and even more popular leader than Modi in Bihar.This is a good developement for Indian National Congress because the party is in alliance with NitishKumar’s JD(U).Mulayam Singh Yadav is again confused this time and can not read the writing on wall,instead he has started abusing the grand alliance,declaring no future for Congress.MSY’s language is BJP’s language so now his secularism also is questionable,he seems to be on a self destructive path.He has forgotten that in UP he has a potential rival in the form of Mayavati led BSP which can align with Congress and can become a serious threat to SP in assembly elections.Communal agenda of BJP and SP has to be defeated at any cost in first Bihar and then UP,this has become the ultimate goal of secular forces of India and God is going to help them in their endeavour,i am damn sure about that,Bharat mata ki jai,Ganeshaya namah….

Voting in 5 phases in Bihar assembly is over today(05/11/2015) and they are showing exit polls in all TV channels.All exit polls are showing similar predictions and NitishKumar led Maha Gathbandhan seems to be securing the majority seats and set to form the next government in Bihar.This is going to be a big set back for Modi since he has done 26 rallies in Bihar spending 100s of crore rupees and leaving his prime ministerial duties aside.Adding to that the protests against intolerance of this government by intellectuals,writers,film makers,artists,historians,scientists,army men,students is a blot on the face of Modi and his government.It seems that this government is on a self destructive course and anybody who protests against them is branded as Pakistani and anti national.As if all the ministers including the prime minister are living in a fool’s paradise.Writers,scientists,historians are the conscience of the nation and if they are not respected then the nation is in for big trouble.We are now passing through such a face in our times and we all Indians have to collectively revolt against this regime if we want to save our nation from gallows.All the ministers and mps of BJP are talking non sense day in and day out against anybody who protests.Shah Rukh Khan the icon of film industry in an interview with a tv channel raised his concern about rising intolerance in the country,and there was a flurry of attacks on him by BJP’s Vijayvargiya,Sadhvi Prachi,Yogi Adityanath,Minaxi lekhi,branding him Pakistani,anti national compared him to terrorist Hafiz Saeed.This is the way it is going on and the finance minister of India says where is the intolerance.Show him as if intolerance is living specy which has to be caught and showed to him.Height of arrogance and foolishness is going on and Modi,the prime minister of India is keeping mum as usual.Talk man talk and stop this non sense other wise this wave against intolerance will engulf you sooner than later.

5th phase of Bihar polls are over on 5th of nov 2015,exit polls were out on same evening which were bungled by english channels more than hindi channels,which proved that english media is more pro-BJP than hindi media.Compared to english media hindi media seems to be more realistic more Indian and more down to earth.Specially ABP news,NewsNation and Live India showed RJD and JDU getting clear majority although with thin margin but english channels NDTV and IndiaToday showed BJP ahead of MahaGathbandhan which were clearly biased and examples of sycophancy of ruling regime.The counting of votes started on 8th nov 2015 and started with BJP getting more seats in the initial trends.This trend went on for two hours and some english channels like NDTV even declared that BJP is sweeping Bihar and going to form the next government in Bihar.For a while i was also confused although i had full confidance that secularism will win in Bihar and communalism will be defeated.Counting also was being done tactically to suppress the truth as long as possible.I started switching the channels and tried international channels like BBC and CNN but could not get anything there.I remembered the emergency days when after lifting the emergency elections were declared by Mrs Indira Gandhi and she was personally defeated in the elections by one RajNarain,not a very popular politician.The results of those elections were not declared for two days and we heard on BBC that Indira Gandhi had lost her personal seat also in the elections.This present regime is worse than Indira regime,so any thing can be expected from this regime.So BJP offices started holi and diwali in their offices and started celebrating BJP victory in Bihar.But in the afternoon BJP got a tight slap on their faces when trends reversed and showed RJD and JDU marching ahead of BJP.Then this trend never stopped and BJP was left far behind in trends to the extent that it became a number three party after RJD and JDU.Finally as per my expectations MahaGathBandhan headed for a two third majority.At the last count RJD,JDU and Congress combine got 178 seats out of 243.Actually I wanted them to win all the seats of Bihar and BJP zero,but that was not to happen.Anyways BJP was shrinked to only 53 seats and its partners,Paswan,Manjhi and Kushwaha could only garner 5 seats together.After this debacle of BJP actually Modi does not deserve to be the Prime Minister but these Sanghis are very thick skinned and shameless people.Actually Pandits of BJP and sangh pariwar are all fascists and they are using Modi as a cover for their design of making India a Fascist Hindu nation of brahminical order and Modi being over ambitious and foolish and sanghi from childhood is an easy scapgoat for these evil spirits.We all Indians can get rid of them collectively and our slogan should be now”RSS Mukt Bharat”,Bharat mata ki jai…

Finally Modi wave is clearly fading all over India,the signs of which are very much evident.Like,BJP is losing all by-elections whether in Punjab or Kerala to Congress.BJP supported student union ABVP has lost university elections wherever held to,Congress or Left affiliated student unions.Another positive developement for Congress led opposition is Rahul Gandhi’s successful address in American cities and rallies in Gujarat.He is no more a “Pappu” but is emerging as a serious challenger to Modi’s economically disastrous policies like Demonetisation and GST.Gujarat is warmly responding to Rahul Gandhi’s logical attacks on Modi’s economic failures.Modi’s failure to create jobs for youth and not fulfilling any of the promises made by him,has created a ripe atmosphere for Rahul Gandhi which he is cashing on with the able guidance of ManMohan Singh and Sonia Gandhi.Modi is clearly losing the plot and desparately resorting to tactics of polarisation.But to Modi’s disadvantage people have seen through his games so often that they will not come into his trap this time.So Congress is posing a serious challenge to BJP in Gujarat.Frightened BJP tried to delay the dates of polling in Gujatat through Election Commission,giving flimsy reasons like flood relief projects,which became laughing stuff for public and opposition parties.Finally dates were declared by EC as 9th and 14th December and counting and results on 18th December 2017.Youth leaders Alpesh Thakore,Hardik Patel and Jignesh Mevani are supporting Congress and so Congress with popular leaders like Ahmed Patel,Shaktisingh,Bharat Solaki etc should put up a good show and no wonder if it wins Gujarat.If that happens then Modi’s game may be over and the counting for his exit may start sooner than later.

Seeing the public responses,opinion polls,bettings in favour of a Congress win in Gujarat i am getting convinced and confident that Gujarat is going to play an important role in getting us rid of BJP and RSS who have played havoc with our lives during their regime.Main Stream media is not showing all recent developements which are against the Modi government but there are brave individuals who are exposing the misdeeds of central government like murky defence deals of French Rafale jets,judge Loya who was hearing the case of Sohrabuddin and his wife Kausar bi’s murder in which Amit Shah was arrested,died in mysterious circumstances and Hartosh singh Bal,has exposed this in his magazine ‘Caravan’establishing clearly that Loya’s death was not natural and raises doubts of murder and the case needs a thorough investigation.Journalists Ravish Kumar,Nidhi Razdan,Srinivasan Jain are doing good work through their channel NDTV to show the real picture in the country,like an anti-BJP atmosphere in Gujarat,the popularity of Hardik Patel and Rahul Gandhi,corrupt dealings of Amit Shah and his son Jay Shah,economic blunders and their murderous effect on people,all these are exposed by a handful of journalists,and the effects are visible in public and one can see the winds of change.personally i think Gujarat polls should be conducted with ballot papers since EVM machines are prone to hacking and rigging.Congress has already filed a case in court that Gujarat elections be done with ballot papers.Amit Shah has the reputaion of a mafia don who can resort to any dubious act,even murder,for his master.So Congress and opposition has to understand the seriousness of dangerous times we are living in and accordingly deal with the enemy.Once Gujarat is won by Congress and its allies,the atmosphere will change and people will come out openly against the current tyrant regime.Hopefully MSM will also get the message then and come out of tyrant’s lap and start seeing the vows of public and think of addressing them.Let us hope for the best.

Today is 10th December 2017 and yesterday first phase of polling for Gujarat Assembly was over and 70% of voting was reported.EVMs were used inspite of objections and again several complaints were reported about malfunctioning and rigging of EVMs.The polling was for 89 seats of Gujarat which covered Kachh Bhuj and Saurashtra region which was considered BJP’s stronghold,but all indications are that Congress is giving a tough fight and Hardik Patel went to the extent of declaring that he will quit his Patidar andolan if BJP secured 10 to 12 seats in this region and he has indicated his intentions of joining the Congress party.So this is good development for Congress party in Gujarat,the home state of Modi who talks of ‘Congress mukt’ Bharat.Rahul Gandhi is a popular leader in Gujarat today and he has turned the tables and youth is listening to him.Even if Congress gets 50% seats in this BJP stronghold,then it can win the election since remaining part for which polling is on 14th December 2017,Congress is better than BJP.BJP can lose this election even after polarising,that is my reading,and that will be the best moment for India and Indians,the beginning of the end of tyranny .

BJP won Gujarat but secured only 99 seats and Congress 80+seats,so it was a close contest and Amit Shah claimed that BJP will secure minimum 150 seats which proved wrong and he failed miserably as his tally came down to two digits.What happened after Gujarat is much more worrisome for BJP and Modi,as they have lost so many by-elections all over India and they failed to get majority in Karnataka even after 25 rallies of Modi and Modi claiming in the rallies that Modi wave has now turned into Modi Storm.Modi got only 104 seats out of 222,wich is 8 seats short of majority.Governor of Karnataka,Vaju Bhai Vala who is from Gujarat and was a minister in Gujarat Assembly when Modi was CM there,overlooked post poll alliance of Congress and JDS who submitted their claim to form the government with 117 members in their fold(Cong 78+JDS 37+IND 2 )headed by H.D.Kumaraswami,and invited Mr Yedurappa of BJP to form the government.This unethical move of governor created a furore all over the nation and on top of it he gave Yedurappa 15 days time to prove the majority in house.Without losing any time Congress and JDS knocked the door of Supreme Court in that evening itself and SC had to intervene and ordered Yedurappa to prove his majority next day itself which he failed and resigned from CM ship.Now after all this harakiri of Modi led BJP,H.D.Kumaraswami took the oath as Karnataka chief minister and his oath ceremony was attended by many leaders Deve Gowda, Sonia Gandhi,Sharad Pawar,Mamta Banerjee,Chandra Naidu,Mayavati,Sitaram Yechuri,Rahul Gandhi,Akhilesh Yadav,Tajasvi Yadav,Ajit Singh and so on.It was a solid show of unity by opposition leaders which is quite formidable to beat Modi led BJP in 2019.Modi started laughing at this opposition unity and declared them all corrupt ganging against him,but sooner than later Modi got the jolt of his life when this opposition unity showed its muscles in 14 by_elections held in various states which Modi lost miserably.Modi lost Kairana and Noorpur from UP after Gorakhpur and Phoolpur lost earlier,then in Bihar also Lalu Yadav’s RJD defeated Nitish Kumar’s JDU which has BJP’s support.Modi lost seats in Maharashtra,Punjab,Meghalaya,Jharkhand also where Congress and NCP candidates have won.Writing is on the wall,BJP is on its way out in 2019.

Modi government promised to provide a corruption free government to the nation but it is proving to be the most corrupt government of India in the history of post Independence India.The eminent senior leaders of BJP Arun Shouri and Yashwant Sinha declared the other day that the RAFALE Fighter planes deal beteween Modi government and French government is thousand times more sinister deal compared to Bofors scam which is the weapon of Modi and his stooges till today.Modi went to Paris and after some days this RAFALE deal was renegotiated and finalised costing three times more than the earlier deal almost finalised between ManMohan Singh government and French Government.The most corrupt part of the deal is awarding Anil Ambani’s newly floated fraudulent company named Reliance Defence,the offshoot contract of manufacturing fighter planes.Earlier this contract was given to Hindustan Aeronautics Limited(HAL),which has a vast experience of maufacturing planes from 30 years and an established plant in Banglore.To cancel the deal of HAL and give it to Anil Ambani who has no experience of manufacturing anything and who knows only brokering in share market,is the most corrupt act of Modi in the history of Indian parliament and the nation is not going to pardon him for this henious crime of him to play with sacred Air Force services of India.Privatisation of buisiness can not be done at the cost of the security of our nation.

It seems that reverse counting of Modi government has started with Supreme Court taking cognisance of RAFALE corrupt dealings done directly by Prime Minister himself.SCI has asked PMO to submit the details of price of RAFALE and the procedure for appointing Reliance Defence,a 12 days old company of Anil Ambani,with no experience as an offset partner of Dassault,the manufacturers of RAFALE.Earlier deal was done with Hindustan Aeronautical limited(HAL) which is owned by Government of India and has a big plant in Banglore and is manufacturing planes in India from many years.PM Modi has cancelled this deal between Dassault and HAL and entered into a new deal for purchasing 36 RAFALE Aircrafts in 59 thousand crores,amounting to about 1650 crores per aircraft and Anil Ambani is the offset partner in this new deal.Earlier deal by UPA government headed by ManMohan Singh,was for 126 RAFALE aircrafts out of which 18 aircrafts were to be supplied in ready to fly condition and rest were to be manufactured by HAL in India,the price per aircraft in this deal was almost one third of the new deal which is roughly about 540 crores Indian rupees.So clearly the new deal by Modi himself is a corrupt deal to accommodate Anil Ambani as the offset partner.The next hearing of this case in Supreme Court is 12th nov 2018.Another blunder made by Modi government is CBI mess,in which a duly appointed chief of CBI Mr ALOK VERMA was sent on long leave waking him in the midnight and forcing him to handover his charge.His appointment was done by a committee consisting of PM,CJI and leader of opposition in Loksabha.So without calling the committee PM has unilaterally decided to send him on leave which is illegal.So Mr Alok Verma has filed a pitition in SCI complaining about this uncalled for action by PM.The SCI has heard this case already and asked a retired SC judge to investigate the case in 15 days and next hearing is fixed for 12th nov 2018.Third upset for Modi government is 5 bye elections in Karnataka out of which four are won by Congress-JDS combine and only one is won by BJP.There are Assembly elections due in 5 states between this monthend and first week of next month,which are Rajasthan,Madhya Pradesh,Chhattisgarh,Telangana and Mizoram.The pre poll opinion polls in these states are not in favour of BJP,and if BJP will lose these states then it can be confidently said that it is game up for the evil duo of Modi-Shah.

As i expected,BJP lost all the five assemblies,Rajasthan,Madhya Pradesh,Chhattisgarh,Telangana and Mizoram which is a most discouraging developement for BJP.Congress won three states of Hindi heartland Madhya Pradesh,Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh which is the most encouraging news for Congress and Rahul Gandhi.We can say confidently now that the reverse counting of BJP has started.In Uttar Pradesh SP led by Akhilesh Yadav and BSP led by Mayavati have already declared a poll alliance which will badly damage the seat tally of BJP.The latest surveys of UP show BSP-SP alliance getting 58 seats and BJP getting only 18 seats,in coming loksabha elections which are due in May’19.That means BJP losing 55 loksabha seats in UP itself,so if we add Rajasthan,Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh then BJP may lose at least 100 loksabha seats in these 4 states only.Present strength of BJP in loksabha is 273 seats which will be rdeuced to 173 seats after the losses in UP, MP.Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh.There can be further losses for BJP in Gujarat and Maharashtra also and the final tally of BJP in loksabha may get reduced to 150 which makes it impossible for BJP to form government in 2019,so we can confidently say now that Modi-Shah era is over and this is the biggest relief for a vast section of India which believes in secular democratic values,independence and freedom of expression in India.On the eve of 70th Republic day of India,this is a very proud moment for all of us Indians,Jai Hind,Jai Bharat.

Loksabha elections dates are declared by Election Commission of India,which are in 7 phases,starting from 11th April 2019 and completing on 19th May 2019 .counting of votes will start on 23rd May 2019.In the meantime there was a terrorist attack in Pulwama Kashmir and 42 of our CRPF jawans were martyred in the attack and there was strong public outrage which Modi government wanted to use to its advantage.Our Air Force strongly reacted to the terrorist attack and bombed an area inside Pakistan border,named Balakot,but it seems the operation was not a success and our planes missed the target,which may be due to defective maps provided to them by Ajit Doval,the famous Internal Security Adviser of Modi,of RSS origin.The operation resulted in heavy losses for us because our two fighter planes were destroyed and 7 Airforce staff were killed and one of our wing commander Abhinandan Varthman was captured by Pakistan Army.Even after heavy losses on our side Modi tried to encash the situation electorally in the election season.For some days he succeeded in his design also and BJP which was shown fast losing popularity graph before Pulwama attack showed some sign of recovery but this proved to be a temporary phase because of the all out failure of Modi government on all fronts.Unemployment,Farmer distress,women safety,bad economy are proving to be the waterloo of Modi regime,and failure to fulfill the promises made during 2014 elections is another reason of public resentment which is again fast catching up.Congress in their Manifesto have promised to pay Rs 72000/per year to 5 crore poor families which are earning less than Rs 12000/per month.This scheme is fast catching up the imagination of poor and seems that Congress may do much better in the elections,which may harm more to BJP in the hindi heartland.

Today is 20-04-2019 and two phases of Loksabha polls are over,11th April and 18th April,total of 186 seats which is about one third of the total 543 seats.Andhra,Telangana,Tamilnadu and Karnataka states are completed and BJP may not get anything in these states.UP and Bihar also may slip from BJP because of strong alliances in these states specially SP-BSP-RLD alliance is giving a tough fight to BJP in UP.BJP may lose 50 seats from UP itself.The desperation of BJP is quite visible now and Modi and Shah are frustrated and have decided to polarise the masses between hindus and muslims,as they always do when all their fake agendas fail.So as a last weapon to polarise they have fielded Sadhvi Pragya who is a face of saffron terrorism and whose involvement in terror acts of bomb blasts in public places is under investigation,from Bhopal constituency against Digvijay Singh. Immediately after her nomination she has attacked Martyr Hemant Karkare who died in 26/11 terror attack while fighting with terrorists,and was awarded Ashok Chakra postmuthously.She said Karkare was anti national and had falsely implicated her,so she cursed him due to which he died.Sadhvi is possessed and thinks that her acts of terrorism are dharma and she is a devi.Her outbursts against Karkare will cost heavily to BJP in Maharashtra and Congress-NCP alliance may out perform BJP-Shiv Sena.So all the indications point out to a BJP defeat and the party may come down to two digits in these elections and we Indians may surely get rid of these satanic forces called BJP/RSS. Bharat mata ki jai…..

Today is 30-04-2019 and 4 phases of Loksabha polls are over and the feedback i am getting from sources is that BJP is losing at least 80 seats in these phases compared to what BJP won in 2014 Loksabha polls.BJP had 282 seats in Loksabha when it formed government in 2014.During the 5 years of its tenure BJP lost many bye elections due to which its total number was reduced to 271 and now in 2019 elections it seems to be reduced to 191 seats after the completion of 4 phases.Still 3 more phases of this election are due which will be completed by 23rd May 2019.The polling for 379 seats out of 543 seats is over which means 70% of the total is already over and 30% more polling is to be completed in the remaining three phases. So a seeming loss of seats to BJP in 70% polling already completed is 80 seats,and if the same trend continues then with extrapolation we can easily calculate that BJP will lose 35 seats more in the remaining 30% polling.So a total loss of 115 seats to BJP can be predicted in this election.So 271 minus 115,is equal to 156 seats is the number BJP is likely to get in this election.If allies of BJP like ShivSena,AkaliDal,AIADMK,RLD,JDU etc are all included then also the total number of NDA seats may reach 200 seats.So the picture is that BJP can not form government this time even after adding all the seats of NDA partners.So the game seems to be over for Modi and co……Bharat Mata ki jai

Election results were out on 23rd May 2019 and BJP formed the government but there is widespread feeling that this election is won with EVM fraud.There was a case filed in Gwaliar high court alleging that 2million EVMs are missing from Election commission’s stock and these EVMs were replaced with actual polling machines and the results were manipulated.The hearing of the case is over and the judgement is reserved and any time this judgement can be announced before the public. The Quint has given a report that there is a mismatch of numbers in phase 1 to phase 4 datas displayed by ECI and when the paper wrote to ECI about this and asked for explanation the ECI removed these datas from its website which is a most ridiculous response and makes us believe that ECI is hand in glove with BJP and they have played a fraud on the nation.Another report from Newsclick also indicates that there is definite wrongdoing in EVMs.This report states about 120 seats of UP and Bihar which show vast differences between votes registerd and actual vote count.So the election 2019 was a game of EVM manipulation by BJP which is now exposed.Mamta Banerjee has openly come out against this EVM fraud and declared that she will lead a movement throughout India against EVM and insist for elections with ballot papers.I think all opposition parties should rally behind Mamta Banerjee and make it a mass movement so that next elections are done using ballot papers only.

A lot has happened in Indian politics since i wrote my last para.I will try to chronologically update the current political scene.

BJP is losing all the states one by one,Delhi,Punjab,MadhyaPradesh,Rajasthan,Chhattisgarh,Telangana,AndhraPradesh,Maharashtra and the latest is Jhaarkhand where JMM+Congress+RJD combine have defeated BJP and secured a comfortable majority(47 o/o 81) as per the results declared on all TV channels,yesterday 23/12/2019.In the meanwhile there are large scale protests against the CAA(Citizens Amendment Act) and NRC(National Register for Citizenship),all over India by university students and general public because of their communal format.Police is brutally trying to crush this movement and the role of police is highly condemnable.People have a right to protest,specially when the CAA passed recently in both houses is discriminatory against one community and against our constitution which does not discriminate anybody on the basis of religion.This all started from Assam, where after a lengthy exercise of NCR it was found that hindus outnumbered muslims among those who were found living illegally in Assam.Amit Shah openly expressed his design to legalise hindus through a citizen amendment bill and leave muslims to suffer as infiltrators,in a rally in Bengal.Amit Shah did what he said,in the winter session of parliament,with brute majority of BJP,he introduced CAB(Citizens Amendment Bill),which clearly states that hindus,sikhs,parsis,christians,budhists and jains migrated from Pakistan,Bangladesh and Afghanistan will be granted citizenship even if they enter India illegally,but this provision will not be available to muslims.The bill was clearly communal in nature and against our constitution based on secularism.Several members critisized it in the house debate but Amit Shah did not care for genuine comments and forced the bill on both houses and got it passed and made it CAA.But the nation wide protests prove that Indians have outright rejected this act.All non BJP states have said that they will not implement this act in their states.

Election dates for Delhi Assembly are announced by the ECI,which are 8th February 2020 for voting in single phase in entire Delhi,and the counting and results on 11th February. This will be a cake walk for AAP since there are wide spread protests by students of all major universities of Delhi like,JNU,JAMIA,DU against CAA,and generally the public in Delhi is supporting these protesters,so the atmosphere is totally anti-BJP and they may lose those three seats also which they won last time,and Congress may win 3-4 seats out of this anti-BJP wave.Ladies and children of Shaheen Baugh are protesting in Delhi for last more than 40 days,but no minister of BJP has met these protesters and on the contrary representatives of BJP are commenting cheaply about these peaceful protesters.So BJP and Modi-Shah have clearly emerged as anti-muslim forces which are vastly disliked by Indian masses.

(TO BE CONTINUED )

Philosophies of East and West

The dictionary meaning of the word ‘Philosophy’, as per Oxford & Thesaurus is- The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. Origin is from Greek word ‘philosophia’, means ‘love of wisdom’. ‘Philosophies’ is the plural of the original word.

Concise-Encyclopedia details of the word ‘philosophy’ are – literally the love of wisdom, a subject which deals with some of the most general questions about the universe, and our place in it. Philosophy differs from science, in that its questions can not be answered empirically, by observation or experiments; and differs from religion, in that its purpose is entirely intellectual, and allows no role for faith or revelation. Philosophy tends to proceed by an informal but rigorous process of conceptual analysis and reasoning. The major branches of philosophy are ‘metaphysics’, the inquiry into the most general features, relations, and processes of reality; ‘epistemology’, the investigation of the possibility, types, and sources of knowledge; ‘ethics’, the study of the types, sources, and justification of moral values and principles; and ‘logic’, the analysis of correct and incorrect reasoning. Philosophical issues can arise, concerning other areas of inquiry, for example, in art, law, religion, and science.

Philosophy of Science- A branch, often approached through the history of science, which studies the nature of scientific theories, explanations, and descriptions, and relates them to general philosophical issues in epistemology, logic, or metaphysics.

ADVAITA VEDANTA PHILOSOPHY-

The Philosophy of Advaita-Vedanta is based on the sacred texts of the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Brahma Sutras, written in 1500 BC. Adi Sankara gave a systematisation and philosophical underpinning of this inquiry in his commentaries, which have become central texts in the Advaita Vedanta tradition.

Every acceptable philosophy should aid man in realising the purusarthas, the chief aims of human life.

* Dharma; the right way to life, the ” duties and obligations of the individual toward himself and the society as well as of the society toward the individual”:

* Artha ; the means to support and sustain one’s life :

*Kama ; Pleasure and enjoyment ;

*Moksha ; Liberation, release ;

According to Puligandla;

Any philosophy worthy of its title should not be a mere intellectual exercise but should have practical application in enabling man to live an enlightened life. A philosophy which makes no difference to the quality and style of our life is no philosophy, but an empty intellectual construction.

Advaita Vedanta gives an elaborate path to attain moksha. It entails more than self-enquiry or bare insight into one’s real nature. Practice, especially Jnana yoga, is needed to ” destroy one’s tendencies (vAasanA-s)” before real insight can be attained.

Liberation (Moksha)-

The aim of Advaita Vedanta is liberation, by knowledge of the identity of atman and Paramatman . According to Adi Sankara, knowledge of paramatman springs from inquiry into the sacred texts of the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Brahma Sutras. It is obtained by following the four stages of samanyasa(self- cultivation), sravana, listening to the teachings of the sages, manana, reflection on the teachings, and dhyana, contemplation of the truth ” that art Thou”.

Identity of Atman and Brahman-(readers who want to go more in-depth should read, jnana, prajna, and prajnanam brahma also)

Moksha is attained by realizing the identity of atman and paramatman. According to Potter,

The true Self is itself just that pure consciousness, without which nothing can be known in any way.

And that same true Self, pure consciousness, is not different from the ultimate world Principle, Paramatman […]

[…] Paramatman (= the true self, pure consciousness) is the only reality (sat), since it is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since it is the one thing that is not sublimatable.

” Pure consciousness ” is the translation of jnanam. Although the common translation of jnanam is “consciousness”, the term has broader meaning of “knowing”; “becoming acquainted with “, “knowledge about anything”, “awareness”, “higher knowledge”.

” Parmatman” too has a broader meaning than ” pure consciousness”. According to Paul Deussen, Paramatman is :

* Satyam
* jnanam
* anantam

According to David Loy,

The knowledge of Paramatman is not intuition of Paramatman but itself is Paramatman

The same nuance can be found in satcitananda, the qualities of Paramatman, which are usually translated as ” Eternal Bliss Consciousness “, “Absolute Bliss Consciousness”, or “consisting of existence and thought and joy”. Satcitananda is composed of three Sanskrit words; sat (truth), cit (chit) (consciousness), ananda (bliss).

This knowledge is intuitive knowledge, a spontaneous type of knowing.

Mahavakyas – The Great Sentences

Mahavakyas, or “the great sentences” , state the unity of Paramatman and Atman, or”the inner immortal self, and the great cosmic power are one and the same”. There are many such sentences in the Vedas, however only one such sentence from each of the four Vedas is usually chosen,

1) pragnanam brahma from Aitareya Upanishad V.3 Rgveda

2) aham brahmasmi from Brahadaranyaka upanishad
I.4.10 Shukla Yajurveda
3) tat tvam asi from Chandogya Upanishad Samaveda
vi.8.7
4) ayamatma brahma from Mandukya upanishad
II Atharvaveda

Jivanmukta-Liberation-

Advaitins believe that suffering is due to maya (also known as Mithya or Vaitathya ). Only knowledge of Paramatman can destroy Maya. At the relative plane Jiva and Iswara ” are regarded as different from and of a lower order of reality than the original consciousness that is the absolutely real (paaramaarthika) Brahman”. When Maya is removed, the truth of ” Brahma satyam Jagan Mithya Jivo Brahmaiva Na Aprah” is realised;

Brahman(the absolute- Paramatman) is alone real; this world is unreal; the Jiva or the individual soul is non-different from Brahman.

Such a state of bliss when achieved while living is called Jivanmukta .

Necessity of a Guru –

According to Sankara and others, anyone seeking to follow the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta must do so under the guidance of a Guru (teacher). It is the teacher who through exegesis of Sruti and skilful handling of words generates a hitherto unknown knowledge in the disciple. The teacher does not merely provide stimulus or suggestion.

Qualities of the Guru-

The Guru must have the following qualities(see Mundaka Upanishad 1.2.12):

1. Srotriya- must be learned in the Vedic scriptures and Sampradaya

2. Brahmanistha- literally meaning ‘established in Brahman’; must have realised the oneness of Brahman in everything, and in himself/herself.

The seeker must serve the Guru, and submit questions with all humanity in order to remove all doubts(see Bhagawad Gita 4.34). By doing so Advaita says, the seeker will attain Moksha (Liberation from cycle of births and deaths).
( My earlier blog titled ‘Hindu Philosophy of Advaita Vedanta (non-dualism),Nirguna and Saguna’ also should be read alongwith, for more knowledge about this philosophy)

BUDDHISM —-

Buddhism originated in India, historically founded by Siddhartha Gautama, well known all over as the Buddha(6th century BC). “Buddha” is also used as a title, meaning the “Enlightened one” . Theoritically any one who is enlightened is Buddha, and all beings are potential Buddhas according to Buddhism.

The core ideas of Buddhism include the Buddha’s teachings on three signs of being and the four Noble Truths. The three fundamental signs of being(tri-laksana) are: 1) Suffering (dukkha); Suffering is rooted in the very existence of all living beings in this world.2) Impermanence (annicca); there is nothing permanent in this universe; 3) non-self(anatman); there is no eternal and permanent Soul or change-less entity in the person.(this one is according to Chinese philosophy,and seems to be the reason behind China’s following Mao’s philosophy which was based on Marxism, about which we will read more in the following pages.)(We should notice the basic difference between Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism, eternal Soul and oneness of universe is the essence of Advaita, whereas Buddhism emphasises on Mind, so the two philosophies if joined together, that is Soul and Mind together can lead to the way to wisdom.)

Based on such an understanding , the four Noble Truths are presented as four closely related statements; 1) all life( birth, old age, sickness and death) is(filled with) suffering/dissatisfaction;2) the origin of suffering lies in clinging to or craving for things that can’t be permanent(such as sensual pleasure and self existence)(trsna); 3) one can be liberated from suffering or become enlightened (nirvana) by eliminating such craving;4) the way to eliminate such craving and achieve ‘nirvana’ is the Noble Eightfold path, which logistically consists of eight aspects/layers; right way of viewing(understanding), right thinking, right speech, right efforts, right action(conduct), right livelihood(right way of living), right mindfulness, and right meditative concentration.

The three signs of being, the four noble truths, and the noble eightfold path, are considered to be the Buddha’s central teachings and thus constitute the essence of Buddhist thought.

The Buddha’s life, the Buddha’s teachings(the Dharma),and the Buddhist community(the Sangha), are viewed as the three jewels of Buddhism.

There are two basic types of Buddhism. The first is “Hinayana Buddhism”, which is also called “Small vehicle” Buddhism. It emphasizes that each individual rides his own “small vehicle” to save himself/herself and takes self-enlightenment with wisdom as its ideal. This was the Indian Buddhism, or ‘Pali’ Buddhism(Buddhism delivered in the Indian Pali language). The other type is “Mahayana Buddhism”, also labelled “Great vehicle” Buddhism. This stresses that all individuals ride together in the Great vehicle towards Salvation(nirvana), and takes the compassionate Salvation of others as its ideal. Various forms of Chinese Buddhism belong to the tradition of ‘Mahayana Buddhism’. Geographically ‘Mahayana’ spread in north and east and is also called ‘Northern Buddhism’, while ‘Hinayana'(nowadays usually called ‘Theravada’ for some historical reason) is strong in south and southeast Asia and is thus also called “Southern Buddhism”. Though a minority trend within Indian Buddhism and in south/southeast Asia, ‘Mahayana Buddhism’ is now the mainstream Buddhism worldwide.

Buddhist Karma and Samsara–

In Buddhism, the term Samsara means reincarnation, transmigration, or the cycle or chain of birth and death. The term Karma means law of cause and effect, deed, or action. There is no Samsara without Karma; reincarnation takes place due to causal factor. Whenever a person does anything(acts, speaks, or even thinks), it produces a result, no matter how distant. This result is the effect of retribution of that action as Karma. According to Buddhism, one’s whole existence is made up of a chain of cause and effect; One’s present state is determined by one’s past ‘Karma’, and one’s destiny will be determined by one’s present ‘Karma’, good or bad. Consequently, what one does now will bear fruit in one’s future life. Because one’s birth and death will be repeated again and again. “Samsara’ itself is considered to be a chain of suffering. The root cause of the chain and all suffering is ignorance( avidya); the fundamental illusion of the existence of permanence. From ignorance comes a craving for and cleaving to things that can’t be permanent; the individual in a state of ignorance is thus bound to eternal ‘Samsara’ . The only hope for escaping this chain of suffering lies in replacing ignorance with enlightenment(Bodhi). All the teachings and practices of various Buddhist schools are attempts to contribute to enlightenment. The result of enlightenment is to achieve ‘nirvana’, or emancipation from the ‘Karmic’ cycle.

CONFUCIUS (KONG ZI)-

Confucius(551-479 B.C.) was born in the state of Lu, a region located in today’s Shandong province of China. Confucius was the key figure in the formation and development of Confucianism, into a movement of thought with philosophical significance. His teachings were written down by his followers over the centuries after his death. This text is called the Lun-yu(the Analects ).

Confucius’ primary concern is how one can morally cultivate oneself into a morally superior person, or a gentleman with ideal moral character. Behind Confucius’ ‘pursuit’ of the ideal moral character lies his understanding of the fundamental value of the human being, that the ultimate concern a person should have, is to strive to become a morally supreme person. Moral self-cultivation has to be pursued for its own sake, and with complete indifference to success or failure and to rewards, whether after death or during his lifetime.

LAO TZU (LAO ZI)-

(before fourth century B.C.) The identity of Lao Tzu is controversial. According to legendary account he was born in the state of Chu (roughly Hunan province now); Confucius once consulted Lao about rites. Traditionally Lao is credited with the authorship of Dao-De-Jing; He is the founder of Daoism, and is one of the two central figures of classical Daoism( the other figure is Zhuang Zi). Lao can be seen as a proxy figure who speaks for the ideas delivered in the texts.

Dao-De-Jing is one of the most important texts of Daoism, and of Chinese philosophy. As far as its emphasis is concerned, the text is a single volume of 81 chapters , which can be divided into two parts. The first part comprises chapters 1-37 and is the ‘Dao’, half of the text (Dao means Way or the way things are; ultimate reality or the Ultimate) (as the general metaphysical Dao ), the second part consists of chapters 38-81, the ‘De’, half of the text (the De is human virtue, or the manifestation of the Dao in human beings, that endows them with power). The text as a whole came to be known as the “Dao-de-Jing” (the classic of Dao and De). The short poetic Dao-De-Jing is the most frequently translated classical work of Chinese thought.

MODERN JAPANESE PHILOSOPHY AND SPIRITUALITY-

Japan seems to present two profiles of the west. One is that of a westernized nation, that is a major economic power in the world. Seeing the sky scrappers of Tokyo’s down town districts, hearing western rock or classical music even in village coffee shops, or tasting the French cuisine of its fine restaurants, it is easy for one to think of Japan as part of the western-based family of cultures. This face of Japan seems to confirm the interpretation that European rationality is dominating the world. We might be led to expect that with the passage of time, Japan will become, if anything, even more like the west.

Yet, there is also the other, non-western profile as well. It appears to the consternation of foreign business people, trying to establish western-like contractual relations with Japanese corporations. It appears to the frustration of social scientists in their attempts to apply to the Japanese context, western models of social, political, or economic analysis. It appears even to philosophers who have tried to study Japanese thought. Charles Moore( 1925-1993), the founder of the East-West philosophers conference half a century ago, felt able to write authoritatively about the ‘Chinese mind’ and the ‘Indian mind’. When he tried to write about the ‘Japanese mind’, however, he could do no better than call it ‘Enigmatic’. These reactions raise serious questions about how really ‘Western’, Japanese rationality has become.

In short Japan is a striking example of an Asian nation, that has been successful at western style industrialization, technological development, and capitalistic expansion. Still, it has somehow also kept much of its own values and modes of behaviour. Part of the answer is undoubtedly social and historical, and best left to the analysis of specialists in those fields. Part of it is also philosophical, however. Since the major influx of western ideas and technology into japan, in the later half of nineteenth century, Japanese philosophers have often addressed these very issues. In particular they have asked; 1) What the western form of scientific and technological thinking is and 2) How it might function in Japan, without eroding spiritual and moral values, traditional to East Asia.

MARXIST PHILOSOPHY—

The development of Marxist philosophy in China in the 20th century, is a remarkable facet of modern Chinese philosophy. Marxist philosophy is one of the three major components of Marxism, originally put forward by Karl Marx(1818-1883), the German philosopher and the founder of Communism, and Friedrich Engels(1820- 1895), Marx’s friend and collaborator.( The other two components are Marxist concepts of political economics and of Scientific Socialism).

Marxist philosophy consists of ‘dialectical materialism’ and ‘historical materialism’; the latter is viewed as an extension of the former, and looks at the nature and historical development of human society. It is noted that what Marx and Engels explicitly and systematically developed is historical materialism. A systematic elaboration of Marxist positions on metaphysics, epistemology, etc. (what is called dialectical materialism), has been largely developed by Marxist philosophers, including Chinese Marxist philosopher- Mao Ze dong(Mao Tse- dung).

The development of Marxist philosophy in China was largely implemented through the development of ‘dialectical materialism in China’, and came to fruition in Mao Ze-dong’s philosophical thought including his ‘ Marxist approach to knowledge’ in China.

Various forms of Materialism have developed in classical and modern Chinese philosophy. Generally speaking, Materialism is a western philosophical view, which holds that the world is entirely composed of matter. It is opposed to both idealism (Hegel, another German philosopher before Karl Marx, was an ‘idealist’, and Marx was a materialist and opposed Hegel fiercely) which holds that reality is fundamentally mental and spiritual in nature, and to mind-body dualism. In Marxist philosophy, materialism combines with the dialectical method, resulting in ‘dialectical materialism’. Dialectical materialism has developed in modern Chinese philosophy through the Marxist movement in China and the creative efforts of Chinese Marxist philosophers like Mao Ze-dong.

A CRITIQUE TO MARXIST PHILOSOPHY BY BERTRAND RUSSELL-
(Excerpts from ‘A History of Western Philosophy’ written by eminent philosopher Bertrand Russell)

The politics, religion, philosophy, and art, of any epoch in human history, are according to Marx, an outcome of its methods of production, and to a lesser extent, of distribution. I think’ he would not maintain’ that this applies to all the niceties of culture, but only to its broad outlines. The doctrine is called the ” materialist conception of history”. This is a very important thesis; in particular it concerns the historian of philosophy. I do not myself accept the thesis as it stands, but I think that, it contains very important elements of truth, and I am aware that, it has influenced my own views of philosophical development, as set forth in the present work. Let us; to begin with, consider the history of philosophy, in relation to Marx’s doctrine.

Subjectively, every philosopher appears to himself, to be engaged in the pursuit of something which may be called “truth” ; philosophers may differ as to the definition of “truth”, but at any rate it is something objective; something which in some sense everybody ought to accept. No man would engage in the pursuit of philosophy, if he thought that all philosophy is merely an expression of irrational bias. But every philosopher will agree that, many other philosophers have actuated by bias, and have had extra-rational reasons of which they were usually unconscious, for many of their opinions. Marx, like the rest; believes in the truth of his own doctrines; he does not regard them as nothing but, an expression of the feelings natural to a rebellious middle-class German Jew in the middle of the 19th century. What can be said about this conflict between the subjective and objective views of philosophy?

We may say in a broad way that Greek philosophy down to Aristotle, expresses the mentality appropriate to the City-State; that Stoicism is appropriate to a Cosmopolitan disposition; that Scholastic philosophy is an intellectual expression of the Church as an organization; that philosophy since Descartes, or at any rate since Locke tends to embody the prejudices of the commercial middle-class; and that Marxism and Fascism are philosophies appropriate to the modern Industrial State. This I think is both true and important. I think however, that Marx is wrong in two respects. First the social circumstances of which account must be taken are quite as much political as economic; they have to do with power of which wealth is only one form. Second social causation largely ceases to apply, as soon as a problem becomes detailed and technical. The first of these objections I have set forth in my book ‘Power’, and I shall therefore say no more about it. The second more intimately concerns the history of philosophy.

Marx fitted his philosophy of history into a mould suggested by Hegelian dialectic, but in fact there was only one triad that concerned him; Feudalism represented by the land-owner; Capitalism represented by the industrial employer; and Socialism represented by the wage-earner. Hagel thought of nations as the vehicles of dialectic movement; Marx substituted classes. He disclaimed always all ethical or humanitarian reasons, for preferring Socialism or taking the side of wage-earner; he maintained , not that this side was ethically better, but that it was the side taken by the dialectic in its wholly deterministic movement. He might have said that he did not advocate Socialism, but prophesied it. This however would not have been wholly true. He undoubtedly believed every dialectical movement to be in some impersonal sense, a progress, and he certainly held that Socialism, once established, would minister to human happiness, more than either feudalism or capitalism, have done. These beliefs, though they must have controlled his life, remained largely in the background, so far as his writings are concerned.

Considered purely as a philosopher, Marx has grave shortcomings. He is too political, too much wrapped up in the problems of his time. His purview is confined to this planet, and within this planet to man. Since Copernicus; it has been evident, that man has not the cosmic importance, which he formerly arrogated to himself. No man who has failed to assimilate this fact, has a right to call his philosophy Scientific.

There goes with this limitation to terrestrial affairs, a readiness to believe in progress as a universal law. This readiness characterized the 19th century, and existed in Marx as much as in his contemporaries. It is only because of the belief in the inevitability of progress, that Marx thought it possible to dispense with ethical considerations. If Socialism was coming, it must be an improvement. He would have readily admitted that, it would not seem to be an improvement to land owners and capitalists, but that only showed that they were out of harmony with the dialectic movement of the time. Marx professed himself atheist, but retained a cosmic optimism, which only theism could justify.

Broadly speaking, all the elements in Marx’s philosophy which are derived from Hegel are unscientific in the sense that there is no reason whatever, to suppose them true.

Perhaps the philosophic dress that Marx gave to his socialism had really not much to do with the basis of his opinions. It is easy to restate the most important part of what he had to say, without any reference to dialectic.

He was impressed by the appalling cruelty of the industrial system, as it existed in England a hundred years ago which he came to know thoroughly through Engels and the reports of Royal Commission. He saw that the system was likely to develop from free competition towards monopoly, and that its injustice must produce a movement of revolt in the proletariat. He held that, in a thoroughly industrialized community, the only alternative to private capitalism is State ownership of land and Capital. None of these propositions are matters of philosophy and I shall not therefore consider their truth or falsehood. The point is that if true, they suffice to establish what is practically important in his system. The Hegelian trappings might therefore be dropped with advantage.

Modern Europe and America have been divided politically and ideologically into three camps. There are Liberals, who still , as far as may be, follow Locke or Bentham, but with varying degrees of adaptations to the needs of industrial organization. There are Marxists, who control the government in Russia, and are likely to become increasingly influential in various other countries. These two sections of opinion are philosophically not very widely separated, both are rationalistic, and both, in intention are scientific and empirical. But from the point of view of practical politics, the division is sharp. It appears already in the letter of James Mill saying ” their notions of property look ugly”.

It must, however, be admitted that there are certain respects in which, the rationalisation of Marx is subject to limitation. Although he holds that his interpretation of the trend of development is true, and will be borne out by events, he believes that the argument will only appeal (apart from rare exceptions) to those whose class interest is in agreement with it. He hopes little from persuing, everything from the class war.
Marx is thus committed in practice to power politics, and to the doctrine of a master class, though not of a master race. It is true that as a result of the Social revolution, the division of classes is expected ultimately to disappear, giving place to complete political and economic harmony. But this is a distant ideal like the Second Coming; in the meantime, there is war and dictatorship, and insistence upon ideological orthodoxy.

The third section of modern opinion, represented politically by Nazis and Fascists differs philosophically from the other two, far more profoundly than they differ from each other. It is anti-rational and anti-scientific. Its philosophical progenitors are Rousseau, Fichte, and Nietzsche. It emphasizes Will, specially will to power; this it believes to be mainly concentrated in certain races and individuals, who therefore have a right to rule.

Until Rousseau, the philosophical world had a certain unity. This has disappeared for the time being, but perhaps not for long. It can be recovered by a rationalistic re-conquest of men’s minds, but not in any other way, since claims to mastery can only breed strife.

EASTERN PHILOSOPHY includes the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Iranian philosophy, Korean philosophy.

Broadly speaking the term Eastern philosophy can also include Babylonian philosophy, Jewish philosophy, and Islamic philosophy, though these may also be considered Western philosophies.

SYNTHESES OF EASTERN AND WESTERN PHILOSOPHY-

Arthur Schopenhauer developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism with western thought. He anticipated that the Upanishads( Vedanta philosophy of India) would have a much greater influence in the west than they have had. However Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed translations of Upanishads, and many feel that(including Swami Vivekanand) he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophy which interested him.

Recent attempts to incorporate western philosophy into eastern thought include the Kyoto school of philosophers, who combined the phenomenology of Husserl with the insights of Zen Buddhism. Wastuji Tetsuro, a 20th century Japanese philosopher attempted to combine the works of Soren Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger with eastern philosophy. Some have claimed that there is also a definite eastern element within Heidegger’s philosophy. Heidegger did spend some time attempting to translate the Tao Te Ching into German, working with his Chinese student Paul Hsaio. It has also been claimed that much of Heidegger’s later philosophy, particularly the sacredness of being, bears a distinct similarity to Taoist ideas. There are clear parallels between Heidegger and the work of Kyoto school, and ultimately it may be read that Heidegger’s philosophy is an attempt to turn Eastwards in response to the crisis in Western civilization. However this is only an interpretation.

The 20th century Indian philosopher sri Aurobindo was influenced by “German Idealism”, and his integral Yoga is regarded as a synthesis of eastern and western thought. The German phenomenologist Jean Gebser’s writings on the history of Consciousness referred to a new planetary Consciousness that would bridge this gap. Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term “integral thought”.

Swiss psychologist Carl Jung was deeply influenced by the I Ching. The I Ching(book of changes) is an ancient Chinese text from Shang Dynasty( Bronze Age 1700BC-1050BC), and uses a system of yin and yang, which it places into hexagrams for the purpose of divination. Carl Jung’s idea of Synchronicity moves towards oriental view of Causality, as he states in the foreword to Richard Wilhem’s translation of the I Ching. He explains that this Chinese view of the world is based not on science as the world knows it, but on chance.

The Sanskrit term for “philosopher” is “darshanika”, one who is familiar with the systems of philosophy, or “darshanas”.

India has a rich and diverse philosophical tradition dating back to the composition of the “Upanishads”(1500 BC). According to Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan , the oldest of these constitute”… the earliest philosophical compositions of the world.”

The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalised chiefly between 1000 B.C. to the early centuries A.D. Subsequent centuries produced commentaries and reformulations continuing as late as 20th century by Sri Aurobindo and Prabhupada among others. Competition and integration between various schools was intense during the formative years, especially between 800 B.C. to 200 A.D. Some like the Jain, Buddhist, Shaiva, and Advaita schools survived, while others like Sankhya and Ajivika did not, either being assimilated or going extinct.

Indian thinkers of antiquity (very much like those of the Hellenistic schools), viewed philosophy as a practical necessity, that needed to be cultivated, in order to understand how life can best be led. It became a custom for Indian writers to explain at the beginning of the philosophical works, how it serves human ends(purusartha). Recent scholarship has shown that there was a great deal of intercourse between Greek and Indian philosophy during the era of Hellenistic expansion.

Indian philosophy is distinctive in its application of analytical rigour, to metaphysical problems, and goes into very precise details about the nature of reality, the structure and function of the human psyche, and how the relationship between the two has important implication for human salvation(Moksha). Rishis centred philosophy on an assumption that there is a unitary underlying order in the universe, which is all pervasive and omniscient. The efforts by various schools were concentrated on explaining this order and the metaphysical entity at its source(Brahman , world soul or eternal soul). The concept of natural law(Dharma) provided a basis for understanding questions of how life on earth should be lived.

MODERN PHILOSOPHY IN INDIA-

Modern Indian philosophy was developed during British occupation(1750-1947). The philosophers in this era gave contemporary meaning to traditional philosophy. Some of them were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya, Raja Rammohan Roy, Sri Aurobindo, Rahul Sankritayan, Debi Prasad Chattopadhyaya, M.N.Roy, Indra Sen, Haridas Chaudhuri, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Anand Coomaraswami, Ramanna Maharshi, and Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan.

Among contemporary Indian philosophers, Osho and Jiddu Krishnamurti, developed their own schools of thought. Pandurang Shastri Athavale, U.G.Krishnamurti, and Krishnananda are other prominent names in contemporary Indian philosophy.

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF INDIA-

The “Arthashastra’, attributed to the Mauryan Minister ‘Chanakya’, is one of the early Indian texts devoted to ‘political philosophy’. It is dated 4th century B.C. and discusses ideas of Statecraft and economic policy.

The Political philosophy most closely associated with India is one of Ahimsa(non-violence), and Satya-graha(fight for truth), popularized by Mahatma Gandhi during Indian struggle for Independence. It was influenced by Indian philosophy, particularly the ‘Vedanta’ philosophy; as well as secular writings of Leo Tolstoy, Henry David Thoreu, and John Ruskin. In turn it influenced the later movements of Independence for civil rights, especially those led by Martin Luther King Jr. and to a lesser extent Nelson Mandela. In India even after achieving independence, people did not feel free specially during the regime of Mrs. Indira Gandhi, and a leader and freedom fighter of Mahatma Gandhi’s era, Jaya Prakasha Narayana(1902-1979), gave a call for ‘Total Revolution’, some details of which need mention here.

TOTAL REVOLUTION IN INDIA–

On 1st April 1974, Indira Gandhi, the then prime minister of India, attacked Jayaprakash Narayana for demanding dissolution of elected government. A silent student procession of 10,000 was held in Patna(Bihar) on 8th April 1974. Narayana advocated a program of social transformation by participation of youth in social activities. He called it ‘Total Revolution'(Sampoorna Kranti). Protests and closure of colleges and universities were also happened during 15th July 1974. Narayana called for three day state wide strike starting from 3rd October and addressed a massive public gathering on 6th October 1974.

On 18th November 1974, at a massive rally at Patna, Narayana spoke to outcast congress government of Indira Gandhi. Indira Gandhi dragged this conflict to election arena, and told to wait until next election. Narayana realized the importance of fighting within democratic system, rather than party less democracy, so he contacted opposition parties, which finally resulted in formation of ‘Janata Party’. This movement of JP(Jayaprakasha Narayana was fondly called by this nickname), turned into ‘Satyagraha’ and volunteers kept protesting at Bihar legislative Assembly, inviting arrests starting from 4th December 1974.

JP kept travelling all across India strengthening and uniting opposition parties to defeat congress. During this time Allahabad High court declared Indira Gandhi’s election to the Parliament in 1971, void on grounds of electoral malpractice(corrupt means). The court thus ordered her to be removed from her parliamentary seat, and banned her from contesting in elections for six years. It effectively removed her from Prime minister’s office. She rejected the call for resignation, and moved to Supreme court. She recommended president of India V.V.Giri to appoint A.N.Roy as Chief Justice of India to get favor in her case. JP opposed such moves of Indira Gandhi in his letters to her. But she was adamant like a dictator, and imposed the ‘Emergency’ on the nation to safeguard her position, on 26th June 1975. JP, opposition leaders, and dissenting members of her own congress party were arrested on that day. There was complete censorship on media. Nobody knew what was going on, not even Indira Gandhi knew the facts of excesses on ordinary citizens. Her son Sanjay Gandhi was doing horrors on public. Indira Gandhi was getting the wrong feed back about emergency and its effects, from her sycophants, and concluded in 1977 that things have changed and the tide in the country was in her favor.

So, Indira Gandhi revoked the emergency on 21 March 1977, and announced elections. It was under JP’s guidance that the ‘Janata Party’ fought those elections and defeated Indira Gandhi and her congress party very convincingly, and with a clear majority JP’s Janata Party was voted to power.

JP’s ‘Total Revolution’ involved many leaders of that time in India like, Morarji Desai, Jagjivan ram, George Fernandez, Charan Singh, H.D.Devegowda, I.k.Gujral, A.B.Vajpayee, L.K.Advani, Karpuri Thakur, Sharad Yadav, who worked together in a nonviolent movement based on political philosophy of India and succeeded in ousting Indira Gandhi’s congress, which was insensitive to the grievances of common men.

INFLUENCE OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY-

In appreciation of complexity of the Indian philosophy, T.S.Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India “make most of the European philosophers look like school boys”. Arthur Schopenhauer(1788-1860) used Indian philosophy to improve upon ‘Kantian’ thought. In preface to his book ‘The world as will and Ideas’, Schopenhauer writes that ‘one who has also received and assimilated the sacred primitive Indian wisdom, then he is the best of all prepared to hear what I have to say to him’. The 19th century American philosophical movement ‘Transcendentalism’ was also influenced by Indian thought.

Max Muller in his lectures noted the striking similarity between Vedanta and the system of Jewish-Dutch philosopher Spinoza(1632-1677), saying the ‘Brahman’ as conceived in the Upanishads and defined by Sankara, is clearly the same as Spinoza’s ‘Substance’. Helena Blavatsky, a founder of the Theosophical Society also compared Spinoza’s religious thought to Vedanta, writing in an unfinished essay” As to Spinoza’s Deity- natura naturans- conceived in his attributes simply and alone; and the same Deity as natura naturata or as conceived in the endless series of modifications or correlations, the direct out flowing results from the properties of these attributes, it is the Vedanta Deity, pure and simple.”

MOHAMMEDAN PHILOSOPHY-
(As described by Bertrand Russell, in his book “A History Of Western Philosophy”)

The distinctive culture of the Muslim World, though it began in Syria, soon came to flourish most in the Eastern and Western extremities, Persia and Spain. The Syrians, at the time of the conquest, were admirers of Aristotle, whom Nestorians preferred to Plato, the philosopher favoured by Catholics. The Arabs first acquired their knowledge of Greek philosophy from the Syrians, and thus from the beginning, they thought Aristotle more important than Plato. Nevertheless their Aristotle wore a Neo-Platonic dress. Alkindi (d.ca.873) the first to write philosophy in Arabic, and the only philosopher of note who was himself an Arab, translated parts of ‘Enneads’ of Plotinus, and published his translation under the title ‘The Theology of Aristotle’. This introduced great confusion into Arabic ideas of Aristotle, from which it took centuries to recover.

Meanwhile in Persia, Muslims came in contact with India. It was from Sanskrit writings, that they acquired, during the 8th century, their first knowledge of astronomy. About 830 Mohammed bin Musa al khwarazmi a translator of mathematical and astronomical books from Sanskrit, published a book, which was translated into Latin in the 20th century, under the title’ Algoritmi de numero Indorum’ . It was from this book that the west first learnt of what we call ‘Arabic’ numerals, which ought to be called ‘Indian’. The same author wrote a book on Algebra which was used in the west as a text book until the 16th century.

Persian civilization, remained both intellectually and artistically admirable, though it was seriously damaged by the invasion of the Mongols, in the 13th century. ‘Omar Khayyam’, the only man known to me, who was both poet and mathematician, reformed the calendar in 1079. The Persians were great poets. Firdausi(c.a.941), author of ‘Shahnama’, is said by those who have read him to be comparable to Homer. They were also remarkable as mystics, which other Muslims were not. The Sufi sect which still exists allowed itself great latitude, in the mystical and allegorical interpretations, of orthodox dogma; it was more or less neo-Platonic.

Two Mohammeden philosophers, one from Persia and one from Spain, demand special notice; they are Avicenna and Averroes. Of these the former is the more famous among Muslims, the latter among Christians.

Avicenna(Ibn Sina)(980-1037) spent his life in the sort of places, one used to think only exist in poetry. He was born in the province of Bokhara. For a while he taught medicine and philosophy at Isfahan; then he settled in Tehran. He was not a saintly character, in fact he had a passion for wine and women; Sometimes he was in hiding, sometimes in prison. He was the author of an Encyclopedia, almost unknown to the east, because of the hostility of theologians, but influential in the West, through latin translation.

His philosophy is nearer to Aristotle and less neo-Platonic, than that of his Muslim predecessors. Like the Christian scholastics later, he is occupied with the problem of universals. Plato said, they were anterior to things. Aristotle has two views, one when he is thinking, the other when he is combating Plato. That makes him ideal material for the commentator. Avicenna invented a formula ‘Thought brings about the generality in forms’. From this it might be supposed that he didn’t believe in Universals apart from the thought. But it was not so, as we notice in his further writings. He wrote Genera- that is Universals- are at once before things, in things, after things. He explains this as follows. They are before things in God’s understanding. (God decides for instance to create cats. This requires that he should have the idea “cat”, which is thus in this respect, anterior to particular cats.) Genera are in things in natural objects.(When cats have been created, felinity is in each of them.) Genera are after things in our thought. (When we have seen many cats we notice their likeness to each other and arrive at the general idea “cat”.) This view is obviously intended to reconcile different theories.

Averroes(Ibn Rushd) (1126-1198) was born at Cordova(Spain), where his father and grand father had been cadis; he himself was a cadi. He was accused of cultivating the philosophy of ancients at the expense of true faith. Al-Mansur (the ruler of that period) published an edit to the effect, that God had decreed hell-fire for those who thought that truth could be found by the unaided reason. All the books that could be found on logic and metaphysics were given to the flames.

Shortly after this time the Moorish territory in Spain was greatly diminished by Christian conquests. Muslim philosophy in Spain ended with Averroes; and in the rest of the Muslim world a rigid orthodoxy put an end to speculation.

Ueberweg, rather amusingly undertakes to defend Averroes against the charge of unorthodoxy- a matter one would say, for Muslims to decide. Ueberweg points out that, according to the mystics, every text of the Koran had 7 or 70 or 700 layers of interpretation, the literal meaning being only for the ignorant vulgar. I would seem to follow that a philosopher’s teaching could not possibly conflict with Koran; for among 700 interpretations there would surely be at least one that would fit what the philosopher had to say.

Averroes was concerned to improve the Arabic interpretation of Aristotle, which had been unduly influenced by Neo-Platonism. He gave to Aristotle the sort of reverence that is given to the founder of a religion- much more than was given by Avicenna. He holds that the existence of God can be proved by reason independently of revelation, a view also held by Thomas Aquinas. As regards immortality, he seems to have adhered closely to Aristotle, maintaining that the soul is not immortal, but intellect is. This however does not secure personal immortality, since intellect is one and the same when manifested in different persons. This view naturally was combated by Christian philosophers.

Averroes like most of the later Muslim philosophers, though a believer, was not rigidly orthodox. There was a sect of completely orthodox theologians, who objected to all philosophies as deleterious to the faith. One of these, named Algazel, wrote a book called “Destruction of the Philosophers”, pointing out that since all necessary truth is in the Koran, there is no need of speculation, independent of revelation. Averroes replied by a book called “Destruction of the Destruction”. The religious dogmas that Algazel specially upheld against the philosophers were the creation of the world out of nothing, the reality of the divine attributes, and the resurrection of the body. Averroes regards religion as containing philosophic truth in allegorical form. This applies in particular to creation, which he in his philosophic capacity, interprets in an Aristotelian fashion.

Averroes is more important in Christian than in Muslim philosophy. In the latter he was a dead end; in the former a beginning. He was translated into Latin in the 13th century by Michael Scott; as his works belong to the latter half of the 12th century, this is surprising. His influence in Europe was very great, not only in the scholastic, but also on a large body of unprofessional free thinkers, who denied immortality and were called Averroists. Among professional philosophers, his admirers were at first especially among the Franciscans, and at the university of Paris.

Arabic philosophy is not important as original thought. Men like Avicenna and Averroes are essentially commentators. Speaking generally, the views of the more scientific philosophy come from Aristotle and the Neo-Platonists in logic and metaphysics, from Galen in medicine, from Greek and Indian sources in mathematics and astronomy, and among mystics religious philosophy has also an admixture of old Persian beliefs. Writers in Arabic showed some originality in mathematics and in chemistry- in the latter case as an incidental result of alchemical researchers. Muslim civilization in its great days was admirable in the arts, and in many technical ways, but it showed no capacity for independent speculation in theoretical matters. Its importance which must not be underrated, is as a transmitter. Between ancient and modern European civilization, the dark ages intervened. The Muslims and Byzantines, while lacking the intellectual energy required for innovation, preserved the apparatus of civilization- educational books and learned leisure. Both stimulated the west when it emerged from barbarism- the Muslims chiefly in the 13th century, the Byzantines chiefly in 15th century. In each case the stimulus produced new thought better than any produced by the transmitters- in the one case Scholasticism, in the other the Renaissance( which however had other causes also).

Between the Spanish Moors and the Christians, the Jews formed a useful link. There were many Jews in Spain, who remained when the country was reconquered by the Christians. Since they knew Arabic and perforce acquired the language of the Christians, they were able to supply the translations. Another means of transfusion arose through Muslim persecution of Aristotelians in the 13th century, which led Moorish philosophers to take refuge with Jews, especially in Provence.

The Spanish Jews produced one philosopher of importance, Maimonides. He was born in Cordova in 1135, but went to Cairo at the age of 30, and stayed there for the rest of his life. He wrote in Arabic, but was immediately translated into Hebrew. A few decades after his death, he was translated into Latin, probably at the request of Emperor Fredrick II. He wrote a book called ‘Guide to Wanderers’, addressed to philosophers who have lost their faith. Its purpose is to reconcile Aristotle with Jewish theology. Aristotle is the authority on the sublunary world, revelation on the heavenly. But philosophy and revelation come together in the knowledge of God. The pursuit of truth is a religious duty. Astrology is rejected. The Pentateuch is not always to be taken literally; when the literal sense conflicts with reason, we must seek an allegorical interpretation. As against Aristotle he maintains that God created not only form, but matter out of nothing. He gives a summary of the ‘Timaeus'(which he knew in Arabic), preferring it on some points to Aristotle. The essence of God is unknowable, being above all predicated perfections. The Jews considered him heretical and went so far as to invoke the Christian ecclesiastical authorities against him. Some think that he influenced Spinoza, but this is very questionable.

SIKH PHILOSOPHY– (15th Century)

The philosophy of Sikhism is covered in great detail in the ‘Guru Granth Sahib’, the Sikh holy text. Detailed guidance is given to followers on how to conduct their lives, so that peace and salvation can be obtained in this life, rather than the afterlife. The holy text outlines the positive actions that one must take to make progress in the evolution of the person. One must remember the creator at all times-‘ it reminds the follower that the Soul is on loan from God who is ever merciful’, and that the follower must dedicate his/her life to all good causes- to help make this life more worthwhile.

The Sikhs must believe in the following values-

1) Equality- All humans are equal before God. No discrimination is allowed on the basis of caste, race, gender, creed, origin, color, education, status, wealth etc. The principles of universal equality and brotherhood are important pillars of Sikhism.

2) Personal Right- Every person has a right to life, but this right is restricted and has certain duties attached-simple living is essential. A Sikh is expected to rise early in the morning, meditate and pray, consume simple food, perform an honest day’s work, carry out duties for his or her family, enjoy life and always be positive, be charitable and support the needy.

3) Actions Count- Salvation is obtained by one’s actions- good deeds, remembrance of God- Naam simran, and Kirtan,

4) Living A Family Life- Sikhism encourages to live as a family unit, to provide and nurture children for the perpetual benefit of creation (as opposed to ‘sanyasa’ or living as a ‘monk’ which was and remains, a common spiritual practice in India.)

5) Sharing- It is encouraged to share and give to charity, 10% of one’s net earnings.

6) Accept God’s Will- Develop your personality so that you recognize happy events and tragic events as one and same, the will of God causes them.

7) The Four Fruits Of Life- Truth, Contentment, Contemplation, and Naam(in the name of God).

The Sikh gurus tell us that-

* Kill the Five Thieves- Our mind and spirit are constantly attacked by the five evils- Kaam(lust), Krodh(rage), Lobh(greed), Moh(attachment),and Ahankar(ego). A Sikh needs to constantly attack and overcome these five vices; be always vigilant and on guard to tackle these five thieves all the time.

* Positive human qualities – Sikh gurus taught the Sikhs to develop and harness positive human qualities, that lead the Soul closer to God and away from evil. These are Sat(truth), Daya(compassion), Santokh(contentment), Nimrata(humility), and pyar(love).

ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY OF WEST-
SOCRATES, PLATO, AND ARISTOTLE —-

Greeks invented Western Philosophy.
Western philosophy begins with Thales, who fortunately can be dated by the fact that he predicted an eclipse, which according to the Astronomers, occurred in the year 585 B.C. Western philosophy therefore born at the beginning of the 6th century B.C. So if we calculate it from now, then it is six hundred years before Christ and two thousand years after Christ, the total of these two is two thousand six hundred years, which is the age of western philosophy.

Socrates’ importance in the development of western philosophy is such that, all the philosophers before him are lumped together by historians under the title ‘Pre-Socrates’. Since this blog is not about the history of philosophy, but about the philosophy which influenced the world, so we will not go into the details of Pre-Socrates era.

The idealist philosopher ‘Plato’ has the credit for writings about the life and works of Socrates.
In classical Greece, great attention was paid to the Oracles, uttered in the name of the God Apollo, by the entranced Priestesses in the shrine of Delphi. When asked if there was anyone wiser than Socrates, a priestess replied that there was no one. Socrates professed to be puzzled by this Oracle, and questioned one after another politicians, poets, and experts claiming to possess wisdom of various kinds. None of them were able to defend their reputation against his cross questioning, and Socrates concluded that the Oracle was correct , in that he alone realized that his own wisdom was worth nothing.

Socrates did not claim to possess himself the degree of wisdom which would keep him from wrongdoing. Instead, he said that he relied on an inner ‘divine voice’, which would interfere if ever he was on the point of taking a wrong step.

A true philosopher Socrates maintained, will have no fear of death. ‘Socrates was punished for corrupting the youth of Athens(Greece), in 5th century B.C., a series of the capital charges were impiety, the introduction of strange Gods etc.’ He was given death penalty by drinking a cup of poison, hemlock, and during this moment, after his meeting with his weeping wife, with their youngest child in her arms, he continued,” true philosophers care little for bodily pleasures, such as food, drink, and sex, and they find the body as a hindrance, rather than a help, in the pursuit of scientific knowledge.” Thought is best when the mind is gathered into itself and none of these things trouble it-neither sounds nor sights or pain, nor again any pleasure- when it takes leave of the body, and has as little as possible to do with it. So philosophers in their pursuit of truth, continually try to keep their souls detached from their bodies. But death is the full separation of soul from body; hence a true philosopher has, all lifelong, been in effect seeking and craving after death.

The narrative framework provided by Socrates’ imprisonment and death is commonly accepted by scholars as authentic; and certainly it is Plato’s account of these last hours which has held the imagination of writers and artists through the centuries.

Socrates begins to marvel at the new and immense horizons, that open up to the mind when it “understands”. For Plato the world of “ideas” is an unexplored terrain, that holds the key to everything.

Why is it hard for us to imagine the intensity of this wonder? Because the world of ideas and concepts has become too familiar to us. Knowledge and the sciences have developed to the point that we are now blasé about all things intellectual, as if we could simply be indifferent to all of humanity’s achievements.

Most of us have a utilitarian view of ideas.(They help us to understand things, to control things, to make plans, to devise techniques and technical instruments etc.) But Plato has a vision of ideas that is enthusiastic in the literal sense of the word; they are possessed by a God. If he does not quite worship them, he still believes they possess a divine power, and he never fails to admire them in their unity and harmony.

It is going to take a strenuous effort to leave behind our familiar intellectual terrain. But if we do, we may find that philosophy is for the mind, what a trip to exotic places is for the body. coming home from a holiday, have not we gained something; relaxation, a tan, distraction? with philosophy, the benefit is quite simply, understanding.

About Plato, it’s typical that he never speaks in his own voice, but appears in dialogues in which Socrates is the protagonist. Even his most difficult and complex dialogues like ‘The Republic'(not to speak of ‘The Sophist’ or Parmenides)do not -strictly speaking- present his own doctrines. Platonism certainly existed as a doctrine, because the Academy, the school founded by Plato, survived until the very end of the ancient world and enjoyed an extraordinary influence, as it still does today. But Plato’s method is the dialogue. And the author is hidden behind his characters, often disguised by his ironic tone.

Aristotle, Plato’s student, also had an exceptional destiny(since he was the tutor of the future Alexander the Great and was for many centuries, considered the Philosopher).

He was a brilliant and subtle teacher. A comment has been ascribed to him;’ Plato was my friend, but my greatest friend was the truth.’

Aristotle was a logician, a physicist, a biologist, and a political theorist. He reconstructed both, Ethics and ‘First Philosophy'(which was not yet called metaphysics). No subject of inquiry was foreign to him. It is not surprising that he has had such an impact on posterity.

MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY (OR MIDDLE AGES OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY)-

CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY,JEWS,ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY, AND ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY AFTER ARISTOTLE—(out of these we have already covered Islamic philosophy under the title ‘Muhammedan’ philosophy, considering it a philosophy of east)

Since the death of Aristotle, there have been many interruptions, countless things forgotten, and innumerable political and human dramas; Greece lost its political independence, the Roman empire itself collapsed, the library of Alexandria was destroyed by fire, Europe fell before the great invasions, and much else.

The advent of Christianity as the dominant, and then the exclusive religious doctrine, must have shattered the bonds, connecting cultivated Romans with their extraordinary Greek philosophical sources.

The church fathers attempted, in weaving these threads anew, to turn them to their own advantage. But it was much later and then thanks only to Arab sources, that Aristotle was translated into Latin. The roundabout routes that history has imposed. There have been so many obstacles between us and the knowledge of Greek philosophy.

Significant philosophical schools appeared and evolved in Greece and in the Roman world; stoicism, epicureanism, and Neo-Platonism. The lengthy period known as the Medieval ages or middle ages, had their own moments of intense intellectual activity. From Damascus to Andalusia, from Toledo to Paris, from Oxford to Louvain, there were translations of ancient philosophy and commentaries on them; each of the three monotheistic religions(Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), displayed extraordinary theological finesse; Algebra was invented and disseminated in the Arab world; the Christian west gradually revived the inspiration of the ancients, while making progress, in experimental knowledge of the natural world.

Saint Augustine (354-430) and Saint Thomas Aquinas(1225-1274) were remarkable thinkers, but they were also men of deep faith, and their work is so permeated by knowledge of the holy scriptures, and debates within the church, that direct access to their texts is almost impossible.

Emperor Augustus defeated Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B.C. In the centuries between the death of Alexander and the death of Cleopatra, the domains of Alexander’s other generals broke up into smaller kingdoms which one by one came under the sway of Rome, and eventually became provinces of its empires. These centuries in which Greek civilization flourished throughout all the lands and the Eastern Mediterranean, are known as the Hellenistic age.

In this period Greek colonists came into contact with widely different systems of thought. In Bactria at the far eastern end of the former empire, Greek philosophy encountered the religion of Buddha, energetically propagated by the Indian king, Asoka; two surviving dialogues tell the story of the conversion to Buddhism, of the Greek king, Menander. In Palestine Greeks met the Jews, who since their return in 538 B.C. from their Babylonian exile, had formed a strictly monotheistic community centred on the Temple worship in Jerusalem.

The best known philosophers in Athens in the generation after Alexander’s death were members neither of the Academy nor of the Lyceum( who in Athens carried on the work of their founders Plato and Aristotle), but founders of new rival institutions; Epicurus, who established a school known as ‘The Garden’, and Zeno whose followers were called ‘Stoics’, because he taught in the ‘Stoa’ or painted portico. The multiplication of schools in Athens reflected an increasing interest in philosophy as an essential part of the education of the upper classes.

JESUS OF NAZARETH—

It was Augustus’ reign as Emperor of Rome (Until AD 14), that Jesus was born, and crucified by Tiberius, the successor to Augustus, in Ad 30. This Jewish teacher(Jesus was a Jew, and was circumcised as per Jewish traditions. Jews like Muslims are circumcised at the time of their birth) living in a remote province of the empire, and unconcerned with the issues which had occupied Plato and Aristotle, was to have an effect on the history of philosophy, no less decisive than theirs. But the impact of his teachings was delayed and indirect.

It was 65 AD (that is much later than the crucifixion of Jesus), that Christian Gospels began to be written.

Jesus’ own moral doctrine, as reported in the Gospels, was not without precedent. In the sermon on the Mount, he taught that we should not render evil for evil; but that had been the teaching of Socrates in the ‘Republic’. He urged his hearers to love their neighbours as themselves; but he was quoting from the Hebrew Bible of Jews, written many centuries earlier. He insisted that we must refrain from not just wrongdoing, but from the thoughts and desires which lead to wrongdoing; in this he was in accord with Aristotle’s teaching that virtue concerns passion as well as action, and that truly virtuous passion, is not just continent but temperate. He taught his disciples to despise the pleasures and honours of the world; but so in their different ways did the Epicureans and Stoics.

All the Gospels represent Jesus as the son of God. Jewish philosopher Philo, a contemporary of Jesus had written treatises reconciling Platonism with the Hebrew Bible of Jews. But the gospel of St. John calls Jesus the word of God, one with God before the world began, is the very same as the human being Jesus, who had lived and died in Galilee and Judea. Before that there was no precedent for the idea that the God of monotheistic Judaism, a transcendent God as far from anthropomorphism, as the God of Xenophanes, Parmenides, and Plato, could take flesh and live among men. The Christian doctrine of the incarnation, provided fertile ground for the development of new subtle philosophical concepts, which affected people’s thinking, not only about divinity, but about human nature itself.

Christianity at first was preached by Jews to Jews, as a reformed Judaism. St. James and to a lesser extent St. Peter wished it to remain no more than this, and they might have prevailed, but for St. Paul, who was determined to admit gentiles, without demanding circumcision or submission to the Mosaic law. The communities of Christians that St. Paul established in many places, were, no doubt composed partly of converts from among the Jews, partly of gentiles seeking a new religion. The certainties of Judaism made it attractive in that age of dissolving faiths, but circumcision was an obstacle to the conversion of men. The ritual laws in regard to food were also inconvenient. These two obstacles even if there had been no others, would have made it almost impossible for the Hebrew religion to become universal. Christianity, owing to St. Paul retained what was attractive in the doctrines of the Jews, without the features that gentiles found hardest to assimilate (mainly circumcision and Mosaic laws).

The attitude of Christians to contemporary Jews, early became hostile. The received view was that God had spoken to the Patriarchs and Prophets, who were holy men and foretold the coming of Christ; but when Christ came, the Jews failed to recognize Him, and were thenceforth, to be accounted wicked. Moreover Christ had abrogated the Mosaic law, substituting the two commandments to love God and our neighbour; this also the Jews perversely failed to recognize. As soon as, the state became Christian, anti-Semitism, in its medieval form, began, nominally as a manifestation of Christian zeal. How far the economic motives by which it was inflamed in the later times, operated in the Christian empire, it seems impossible to ascertain.

NEO-PLATONISM—

The last great Greek pagan philosopher was Plotinus(Ad 205-270). Plotinus was an admirer of Plato but gave his philosophy such a novel cast, that he is known not as a Platonist, but as the founder of Neo-Platonism.

The dominant place in Plotinus’ system is occupied by ‘the One’. ‘One’ in ancient philosophy, is not to be thought of as the first of natural numbers in the series 1,2,3,4…., rather it is an adjective meaning ‘united’ or ‘all in One piece’. Plotinus derived this through Plato, from Parmenides, where Oneness is a key property of being. In a way, which remains mysterious, the One is identical with the Platonic idea of the Good. As the One, it is the basis of all reality; as the Good it is the standard of all value; but it is itself beyond being and beyond goodness.

Below this supreme and ineffable summit, the next level of reality is occupied by Mind or Intellect(nous). This is the product of One’s reflection on itself. It is the locus of the Platonic ideas, which both depend on it for their existence and form an essential part of its own structure. In contemplating ideas, Mind knows itself, not by a discursive process, but in a timeless intuition.

The next place below Mind is occupied by Soul. Soul, unlike Mind, operates in time; Indeed it is the creator of time and space. Soul looks in two directions; it looks upward to Mind, and it looks downward to nature, where it sees its own reflection. Nature in turn creates the physical world, full of wonder and beauty, even though its substance is such as dreams are made of. At the lowest level of all is bare matter, the outermost limit of reality.

These levels of reality are not independent of each other. Each level is dependent, causally but not temporally, on the level above it. Everything has its place in a single downward progress of successive emanation from the One. The system is impressive ; but however we may wonder, did Plotinus convince his hearers of the truth of these mysterious, if exalted, doctrines?

To see how he attempted to do so, we must retrace our steps and follow the upward path, from base matter to the supreme One. Plotinus takes as his starting point Platonic and Aristotelian arguments. The ultimate substratum of change, Aristotle had argued, must be something which, of itself, possesses none of the properties of the changeable bodies we see and handle. But a matter which possesses no material properties, Plotinus argues, is inconceivable.

We must dispense therefore with Aristotelian matter; We are left with Aristotelian forms. The most important of these was the Soul, which was the form of the human being; and it is natural for us to think, that there are as many Souls, as there are individual people. But here Plotinus appeals to another Aristotelian thesis; the principle that forms are individuated by matter. If we have given up matter there is nothing to distinguish matter; and so we conclude that there is only one Soul.

To prove that the soul exists before and after being linked to any particular body, and is independent of body, Plotinus uses very much the same arguments as Plato used in ‘Phaedrus’. He neatly reverses the argument of those who claim that soul is dependent on body, because it is nothing more than an attune-ment of the body’s Sinews. When a musician plucks the strings of a lyre, he says, it is the strings, not the melody, that he acts upon; but the strings would not be plucked unless the melody called for it.

But now the question arises; how can a One Soul, transcendent and incorporeal, be in any way present to individual, corruptible, and composite bodies? To solve the problem, Plotinus says we have to reverse the question, and ask not how Soul can be in body but how body can be in Soul? The answer is that body is in Soul, by depending upon it for its organization and continued existence.

Soul, then governs and orders the world of bodies. It does so wisely and well. But the wisdom which it exercises in the governance of the world is not native to it; it must come from outside. It can’t come from the material world, since that is what it shapes; it must come from something which is by nature linked to the ideas which are the models or patterns for intelligent activity. This can only be the World-Mind, which both constitute and constituted by the Ideas, which are the objects of its thought.

In all thinking Plotinus continues, there must be a distinction between the thinker and what he is thinking; Even when a thinker is thinking of himself, there remains the duality of subject and object. Moreover the ideas which are the objects of mind are many in number. In more than one way then mind contains multiplicity and is therefore composite. Like many other ancient philosophers, Plotinus accepted that whatever was composite must depend on something more simple. And thus we reach, at the end of our journey upward from formless matter, to the One and Only One.

Plotinus’ ideas were carried through Neo-Platonic school in Athens. Proclus(410-485) was famous in his time as the author of eighteen separate refutations of the Christian doctrine of creation. This Neo-Platonic school of Athens was the last flowering of pagan Greek philosophy.

MODERN PHILOSOPHY(DECLINE OF CHURCH AND RISE OF SCIENCE)-

RENAISSANCE-

The modern as opposed to the medieval outlook began in Italy with the movement called ‘Renaissance’. There is no hard and fast line dividing the middle ages(medieval ages), from the Renaissance, still less a date which can be assigned, when the one ended and the other began. The developments which were characteristic of the Renaissance, took place at different speeds in different spheres, and at different times in different regions. The impact of these changes on philosophy was fragmented and scattered, so that its history follows no clear line. From many sources, one would gain the impression that after Ockham(14th century) western philosophy hibernated during the 15th and 16th centuries, not to emerge until the time of Descartes, when it rose again in totally altered form.

Paris and Oxford, in their great days, had both been international universities. The universal use of Latin made academic communication and exchange easy. By the end of 14th century this was changing. In all the countries of Europe, vernacular literature began to thrive, and though Latin remained the language of academia, it was no longer the vehicle for the most vigorous expression of thought. In England for instance, English was the chosen medium of the best minds. The hundred years war between England and France, isolated Oxford from Paris, and each university went its separate way, impoverished.

Machiavelli(15th century), wrote ‘The Prince’. the best known work of Renaissance Political Philosophy.

‘Utopia’, written in Latin, by Thomas More, was a lively description of a fictional Commonwealth, addressed to an audience, which was agog for news of overseas discoveries.
Utopia( nowhereland ) is an island of 54 cities of 6000 households apiece, each with its own agricultural hinterland. There is no private property and nothing is ever locked up. Every one must work, and working day is 6 hours. Only few are exempted from manual work such as scholars, priests, or members of elected magistracies which rule the community.

Like Plato’s ‘Republic’, More’s ‘Utopia’ leaves his readers to guess how far the arrangements he describes are serious political proposals, and how far they merely present a mocking mirror, to the distortion of real life societies.

REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFORMATION-

According to Bertrand Russell Reformation and counter-reformation alike, represent the less civilised nations against the intellectual domination of Italy. In the case of Reformation the revolt was both political and theological; the authority of Pope was rejected. In case of counter-reformation, there was only revolt against intellectual and moral freedom of Renaissance, Italy; the power of pope was not diminished, at the same time, it was made clear that his authority was incompatible with the easy going laxity of the Bourgeois and Medici. Roughly speaking the reformation was German, the counter-reformation Spanish. The wars of religion were at the same time, wars between Spain and its enemies, coinciding in date with the period when Spanish power was at its height.

The attitude of public opinion in northern nations towards Renaissance Italy is illustrated in the English saying of that time,

An Englishman Italianate
is a devil Incarnate

The three great men of the reformation and counter-reformation are Luther, Calvin, and Loyola. Their theology was such as to diminish the power of the Church.

Almost from the very beginning, there was a division among Protestants, as to the power of the state in religious matters. Luther was willing, wherever the Prince was protestant, to recognise him as head of the Church in his home country.

But, those protestants, who took seriously the individualistic aspects of the reformation, were as unwilling to submit to the king, as to the Pope. Gradually weariness resulting from the wars of religion led to the growth of belief in religious tolerance, which was one of the sources of the movement which developed into the 18th and 19th century liberalism.

Protestant success, at first amazingly rapid, was checked mainly, as a resultant of Loyola’s creation of the Jesuit order. Jesuit’s theology was the opposite of that of protestants; they rejected those elements of St. Augustine’s teaching which the protestants emphasized. They believed in ‘Free Will’ and opposed Predestination; salvation was not by faith alone, but both by faith and works. The Jesuits acquired prestige by their missionary Zeal, especially in the far-east. They became popular as confessors because(if Pascal is to be believed) they were more lenient, except towards heresy, than other ecclesiastics. They concentrated on education, and thus acquired a firm hold on the minds of the young. Whenever theology did not interfere, they gave the best obtainable education; they taught Descartes more mathematics than he would have learnt elsewhere; they urged catholic princes to practice relentless persecution, and, following in the wake of conquering Spanish armies, re-established the terror of the Inquisition, even in Italy, which had had nearly a century of free thought.

The results of reformation and counter-reformation, in the intellectual sphere, were first wholly bad, but ultimately beneficial. The Thirty Year’s war persuaded everybody that neither Protestants nor Catholics could be completely victorious; the diversity of creeds in different countries, made it possible to escape persecution by living abroad. Disgust with theological warfare turned the attention of able men, increasingly to secular learning, especially mathematics and science. These are among the reasons for the fact that while the 16th century after the rise of Luther, is philosophically barren, the 17th century contains the greatest names, and makes the most notable advance, since ancient(Greek) times. This advance began in science.

THE RISE OF SCIENCE-

Almost everything that distinguishes the modern world from earlier centuries is attributable to science, which achieved its most spectacular triumphs in 17th century. The Italian Renaissance, though not medieval, is not modern; it is more akin to the best age of Greece. Plato and Aristotle, Aquinas and Ockham could not have made head or tail of Newton or Galileo.(this is the view of British English philosopher Bertrand Russell, although later on German Scientist Albert Einstein proved with his relativity and Quantum that actually Newton was not able to understand the head or tail of the universe. To know more in-depth details of how Einstein proved Newton’s theories of gravity as totally wrong, i’ll request the readers to go through my earlier blog’ politics, Scientific materialism vs Mindfulness and Science’.

The new concepts that science introduced profoundly influenced modern philosophy. Descartes who is considered the founder of modern philosophy, was himself the creator of 17th century science.

The 17th century was remarkable not only in astronomy and dynamics, but in many other ways connected with science.

Take the case of scientific instruments. The compound microscope was invented just before the 17th century, about 1590. The telescope was invented in 1608, by a Dutchman named Lippershey, though it was Galileo who first made serious use of it for scientific purposes. Galileo also invented the thermometer- his pupil Torricelli invented the barometer, Guericke invented the air pump. Clocks though not new, were greatly improved in the 17th century, largely by the work of Galileo. Owing to these inventions , scientific observation became immensely more exact and more extensive than it had been at any former time.

In mathematics differential and integral calculus were invented by German mathematician and philosopher Leibniz(1646-1716).

Newton’s law of gravitation , was very simple, and he considered matter as solid material, and time and space absolutes individuals. This was thought to be quite exact until 200 years after this thesis. In 19th century German scientist Einstein amended Newton’s theory, by proving that time and space are not absolutes but they vary with speed and mass, consequently proving Newton’s law of gravity also wrong. Einstein’s Quantum mechanics further rubbished Newton’s law of universe of solid material. In a way Einstein proved the existence of God scientifically.

Bertrand Russell was an atheist and his allergy to acceptance of the existence of god, which was proved by Kant philosophically and by Einstein scientifically, can be very well understood. Russell himself admitted while criticizing Karl Marx, that all philosophers are biased about themselves thinking that only they know the truth, hinting about a serious introspection of themselves.

Bertrand Russell deserves Credit and respect both, that at least he agreed to Einstein’s relativism and was ‘sufficiently satisfied’ of the view that time, motion are purely relative. This Russell said, combined with the amalgamation of space and time into space-time, has considerably altered our view of the universe from that which resulted from the work of Newton.

Galileo Galilei( 1564-1642) was indeed a distinguished philosopher of science, with a firmer grasp than anyone previously, of the importance of mathematics in physics. He was greatly influenced by Copernicus(1473-1543) who in a book, had proposed the hypothesis that the earth rotates around the sun, and that the sun not the earth, is the centre of the planetary system.

Using the newly discovered Telescope, Galileo was able to observe the mountains of the moon, and the spots on the sun; this showed that the heavenly bodies were made not out of Aristotle’s quintessence but of the same sort of material as our earth. His observations of the phases of Venus provided fresh evidence in favour of Copernicus’ heliocentric hypothesis. In brief period he was able to refute experimentally many of the aspects of Aristotle’s physics, which had been criticized.

Galileo’s work naturally made him unpopular with academics, who had a vested interest in Aristotelianism; but what got him into trouble with the Inquisition were his comments, on the relationship between the heliocentric hypothesis and Biblical texts describing the sun as moving through the sky. Galileo claimed that in these passages the sacred author was simply adopting a popular manner of speaking, which must give way to scientific certainty. Galileo argued with the Jesuit cardinal and recanted his theories, and the inquisitors sentenced him to indefinite imprisonment.

Galileo wrote ‘The Book Of Universe’ in the language of mathematics, and its letters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, to understand which, one has to learn the letters and language in which it is written.

Francis Bacon(1561-1626) was another distinguished philosopher of science, during the renaissance period. In 1605 he wrote the first of his major philosophical writings ‘The Advancement Of Learning’, an elaborate classification of all possible sciences. He was educated at Cambridge, Grey’s Inn. He followed a career at the Bar and in House of Commons.

DESCARTES, KANT, AND HEGEL –

With Descartes (1596-1650), known as the founder of modern philosophy, things are totally different. He is typically modern because he wanted to start again from scratch. He received an exemplary education in the classics from the Jesuits, as he relates in his famous ‘Discourse On Method'(written in French, which was in itself a revolutionary act in the period). But he found that the vast bulk of material he was taught(including philosophy), appeared to have shaky foundation.

Descartes was not satisfied with what was merely probable; he wanted to know the truth, the truth about his existence, the truth about the existence of God, the truth of the matter, and to know it clearly and distinctly. Only mathematics, because of the certainty and evidence of its reasoning, would do for him.

From this, only two possibilities were open to Descartes; either he could pursue mathematics alone, and abandon everything else, or he could take mathematics as his model and perfect a method in line with the ‘right guidance of reasoning’ in both, the sciences and the conduct of life.

If Descartes had not chosen this second path, he would still be known today as the inventor of analytic geometry and ‘Cartesian’ coordinates, rather than the founder of modern philosophy. He would be surprised to find that his real fame rests, on his philosophical work, and that the scientific research he valued most, has been relegated to the background.

A century later, moving to the east, in Prussia(Germany)(now Kaliningrad in Russia), we must pay tribute to another giant of modern philosophy, Immanuel Kant(1724-1804).

A man of great learning- simultaneously a mathematician, a physicist, and a geographer- Kant became an original philosopher, relatively late in life(his greatest work, the ‘Critique Of Pure Reason’ was published when he was over sixty). Short, physically frail, nothing of Descartes’ manly and military character, a bachelor, methodical to the point of obsession, Kant was every inch the eminent professor.

His great reputation comes from the fact that his critical enterprise was conducted with a logic, a rigour, and a precision that have never been matched. Applying the same critical method to practice as to theory, he re-established morality on rational foundation, and rounded off his grand structure of knowledge, by examining aesthetic judgement and the meaning, of harmonious order in the sphere of natural phenomena. After Kant, nobody would ever do philosophy in the same way.

Every great philosopher shakes up the intellectual land scape and forces his contemporaries to ask questions in a new way. This was also the case with Hegel(1770-1831), the other great German philosopher, who was 30 years old in 1800. He was formed by the 18th century, but in his audacity he was a philosopher of the future( his dialectic was to be a powerful influence on socialist and revolutionary thought).

Hegel’s originality stemmed from the fact that he didn’t allow his personal tastes to dominate, but recorded, what he called ‘the truth of the whole’. Reason must learn to be reconciled, with even the most contradictory of realities.

For Hegel these realities included logical conditions and physical structures, not to mention the totality of the psychological, moral, and political spheres. Perhaps there is something excessive about this vast systematic enterprise. Yet it still fascinates and inspires, even when its central notion of contradiction itself keeps being contradicted.

HEGEL’S DIALECTIC-

If two propositions are contradictory, Hegel will describe this as a conflict between them; One proposition will go out to do battle against another, and achieve defeat or victory against it. This is called ‘dialectic’, the process by which one proposition ( the thesis) fights with another (the antithesis), and both are finally conquered by a third (the synthesis).

The existence of spirit is said, by Hegel, to be a matter of logic. Just as he sees history as a manifestation of logic, so he tends to see logic in historical, indeed military terms.

The subject matter of logic is the absolute, the totality of reality familiar to us from earlier philosophers as ‘Being’.

Hegel often refers to the Absolute by the word ‘God’.

THE QUESTION OF GOD ?

Descartes’ ‘Meditations’ and Kant’s ‘Critique Of Pure Reason’,are the most important works of modern philosophy, dealing with the concept of God, which has played a most vital role in philosophy.

On the question of the existence of a single divine creator, there are as many arguments for as against. Reason wanting to prove (or to disprove), the meaning of the universe,is defeated, frustrated, by the oppositions that it can not, through its own efforts, overcome.

When you find yourself at an impasse, what do you do? You retreat and change strategy. And that is what Kant suggests.

” I have overcome knowledge to make room for faith”. When Kant refers to his own passing from the theoretical to the practical in these words, is he trying to say that we need to give up scientific knowledge for the sake of our conversion to religion?

Kant’s point, first of all, is that we can’t approach practical problems in the same way as theoretical ones. In the realm of the practical, it’s a question not just of knowing, but of desire and will. If a rational basis for practical life is both, desirable and possible, a supporting principle will have to be found. This principle is once again God, but a God whose existence can’t be proved and who can’t be represented; a moral God, a God we come to believe in as the result of a rational conviction, and as an ultimate guarantor of our actions.

RELIGION–

The religion Kant preaches is one within the limits of reason alone. It is a religion utterly removed from superstitious practices, or even adherence to Church. It is a religion purified into the shape of a feeling, a feeling of profound respect for that ‘moral law’, that Kant believed is inscribed within our hearts; ” The starry heavens above us and the moral law within us.” This is the famous conclusion of the “Critique of Practical Reason”.

Starting with the harmony of the senses, we must move upwards to a deeper and invisible harmony. Philosophy inherited this model from Plato, and keeps returning to it.

Given the rational nature of this moral religion, it is easy to understand how Kant’s disciples(especially in the 2nd half of the 19th century) could end up among the ranks of the positivists, the heirs of August Comte(1798-1857). Yet this should also be a bit surprising, because the positivist school held that the age of ‘theology had ended’. To be whole heartedly positivist, would not we need to eliminate even a moral God? Actually positivism is very aware of a fundamental problem here. Even if religion is false, even if it rests only on myths( which are utterly fantastic narratives), it has and will continue to have an irreplaceable social role, for it enables humans to live together on good terms. What other ways are there to fulfil this function, to provide the glue for social cohesion? Despite its faults and even its dangers(the potential for fanaticism), all religions bind together, while theoretical knowledge no matter how truthful, can offer nothing to our practical needs and desires. In the later part of his life, Comte thought he could resolve this problem by creating a new positivist religion, with its own temples, rituals and so on. It was a total failure. But he did identify a problem that must be faced by our advanced societies, transformed as they are by science and technology; how is it possible to find(or rediscover) a form of social cohesion, that can hold society together and assure its members a harmonious life?

No doubt, we will object that religion has been intolerant for too long and too often. Everyone believes, he/she can work out the truth on his/her own. Yet Jesus who preached love, said to Pontius Pilate “I am The Truth”. Pontius Pilate’s philosophy on the other hand, was sceptical; ‘What is truth?’ he asked. A free thinker will remark that such scepticism is much less dangerous than the attitude that proclaims itself to be truth. History testifies to this; the intolerance that threatens all religious thinking is manifested everywhere, in wars of religion. persecutions, the Inquisition, and today the spread of fundamentalism.

So, should philosophy be for or against religion? Philosophy can remain agnostic, but it must do its bit, and contribute to the understanding of a phenomenon, central to human history. It can help us to respect what is worth respecting, both, in the religious attitude and in its rituals of worship, celebration, prayer, and love. For faith, has inspired many sacrifices and acts of devotion. And countless human beings find consolation in religious observance, especially in the face of death.

Is the conflict between philosophy and religion then, really inescapable? Yes, if you believe that Lucretius in the first century B.C. was right to warn his contemporaries against religion. No, if you listen to the message of Pope John Paul II who, in his encyclical ‘Faith and Reason’, said that philosophy “is like a mirror where human culture is reflected” and is “often the only common ground for understanding and dialogue with those who are outside our faith.”

How can we not be grateful for this recognition of philosophy’s role? How can we not encourage this dialogue, since philosophy itself has been in it from the ancient Platonic days.

HAPPINESS—

Philosophy is a serious affair, too serious we might say. Religion, duty, moral law- But doesn’t a balanced life also include rest and relaxation ? Don’t we need play to counter balance the serious activity ? And what kind of wisdom are we talking about, if it leaves about happiness?

Early Greek philosophers questioned; should not the aim of the good and just life, the philosophical life, be the achievement of a certain happiness? Is not this legitimate?

Now, how to define happiness? Health, money, sexual or romantic satisfaction, academic or athletic success, will be mentioned often. Admittedly, all these factors contribute to happiness in a big way. Yet do they constitute happiness itself?

It would be easy to list numerous examples of depression among beautiful, intelligent, rich, young people who seem to have all they could want. What was it that they lacked? At the other extreme there is ‘Diogenes’, living naked in his barrel and proclaiming himself happy. His response to the emperor Alexander, who had come to consult him;’ you are blocking my sunlight.’ Of the two men who is happier, Diogenes, the down-n-out, content with everything, or the despot, thirsty of ever more conquests, who would die on the verge of insanity, in the depths of Asia?

It is undeniable that a psychological and subjective component features in happiness’s complex recipe. When Aristotle considered happiness to be the soul’s equilibrium, enjoyed by the virtuous man, who has succeeded in living a life of study and leisure, he had a point. We may complain that this philosophical ideal is too measured and rational. But Aristotle was aware of this objection. First of all he acknowledged the relativity and fragility of human happiness in the face of destiny, adopting his own adage, the old saying ‘no one can be called happy before his last day’. And furthermore, he was very aware that most people prefer a life of immediate pleasure. Some will opt for a life of honour and achievement, but very few indeed will turn to the best life, the truly philosophical life.

If Aristotle is right, happiness has to be earned and created. Certainly it depends partly on lucky chances. Epicurus gave a formula for happiness; happiness is an absence of suffering. Of course that is not to be dismissed lightly, but isn’t it an old man’s dream of being secure and cocooned in his own private world?

In any case, should happiness be set up as an absolute goal? As per Kant, the aim of a rational and moral action, must never be happiness. It is only acceptable if it comes as a bonus. In other words, above all and before everything else, we must want to act in accordance with duty, and never in order to obtain the rewards of happiness. Either those rewards will come or they won’t.

There is a residue of ‘Stoicism’ in this attitude; accept what happens with resignation, as long as our soul remains inwardly content. To fret and concern ourselves, about what does not depend on us is unreasonable. Let’s be master of our own dwelling- that is, of our mind. Kant does not pursue happiness, but he does nor refuse it either. Like the Stoic, he is prepared for anything, since he has done his duty.

No doubt, we will find all these notions, Stoic as well as Kantian, much too austere. But they do have the merit of making us reflect on the limitations of happiness, especially if it is conceived in a selfish manner.

The question of happiness is absolutely central to philosophical thought. Each one of us, before we rush headlong towards happiness, must ask ourselves about our own ideal, and know how to place the bar at a reasonable level; above narrow selfishness and bit lower than heavenly bliss.

PHILOSOPHY IN UNITED KINGDOM—–

Ockham–(1288-1348) was scholastic philosopher who is famous for his ‘Ockham’s razor’, which says that’ entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity’. This is taken to mean that the simplest idea or theory is usually the correct one.

Early Modern Period philosopher Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679), was an English philosopher remembered for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book’ Leviathan’ established the foundation for most of western political philosophy from the perspective of ‘Social Contract’ theory.

John Locke(1634-1704) was an empiricist at the beginning of modern philosophy. So, in contrast to Rene Descartes( French philosopher who is considered the founder of modern philosophy), he held that all the objects of the understanding are ideas, and ideas exist in the mind. Locke believed that our being the same person from one time to another consists, not in our having the same soul, but rather the same series of psychological connections.

George Berkeley (1685-1753)- was an Anglo-Irish philosopher. He was an idealist. He believed that this world was given logic and regularity by some other force, which Berkeley concluded, was God.

David Hume (1711-1776)- was a Scottish philosopher whose ideas regarding Free will, causation, personal identity, morality still inspire discussion.

19th century philosopher Bentham( 1748-1832) is famous for ‘Utilitarianism’, which he described as “the greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle”.
John Stuart Mill(1806-1873) was also an Utilitarian philosopher.

Bertrand Russell( 1872-1970) and Moore ( 1873-1958) two British philosophers, led the revolt against ‘British Idealism’ in favour of analytic philosophy.

NINETEENTH CENTURY OF SCIENCE, WESTERN PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENTIFIC MATERIALISM-

The intellectual life of the nineteenth century, was more complex than that of any previous age. This was due to several causes, first; the area concerned was larger than ever before; America and Russia made important contributions, and Europe became more aware than formerly, of Indian philosophy, both ancient and modern. Second; science which had been a chief source of novelty since the seventeenth century, made new conquests, specially in geology, biology, and organic chemistry. Third; machine production profoundly altered the social structure, and gave men a new concept of their powers, in relation to the physical environment. Fourth; a profound revolt, both philosophical and political, against traditional systems in thoughts, in politics, and in economics, gave rise to attacks upon many beliefs and institutions, that had hitherto been regarded as unassailable. The revolt had two very different forms, one romantic, the other rationalistic. The romantic revolt passes from Byron( 1788-1824), Schopenhauer( 1788-1860), and Nietzsche( 1844-1900), to Mussolini( 1883-1945) and Hitler( 1889-1945). The rationalistic revolt begins with the French philosophers of Revolution, passes on, somewhat softened, to the philosophical radicals in England, then acquires a deeper form in Karl Marx( 1818- 1883) and issues in Soviet Russia.

As far as science is concerned, what Newton( 1642- 1727) was to the seventeenth century, Darwin( 1809- 1882) was to the nineteenth century, both can be termed as the scientists of mythical proportions. Both of them have the credit of converting the universe into a solely material and physical world, devoid of soul, mind, and God. Karl Marx, who after coming to England from Germany, twisted Hegelian philosophy under the influence of Newton and Darwin, converting it into scientific materialism, creating class conflicts, in the garb of science and Hegelian Dialectic. So in a way, some of these nineteenth century crusaders, have declared themselves as God, and took the matters under their total control, till Albert Einstein came into picture and refuted scientifically with an ally in the form of America. Thus began the phase of spirituality in America.

TRANSCENDENTALISM IN AMERICA—-

Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement developed in twenties and thirties of nineteenth century, in United States, as a protest against the general state of culture and society. Particularly the state of intellectualism, at Harvard university, and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity school. Among the transcendentalists core belief was the inherent goodness of both people and culture.

Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions, particularly organized religion and political parties, ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that people are at their best when truly ‘self reliant’ and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed.

Transcendentalism developed as a reaction against eighteenth century rationalism. John Locke’s philosophy of ‘Sensual’, and the ‘predestination’ of New England Calvinism. It is fundamentally a variety of diverse sources such as texts like Vedanta( Upanishads) and various religions and German idealism.

The publication of Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essay of 1836′ Nature’, is usually considered the watershed moment, at which, transcendentalism became a major cultural movement. Emerson wrote in his 1837 speech ‘The American Scholar’; ‘we will walk on our own feet; we will speak our own minds;….A nation of men will for the first time exist; because each believes himself inspired by the divine soul, which also inspires all men.’ Emerson closed essay by calling for a revolution of human consciousness, to emerge from the brand new idealist philosophy.

So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect- what is truth? and of the affection; what is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated will. …Build, therefore your own world. As far as you confirm your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit.

THE NEW THOUGHT MOVEMENT—

Is a spiritually focused or philosophical interpretation of New Thought beliefs. Started in the nineteenth century, today the movement consists of a loosely allied group of religious denomination, secular membership organization, authors, philosophers, and individuals, who share a set of beliefs concerning metaphysics, the law of attraction, healing life force, creative visualization and personal power.

The 1915 International New Thought Alliance (INTA) Conference- held in conjunction with Panama Pacific International Exposition(PPIE), World’s Fair that took place in San-Francisco- featured New Thought speakers from far and wide- The PPIE organizers were so favorably impressed by INTA convention that they declared a special ‘New Thought Day’ at the fair and struck a commemorative bronze medal for the occasion which was presented to the INTA delegates led by Annie Rix Militz.

By 1916 the International New Thought Alliance had encompassed many smaller groups around the world, adopting a creed known as the ‘Declaration of Principles’. The Alliance is held together by one central teaching; that people, through the constructive use of their minds, can attain freedom, power, health, prosperity, and all good, molding their bodies as well as circumstances of their lives. The declaration was revised in 1957, with all references to Christianity removed, and a new statement based on the ” inseparable oneness of God and Man”.

There are regular conventions and conferences today, including those hosted by the major denomination, Agape international spiritual center and others.

Belief Systems of the New Thought Alliance-

* Infinite Intelligence or God is omnipotent and omnipresent.

* Spirit is the ultimate reality.

* True human self-hood is divine.

* Divinity attuned thought is a positive force of good.

* All decease is mental in origin.

* Right thinking has a healing effect.

Divine Science, Unity church, and Religious science, are organizations that developed from the New Thought movement. Each teaches that infinite intelligence of God is the sole reality. New thought adherents believe that sickness is the result of the failure to realize this truth. In this line of thinking, healing is accomplished by the affirmation of oneness with the infinite intelligence of God.

John Bovee Dods( 1795-1862), an early practitioner of New Thought, wrote several books on the idea that, decease originates in the electrical impulses of the nervous system and is therefore curable by change of belief. Later New Thought teachers, such as the early 20th century author, editor, and publisher William Walker Atkinson, accepted this premise. He connected his idea of mental states of being, with his understanding of the new scientific discoveries in electromagnetism and neural processes.

New Thought publishing and educational activities reach approximately two and half million people annually.

NEO-VEDANTA-

An important influence on western philosophy was neo-Vedanta, a modern interpretation of Hinduism which developed in response to western colonialism, with Advaita Vedanta as its central doctrine. Due to the colonization of Asia by western world, since the 19th century, an exchange of ideas has been taking place between the western world and Asia, which also influenced western religiosity. Unitarianism, and the ideas of universalism, were brought to India by missionaries, and had a major influence on neo-Hinduism via Ram Mohan Roy’s Brahmo Samaj. Roy attempted to modernize and reform Hinduism, taking over christian social ideas and the idea of universalism. This universalism was further popularized and brought back to the west as neo-vedanta, by swami Vivekananda(1863-1902).

THEOSOPHY AND THE PERENNIAL PHILOSOPHY-

Another major influence on western philosophy was the Theosophical society, which searched for ‘secret teachings’ in Asian religions.It has been influential on modernist streams in several Asian religions, notably neo-Vedanta, the revival of Theravada Buddhism, and Buddhist modernism, which have taken over modern western notions of personal experience and universalism, and integrated them in their religious concepts.

The influence of Asian traditions on western philosophy was also furthered by the Perennial philosophy, whose main proponent Aldous Huxley(1894-1963) was deeply influenced by swami Vivekananda’s neo-Vedanta, and the spread of social welfare education and mass travel after world war II.

SPIRITUAL BUT NOT RELIGIOUS-

After the second world war, spirituality and religion became disconnected. A new discourse developed in which (humanistic) psychology, mystical and esoteric(inner) traditions, and eastern religions, are being blended, to reach the true self, by self disclosure, free expression, and meditation.

Among other factors, declining membership of organized religions and the growth of secularism, in the western world, have given rise to this broader view of spiritual philosophy. The term “spiritual” is now frequently used in contexts in which the term “religious” was formerly employed. Both theists and atheists have criticized this development.

Programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous use non-religious spiritual approaches to help people recover from addictions. A study found a robust association between an increase in attendance to Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, with increased spirituality and decreased frequency and intensity of alcohol use. The research also found that the program was effective for agnostics and atheists.

CONTEMPORARY SPIRITUALITY IN UNITED STATES—

In the early 21st century, embodied cognition has gained strength as a theory of mind-body-world-integration. Philosophers such as Shaun Gallaghar and Alva Noe, together with British philosopher Andy Clark defend this view, seeing it as a natural development of pragmatism, and of the thinking of Kant,Heideggar and Merleau Ponty among others. African American philosopher Cornel-West is known for his analysis of American cultural life with regard to, race, gender, and class issues, as well as his association with pragmatism and transcendentalism.

Alvin Plantinga is a Christian analytic philosopher, known for the position that belief in the existence of God is properly basic, and his model version of the ontological argument for the existence of God. Michael C. Rea has developed Plantinga’s thought by claiming that both naturalism and supernaturalism are research programmes that have to be adopted as a basis for research.

BEWARE OF GURUS —

In India, a guru is a recognized sage or wise man, a master whom others are willing to follow, sometimes over a long period of time. Predating the hippies of nineteen sixties, many turned to escape noisy and materialistic civilization, in search of serenity and the meaning of life.

This path is worthy of respect. But is it philosophical in the deepest sense of the word? As, the search for a kind of wisdom, yes, it is. There are historical links between ancient Greece and India, going back to the time of Alexander’s overreaching and foolhardy expedition, in the 3rd century B.C. (In fact the ancient philosophers called ‘Gymnosophists’- meaning ‘naked wise man’- may have been the disciples of imitators of practices observed in India)

There is an impression that western philosophy is too abstract. So there are good reasons for taking the route of meditation and pilgrimage, and those who find their guru and change their life, have done something worthwhile.

It is true that sages and holy men deserve our serious attention. But no one should hesitate to ask questions that might at first seem incongruous; ‘what are the criteria, upon which we are basing our judgement?’ ‘what exactly is the line of reasoning, we are following?” what if the guru is deluding himself and us?’

In philosophy, as in science, whether or not a given explanation is valid, does not depend on the person who presents it. It’s not a matter of age, or tone of voice, or reputation.

If a theorem is not true just because the mathematics teacher who expounds it is handsome, then the same goes for philosophy.

Does a hypothesis stand up to analysis? Is a line of reasoning absurd ? Is a certain thought worth concentrating on? Such questions deserve to be considered for their own sake, freely and calmly. So much the better if the professor is appealing, intelligent, and seductive. But don’t get the two things mixed up. If someone is presented as a guru, beware!

Everyone knows the famous photo of Einstein(1879-1955), sticking out his tongue. He was a great man, who could have set himself up as a guru, but he refused to do so. That refusal is genuinely philosophical attitude.

So, a critical mind is absolutely essential to a philosophical approach. Thanks to it, any trust we place in this or that professor, master, guru, will be well founded, solid, and enlightened. It is this critical mind, philosophers help us to acquire.

WHY DOES THE WORLD EXIST ?

No answer; the question is too philosophical and does not seem soluble.

Is philosophy unique in being unable to answer its own questions? If they can’t be answered, wouldn’t it be preferable to stop asking them?

Certainly the question ‘Why?’ is awkward. Next to it, the question ‘What is this or that?’ seems completely sensible. It is content to search for the essential constituents of a thing(its essence). The question ‘Why’ is more ambitious, but equally ambiguous; it is asking simultaneously about the cause and the purpose.

Science can not and should not respond to questions concerning the possible projects of God or nature.

A critical philosopher, a positivist, does not respond to questions dealing with the meaning of the universe, the possible existence of god, the possible survival of the soul. These are questions, insoluble for us humans within the limits of our finite knowledge. Philosophy, they say, therefore should not go beyond these limits.

Yet this has not always been the attitude of philosophers, and even today it is not invariably the case.

Quite the contrary, the philosophers known as meta-physicists did claim, they could provide definitive and confident answers to these questions. At times they have reached remarkable heights of ingenuity. This is true of Leibniz(1646-1716) for example. To the question of the existence, he replied ‘Because of the principle of the best of all possible worlds.’Now, is this principle, as arbitrary and ridiculous, as a reading of Voltaire’s(1694-1778) ‘Candide’ would lead us to believe? Poor Candide lives through the most awful events, and his tutor, Pang-loss, a discipline of Leibniz, continually justifies all these evils in the name of the famous Leibniz-an law. The comedy is very effective, yet we are more Leibniz-an than we think whenever we analyze the meaning of a series of events and find that, to understand it, the sense of the action requires that, some suffering be tolerated in order to achieve a higher objective. But Leibniz went much further than that, since he argued that God created the world by following this ‘Logic of the best’; and it becomes for him a key for everything. Thus he could respond with an indisputable answer to the question of the ultimate origin of all things, and why they exist.

It can not be denied that our question risks taking us beyond what we can determine and beyond the very limits of our experience. Precisely on that account it responds to an uneasiness that has never ceased to haunt the human race, and that keeps resurfacing.

Metaphysics is the part of philosophy, that contemplates ultimate questions, those that deal with the meaning of life, the existence of God, the immortality of soul, the oneness of the world. For some, it is the crowning achievement of philosophy; for others, it is a philosophy’s most dangerous and illusory temptation. At the very least, we need to be aware of the problem.

FREEDOM—–

Freedom is a big word, though we see examples of it around us every day. But to what degree are these examples we see, manifestations of true freedom?

The first reaction of most young people is to think that freedom means the absence of constraints. To be free is to do what we want, when we want, the way we want; without being monitored by parents, teachers, or big brothers. And above all freedom means not having to work.

It’s a perfectly understandable attitude, but it does not really capture what freedom is. The stakes are pretty high. Does freedom simply mean refusing anything imposed on us by other people? Shouldn’t freedom contain something positive in relation to others and to ourselves?

To think oneself free is not necessarily the same as being truly free. Am i free in relation to my instincts, my basic desires? I am influenced by my membership of a group, by images, by opinions expressed on TV and so on. The Dutch philosopher Spinoza(1632-1677), showed that the human condition is dependent on its relation to natural conditions and one’s own passions. Yet he believed that understanding these dependencies teaches us what it is to be free. A clear sighted acceptance of the inevitable is the highest form of freedom.

I can chose either to understand or misunderstand what happens to me. Thus the notion of choice is essential. On the one hand, it implies that i retain the power of decision; on the other, i am never faced with only one single and exclusive possibility.

There is only freedom of choice when the options are not equivalent, and the choice will make a difference. There is a famous story of an animal, who died because it could not chose between oats or hay, since it was equally fond of both. It is true that there are cases where the stakes appear equal on both sides, and the only way out of an awkward situation is to ask,’heads or tail?’. The answer is a matter of chance, but the choice of method is itself an act of freedom.

Perhaps we are beginning to have a better sense of what makes an act free. First of all, it must have been willed, decided upon. A reflex is not free; if fire burns me, i pull my hand away. On the other hand, if, because of some crazy bet, i keep my hand in the fire to prove my courage, this is an act of freedom.

When we are young, we start off by thinking we are free, when we reject all constraints; later, we understand that certain constraints, those we learn to impose on ourselves, may allow us to discover new possibilities in life. This prospect is not impossible to imagine. The freest act is the most clear-sighted act, the act chosen for its own sake. Why don’t we consider the decision to think freely, and disinterestedly, the act of philosophizing, as precisely one of the freest of all possible acts? It is an act through which i become fully autonomous- that is- capable of legislating my own actions.

If not all acts are free in the same way, should freedom itself depend on the degree of enlightenment it brings? Or is every man free in so far he is a man? If this is the case, we must not simply identify the capacity for being free, with the enactment of freedom. we still don’t know how freedom can be made concrete in the world.

MORAL FREEDOM, POLITICAL FREEDOM—

When i set even the most basic rules, or standard of behavior for myself, i am exercising my freedom. Is that sufficient?

The rules of practical conduct are only maxims, Kant told us. They are absolutely relative. We must ascend to a higher level, to the level of the ‘moral law’ itself.

According to Kant, i am not truly autonomous, if i am not aware that the very principle of my action depends on my will. My actions will be valuable(in my own eyes) only if they follow the promptings of my conscience.

To say that i’m responsible means that i can vouch for my own actions and justify them. When i take responsibility of my freedom, i must constantly question my relations to others. Moral freedom is a freedom vis-a-vis others and for others.

But what makes this freedom moral? The word ‘moral’ hasn’t always had a good press, especially with young people. Moralize means to give advice, that is annoying because, it is constraining. We are back to constraint.

As a matter of fact, when we talk about moral freedom, the narrower problem of moral conduct and its rules is only part of the picture. The term ‘moral’ indicates that this freedom is characteristic of individuals engaged in interpersonal relations, and who have habits and customs(‘mores’ n Latin). So moral freedom reflects a general fact about us; that we live in a society made up of free individuals who, as members of society, must accept or reject a certain number of rules and forms of behavior. Moral freedom is the general framework of any society, whether or not it has the power to exercise freedom.

So how do we get from moral freedom to political freedom? Well, of course, things don’t happen just like that. It is not as if first of all we have responsible subjects, and then we get society. Clearly, in advanced societies like ours we can decide to create any number of associations, from athletes organization to arts groups. But the phenomenon called ‘the body politic’ does not arise in such an artificial fashion. Before individuals demanded their freedom, there were city-states, kingdoms, and then states.

Without going too far back, let’s think about antiquity. In Egypt, for many centuries, the ‘Pharaoh’ relied on a priestly caste (like, Hindu kings relied on Brahman caste), to preserve the dominance of heirarchical order. In such a society there is no such thing as a free subject. Political freedom in the modern sense, was not universal even in Greece. It certainly did not exist in Sparta. Even in Athens, where democracy was founded, the institution itself appears only in the 5th century B.C., after which it was constantly threatened and subjected to challenge. Major political thinkers, Plato and Aristotle were not democrats; they favored rule by elite, be it authoritarian or moderate. By the time we get to Rome, even under the ‘Republic’ only the citizen is considered free. But he has duties towards the city, and the exercise of his freedom depends strictly on those duties, on his responsibilities and office, and on his place in the city.

From a political point of view, freedom is not only a very late acquisition(not until the 18th century could it become a principle, with the American and then the French revolutions), but also painstakingly defined and circumscribed. Each individual is free only as long as his freedom doesn’t endanger the freedom of others. And ‘freedom’ can be defined as guarantee offered by a civilized state to every subject or citizen as long as everyone respects the common rule.

Political freedom can exist only in a stable state where, by law, each member is promised well defined rights, as well as having duties. In a constitutional monarchy or a democracy of the sort that exists as a rule among the present nations of Europe, the U.S.,Japan,India,Australia,Canada and happily a number of other nations around the world, political freedom should go hand in hand with moral freedom.

Yet it must also be noted that, even after the fall of the Soviet Union, the balance between political and moral freedom is often lost or, as in dictatorships or tyrannies, out of question.

One problem is that moral freedom can remain purely theoretical( Kant, who defined the principles of morality in abstract terms, frequently inspires this objection). Similarly, political freedom is not always much more than a word or a slogan. In both these cases philosophy can offer the necessary impetus to clearer thinking. The philosopher stands for freedom combined with responsibility. Therefore he has a role to play when freedom or freedoms are threatened. But he can’t make them respected on his own. The love of freedom is good to be shared, as long as no one is exempt from its duties.

DESIRE—-

Did Freud have the last word on desire and it’s complex relationship with consciousness? I think Hegel had a brilliant intuition whose impact had been more decisive than Freud’s. For Hegel man/woman is a being who always desires more than the simple satisfaction of natural needs, because he/she desires something no inanimate object can provide; he/she wants recognition. Human desire is infinite; it wants to be infinitely desired. Yet how else can one be infinitely desired, if not by another human being? The struggle that determines the humanity of man/woman is the struggle for recognition, whose paradigm is the confrontation between master and slave( in which the slave struggles and works, so that he/she will not be reduced to a thing).

What do we desire most? We now have the beginning of an answer; to be recognized for who we are, as creatures of infinite freedom and responsibility. But are we ourselves fully aware of what we are? Do we really know what other people expect of us? The struggle for recognition is never ending, because our desires are hostage to our unconscious, and we need to understand them better, in order to communicate with them.

SOCIETY AND STATE–

Nietzsche(1844-1900), although not a political philosopher, was the favorite of Nazis, who wanted to make him one of their prophets( or rather should we say’prophet of doom’). To see him as a blend of anarchist and the aristocrat would capture his spirit more faithfully.

Since Plato, western philosophy has had to confront politics, and has tried to think through the principles and aims of political life. Philosophers have been tempted to offer themselves as advisers to rulers, for better or for worse.

Common sense reminds us that ideas don’t pay the bills. It is certainly true that an exceptional political philosopher, will not necessarily be an effective statesman. A philosopher reflects on his principles, he does not himself have to put them into practice. The fact that Plato failed with the tyrants of Syracuse,Sicily does not diminish the interest of his”Republic”, which has nurtured political reflection for, 2500 years.

What is the situation today? We should know how to benefit from all the experience gained from the lessons of history- about the organization of society, about different constitutions, about forms of government. It is obvious that political philosophy, the beneficiary of an entire tradition of thought, has become on its own account, a rich and complex area of specialization, full of precedents and references that are useful, for considering the eventful development of the world.

But yet again, reality is not what it should be. As Hegel remarks, men hardly ever learn from the lessons of history. For all the advisers, archives full of information, computer simulations and programs, that governments have at their disposal, what they most often respond to are the imperatives of the moment, and the pressure of powerful interests. It is rare to come across an occasion when philosophers might have a direct influence on the course of events and political decisions.

Philosophy’s greatest temptation has been, and still is, the idea of Utopia, the dream of an ideal society. Is the idea of Utopia healthy or dangerous? Its supporters assert that utopia stimulates and refreshes the spirit; without it the politics will be reduced to the dreary realities of management. Utopia’s adversaries consider it dangerous; the denial of the world’s realities leads to a contempt for human beings. Robespierre, Stalin, and Hitler were Utopians. Robespierre, sought a virtuous, and incorruptible society, while Stalin wanted an absolutely egalitarian and disciplined society, and Hitler, a racially pure one. We know the results.

Political philosophy should take into account the realities of society. Aristotle does so, when in ‘Politics’, he analyses the different types of constitution possible; democracy, monarchy, aristocracy. For him the best regime is not a distant ideal. It is a ‘happy mean’; how can men be made to live together harmoniously and under the rule of Justice?

The lesson here is valid for all times and involves making a distinction between society in general(with its different types of group formation, from the family to the clan, the association etc), and the state, which is an institution, a legitimate and sovereign political power with a territory, a currency, an army and so on.

One of the tasks of contemporary philosophy, in this context, is to become aware of specifications of politics in the modern sense. Many of the problems that need to be dealt with are technical( for example establishing budgets, administration, judiciary, armies, civil services, management of personnel). Does it follow that the whole of the political sphere will become ‘technical’? That a Prime minister for his cabinet is nothing but a manager? What should be the role of politics in respecting moral imperatives? For the citizen, is there a role of intervening in the state, that allows both rights and duties to be respected? All these are important questions for a responsible political philosophy.

According to Bergson(1859-1941), any genuine man of action must be a thinking man, and vice versa. Which is to say that philosophical thought must be the flip side of political action, its critical and reflective alter ego. If not, the health of the body politic can’t be guaranteed.

GOOD AND EVIL—-

According to the Bible, it is a result of sin that Adam and Eve were able to eat from the tree of knowledge; as a consequence, they were expelled from paradise.

The symbolism is very powerful. The knowledge of good and evil is a double edged sword. Things were simple when we lived in a state of innocence; once that was lost, we had to assume the burden of choice and responsibility.

But responsible towards whom or what? The first answer that comes to mind is towards his/her own conscience. But was it really conscience that gave rise to those first prohibitions, that marked the boundaries of good and evil( ‘Thou shalt not murder’,’Thou shalt not steal’, ‘Thou shalt not commit adultery’)? Bergson, a French philosopher, perhaps drawing on the memory of the forbidden fruit, formulated a simple hypothesis that is worth keeping in mind; it is primarily social prohibition that determines the boundaries of right and wrong, good and evil. The earliest moralities are self contained- that is, ordained strictly by the rules of social behavior. Each member of the group, clan, or tribe knows exactly what he can or can’t do. The ‘idea of good’ only gradually becomes independent of this restricted social origin; Only in Plato does it finally appear as the transcendent idea of good in itself, placed at the summit of the ethereal world of ideas.

If we are happy with this theory of social origin of good and evil, isn’t it tempting to extend it to the developed societies of today? Then there will be no question of an absolute good and evil, only prohibitions relative to the state of society. This kind of relativism would justify any transgression as long as social sanction and repression did not exclude it.

Yet relativism makes it impossible to establish a morality that is stable and coherent. Bergson can transcend relativism, because he sees the moral sense as progressively acquiring universality and inwardness until it reaches the status of ‘open morality’; one that relies less on prohibition than on incentive on the life force, or the love for others. Here social rules are not ignored, but their narrowness is overcome by a deepening of the moral sense, not by regression.

We can’t ignore the fact that humanity is capable of the worst, as well as the best, and that the myth of the devil represents this extreme possibility of radical destruction.

In our time, a form of evil has emerged that is perhaps more dangerous than the all-conquering vice; indifference. This cries out for serious analysis, as we can’t be indifferent to its consequences. To claim that everything is equally valid is untenable. But this attitude is widespread and insidious, circulating like a kind of sub-culture or byproduct of our civilizations. Encouraged by a passive and excessive consumption of TV and the lack of any critical alternative, this attitude explains how the unjustifiable can so easily become commonplace. How gratuitous violence, cruelty, and insensitivity become banal and systematic.

The response our societies make is clearly inadequate. A campaign of repression will crush the most disadvantaged, and spare the crimes of the elite. We must recognize an evolution where moral judgement, respect for others, and awareness of higher values, have been replaced by consideration of power and domination.

Philosophy should not confuse ‘what is’, with ‘what should be’. It can intervene on two levels; to assess what reality is, and to develop criteria for making judgement. However responsible philosophy may be, and indeed because it is responsible, it can nonetheless never exclude the hypothesis, that there may be something which can transcend good and evil.

ART AND ITS IMPORTANCE-

What is the point of art? One can be satisfied by eating, drinking, sleeping, making love. Wouldn’t some people consider this the ideal life? But as a life, is it not pretty close to that of an animal? Without curiosity, without any interest, except satisfying immediate appetites, how could that be a truly full life?

In contrast to this, genuine art can enchant us, disturb us, and make us dream. Thus it takes us beyond mere instinct. How does one become artistic, appreciate art, develop a strong desire for it? For music, painting, dance, acting, with their power of fascination, can bring us joy and transform our lives, or so we believe.

Just as with philosophy, first we have to know, where to start. We have to learn how to listen, to look, to have mastery of our body, before reaching the highest aesthetic levels. Before we can attempt to play the guitar, or to draw, to dance, or to act, without being ridiculous, we need to acquire technique. Not in the technological sense, but we do use certain means, because we want to achieve certain results. We begin with what our senses, capabilities, and emotions can do; we try to transform them, to improve our capabilities, until we can perform in a way, that was impossible in the beginning. Thus, with the piano, we start with, sa, re, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni….sa; we play simple scales; then, day by day we move on to more and more complicated exercises. Our fingers become more agile, our ear sharpens, we read the music more rapidly, and so on.

In the first instance then, art is a technique. Technique and art are so close that it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. After listening to a good concert of a great artist, don’t we say,’ what an amazing technique!’? And if a building (like Taj Mahal), is perfectly made, don’t we call it a work of art? There is a simple reason for this. Producing art is not like breathing or eating; art is a human activity that transforms material elements, subjects them to a metamorphosis. But what’s the point? Why do we do it?

Couldn’t we object by saying,’ what is art good for?’ Certainly we could call such an objection ‘Utilitarian’. Utilitarianism states that humanity could and should stick only to those things, that are strictly useful. But where does the ‘useful’ begin and end? Isn’t it also useful to be distracted, to play, to dream? Any theory restricting the human being to the most basic needs, brings us back to the first scenario; a humanity that eats, drinks, sleeps, with no other aim in view, with no possibility of rising any higher. Alas, we can think of experiments of this order in history, Chinese society under Mao, being one example.

Art uplifts, demands, and transfigures, and that’s why it disturbs. If it begins on a purely technical level, it does not remain there. How does art detach itself from technique? Kant’s response to this was ingenious; art introduces disinterestedness and ‘free play’ into activities that are initially just functional. If i play the piano solely to warm up my fingers, that is not art. If i repaint my shutters, that is not art, either. If i do my exercises in the morning, it’s not dance. All these activities are technical to varying degrees. But there are songs by singers like Lata Mangeshkar, that are masterpieces of emotion and simplicity, yet they uncover a dimension of play and freedom, that makes us forget our everyday worries.

Does art also elevate us above the realm of morality. The autonomy, essential for the freedom of the creator or the art lover, has not been respected always. The debate is still going on; just how far should artistic freedom extend?

TOO MANY QUESTIONS—

It is true that, in principle, no human problem is alien to philosophy. But no matter how intelligent and hardworking he is, no philosopher can master all the problems, especially in a world constantly being transformed by the rapid development of science and technology, as well as changing ways of life. That is why, at its highest levels, the study of philosophy must ‘specialize’; metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, logic, philosophy of science, philosophy of technology, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, political philosophy, are so many largely autonomous fields of study.

Does this mean that it is now impossible to practice pure philosophy for its own sake? Kant thought about this difficulty, and his response was this; ‘you can’t learn philosophy, for there is no such thing as final philosophy, universally valid. You can only learn to philosophize.’ In other words, we don’t learn philosophy as if it were the sum of different branches of knowledge; the danger of becoming a philosophical encyclopedia is therefore not a real problem. One learns to philosophize by arguing, reasoning, raising pertinent questions, and examining them critically, and by acquiring intellectual maturity.

The Kantian answer is as valid for the beginner as it is for a philosopher.

What matters is to make a start with thinking. Once we start to acquire a certain knowledge, we will familiarize ourselves with the vocabulary of philosophy, learn to pose an issue, to examine its aspects, organize discussion, and gradually approach the great writers.

Kant’s lesson must not be neglected by the professional philosophers, who have already accumulated a lot of knowledge. They may be knowledgeable in philosophy, but have they forgotten to philosophize? Should not they be astonished in each new experience, and relearn to philosophize?

Bergson has some justification, when he says that, all true philosophy turns on simple intuition.

Let’s try this intuition on the question of Hamlet ‘To be or not to be..?’ Is this ‘either—or’ not the philosophical question par excellence.

As Shakespeare conceives it, the problem is whether, by ending our life, we would know a sleep from remorse, or the prospect of final judgement. Expressed as the problem of ‘being’,(which the famous philosophical poet Mirza Ghalib also had expressed in his following couplet),

Na tha kuchh toh khuda tha,
kuchh na hota toh khuda hota,
duboya mujhko hone ne,
na hota main toh kya hota !!

the question becomes instead a decision, which every person can take in relation to his own life.

For Camus(1913-1960), this is the most important problem in philosophy. As he writes, at the beginning of his essay’ The Myth of Sisyphus’ ; ‘There is only one truly serious philosophical problem’; Suicide. To judge whether life is worth living or not, would be to answer the fundamental question of philosophy; Camus’ response to the question, intended to be the most concrete of all questions, takes the form of a reflection on the human condition. Yes, the human condition is absurd; man/woman is a being who must suffer, often without reason; but he/she has the privilege of consciousness, and the power to dispose off his life. But renouncing the struggle, choosing annihilation, is not the courageous solution. Camus directs his attack against the nihilistic concept of suicide, because it treats life with contempt and indifference. To choose the heroic solution, is to assume the most noble burden; the freedom of accepting life in all its tragedy.

Can we decide if life has meaning, before we have thought deeply about the very notion of meaning, the meaning of reality, about being itself? In this case, the question ‘to be or not to be?’ is no longer an immediate existential problem, but something abstract and distant. It is no longer limited to the petty problem of my personal survival. It becomes a question of being as opposed to the void, to non-being. When i think about being, i can also imagine its non-existence. But when i think i am contemplating nothingness, is this ‘non-being’ only a derivative concept, deduced by subtracting what does exist- as Bergson thought? Or, even if it does sound paradoxical. must we recognize nothingness as an agonizing reality-as Heidegger(1889-1976) maintained in his lecture ‘What is metaphysics?’ In that case, Hamlet’s question takes on a much more enigmatic meaning.

Is this meaning too abstract? Perhaps, but we wonder in the face of being, in the face of the very fact that there is ‘being’. This astonishment should be hailed and held precious, since it may be the most philosophical act of all.

TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE—

Behaviorism, a theory originating in the U.S., in early 20th century, has had considerable success and permeates every aspect of contemporary life and consumer society. We experience its effects all the time, usually without even being aware of it. For example, advertising works on a rudimentary, but large scale level in a way that is quite simply designed to manipulate our consciousness and our unconscious. What sort of people are advertisers targeting, with their barrage of questions and images? Free and responsible men and women? They are merely ‘consumers’, created by sampling a significant portion of population. Television and films are even used to transmit’subliminal messages’, images slipped in so quickly that they can’t be perceived but nonetheless have an effect.

It is obvious that every aspect of our society has been transformed by technology. Its effects have been positive in many areas; travel, communication, everyday conveniences, our health and comfort. However, does this mean that our thoughts, our attitudes, and our emotions should also be determined by technology? And isn’t this exactly how we are being pushed by all the ‘marketing’ techniques, mentioned above? It is no longer good enough to use reasoned argument to convince or persuade people. We are being conditioned, even compelled to accept that a certain brand of jeans or shoes is ‘trendy’ or ‘cool’; the image of super-sleek, trim bodies is meant, to remind us of low-fat yoghurt and food products. All this reduces us to a few simple behavioral reflexes. How far are these forms of manipulation going to go? Are we going to let ourselves be persuaded and not react, not use our critical faculties?

We only hope that, intelligent young people will refuse to be transformed entirely into mere consumers. However education and culture have something to do with it. A critical mind does not fall from the sky; it has to be acquired, built up and perfected.

Further, if we do emphasize so strongly the negative aspects of our consumer society, it’s because they reveal a more general problem, that philosophy should not underestimate; whether life and existence should be viewed solely from a technological point of view? At the level of biology and medicine, how far should we go in the use and improvement of artificial reproductive techniques? Manipulation of the genetic code and, may be in the near future, cloning? At the psychological and moral level, is it right to think of other people merely as means? For example, are parents only useful for housing and supporting me? Are my friends there to amuse me and do me favors? Does my girl or boy friend exist only to give me pleasure? And so on. If this is the case, then a purely mechanistic view of human life is the only one that will prevail. And then what will humanity have come to?

Technology, traditionally defined, is using means to achieve an end. But these ends must be clearly perceived and lucidly chosen. When technologies were still simple and small in scale, the relation between means and ends was easy to see. In our civilization, technology is omnipresent; it has even become a social issue. It is integrated and internalized in the way we function. Above all it is much more than a pile of tools, equipment and machinery. Technology has never been more efficient and subtle than when it is able to converge with the sciences. Computer science is typical of the ‘techno-sciences’, because it involves at the same time, mathematical models(software programs), and complicated electronic equipment(hardware). No one can deny that this ‘techno-science’ has contributed powerfully to the transformation of our lives.

Whatever their conveniences and advantages may be, can computers replace us as the judge of our actions, and their motives? Computers can certainly help us and inform us, but would we on that account program our life with no other objective except efficiency? Besides, what kind of efficiency would it be? We are returning to our original questions; what is just and what is unjust, what is right and what is wrong, and how can we decide? These are not the questions, technology can answer.

ZOMBIES–
(From “Consciousness and Its Place in Nature” by David Chalmers, an Australian philosopher born in 1966- Oxford University press 2002, ” Zombies versus Materialists” by Robert Kirk- proceedings of the Aristotelian society,supplement 66(1974))

As philosophers use the term, Zombie is a creature that is micro-physically identical to a human being, and thus produces behavior, that is indistinguishable from that of a normal human being, but lacks any sort of consciousness in the phenomenal sense. Zombies behave as if they are in pain when you stick them with a pin, and they will report that they are in pain, but they don’t experience any painful sensation.

Many philosophers have recently claimed that we can coherently imagine the existence of Zombies. This claim is taken to imply the possibility of Zombies, a claim that in turn is taken to imply that falsity of physicality. The Zombies after all are by definition exactly like us physically. But if, two creatures alike physically can differ with respect to consciousness, it seems to show that consciousness is something over and above the physical.

MIND Vs COMPUTER-
( John Searle ” Minds, Brains, and Programs” (1980), “Minds and Brains without programs” (1988))

Is it possible to make a computer, intelligent, or give one a thinking mind, just by having it run the right computer program? John Searle’s(born 1932) famous Chinese Room argument is intended to prove that this is not possible. Searle says that if he does not understand Chinese language solely on the basis of running the right rules, then neither does a computer understand solely on the basis of running the right program. And what goes for Chinese, goes for other forms of cognition as well. Just manipulating symbols according to a program, is not enough by itself to guarantee cognition, perception, understanding, thinking and so on and so forth. So strong ‘Artificial Intelligence’, is decisively proved wrong.

PHILOSOPHY AS SCIENCE—

Time to draw up a clear balance sheet, on the question of the relation between philosophy and the sciences. A great many of the major philosophers have been scientists; but today it is the literary figures who make the running in philosophy, and philosophy is a discipline that is taught in the faculty of arts. Moreover, we have seen at large, variety of positions; some philosophers like to think that they are scientifically rigorous, others assume a contrary position taking all kinds of liberties with rational or positivist methods. How are we going to find our way? For the answer, we will draw on two methods, the first historical and the second analytical.

Historically western philosophy and science arose together, in Greece, under the name of ‘episteme’, knowledge of what is. Science itself has never formed a homogeneous bloc. The first sages of Greece were astronomers, physicists, moralists, and even doctors, all at once. It is only when we come to Plato that we see the first distinction between mathematics and philosophy as such. But distinction is not separation, and even lesser is it opposition. At the entrance to his philosophical ‘Academy’, Plato had these words written; ‘Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here.’ For him, geometry is a first absolutely essential stage in the ascent to the world of ideas. The platonic tradition is so positively inclined towards mathematics, that Galileo could find support in Plato( against the Aristotelians), when he founded mathematical physics in the modern sense. But Aristotle himself, although less of a geometer than Plato, was a great logician, and a Biologist without equal. In his day he was a tremendous scientist. And if we line up the great modern philosophers, starting with Bacon( pioneer of the experimental method), Descartes( inventor of analytic geometry, expert in mechanics, optics, cosmology),Leibniz( inventor of the calculus), we see that the divorce between science and philosophy is relatively recent.

So, is it even necessary to speak of a divorce? Let’s focus our minds on the present delimitation in the fields of science and philosophy.

In principle, every science has a determinate object; mathematics studies numbers and quantitative relationships; physics material nature; biology living things. In fact in our time each of these sciences has divided the scope of its work into increasingly narrow subdivisions. In physics for example, theoretical physics is distinguished from the physics of elementary particles, also from condensed-matter physics, from astrophysics, and so on. Can philosophy be a science like all the others? If philosophy lacks a specific object, reflecting instead on the conditions in which the other sciences are possible, the reply must be in the negative. Yet this reply, in its turn, can be understood in a negative and a positive sense.

Negatively the conclusion would be that philosophy can not be a rigorous form of knowledge, like the other sciences. Accordingly, it must be either rejected or made strictly subordinate to the sciences. Positively, only philosophy examines the fundamental questions that the sciences themselves can not raise, without transgressing the very limits that define them. If a biologist wonders, ‘what is life?’ he is no longer being a biologist. In actual fact, scientists frequently ask themselves philosophical questions regarding their own discipline. The most lucid of them do so deliberately and with self awareness- that is without intending to preach either to their scientific colleagues or to philosophers. They are extremely conscious of the difficulty of the enterprise.

Einstein(1879-1955) managed to formulate his own philosophical proposition, such as “God does not play dice”, or ” The most incomprehensible thing about reality is that it is comprehensible”. He never confused these reflections with his scientific work.

It is because it’s in the nature of philosophical thinking, to be both general and fundamental that philosophy was long given the privilege of being considered’ the queen of sciences’. No one would support such a view now.

There are those who are tempted to invert the priorities here, looking down on any concern, that is not scientific. Is not such ‘hard’ scientism an over-reaction, more passionate and less rational than it pretends to be, trapped in an overly schematic concept of science, and misunderstanding the possibilities of rigor and analysis that belong to the work of philosophy?

Those philosophers who adopt a scientistic position,if they resort to argument,remain philosophers( this is the case with Carnap(1891-1970) and the neo-positivists of the Vienna school). Their main concern is to show that philosophy can assert itself as a rigorous discipline as long as it renounces its earlier claims. Although this concern is in principle perfectly respectable, its concrete consequences warrant further discussion. Every thing depends on the extent of the ‘remainder’, the domain designated as the preserve of philosophy.

Following on from this, we have the right to pose a few more questions to the scientistic thinkers. Is their concept of rigor overly restrictive? Is there only one way to arrive at truth? Is there only one kind of truth?

SCIENCE AND PSEUDO SCIENCE—
( Karl Popper’s “Philosophy of Science”-1957,and “Conjectures and Refutations ;the Growth of scientific knowledge”-1963)
Karl Popper(1902-1994) is considered one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century. He is perhaps best known for his criteria of demarcation between science and pseudo-science. Troubled by the presumed scientific status of some theories popular in his time- most notably, Marx’s Theory of history, Freudian Psycho-analysis, and Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology- Popper was determined to identify some criteria by which to distinguish scientific theories from pseudo-scientific theories. This criteria known as falsifiability, was for Popper the mark of a scientific theory. According to Popper, a theory is scientific, only if it makes prediction that can be tested, and potentially shown to be false. If a theory is not falsifiable in this way and can only be confirmed with cumulative supporting evidence, then it is pseudo-scientific. For example Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicts that rays of light from distant stars will be deflected by the sun’s gravitational field. During a solar eclipse in 1919, astrophysics confirmed that starlight was in fact deflected by the sun, and by almost precisely the amount predicted by Einstein. So, Einstein’s theory of general relativity is a scientific theory, according to Popper’s criteria, because it made a falsifiable prediction.

TRUTH AND JUSTICE—

Do the sciences have an answer for everything? In one essential sphere, they need to be taken over and guided, and that sphere is ‘Ethics’. There is no science that can tell us if the exploitation of atomic energy, the exploration of space or the possible cloning of human beings, is morally good or bad. And even if it has to take into account more and more scientific information, ethics is not itself a science. Its interest in ends puts it at the very heart of philosophy.

The aim of ethics assigned by Aristotle was ‘to live a good life’. But determining what constitutes ‘good’, is not straightforward; between the useful, whose limitation we have realized, and the good in itself- radiant like a dazzling star- there is the Just. But isn’t this simply a timid compromise to avoid violence and conflict? Or is it rather the lucid, if complex, elaboration of all the best solutions we can find, and the best decisions we can take to ensure social harmony and individual happiness? If the latter, we must construct ” A Theory of Justice”( by American philosopher John Rawls(1921-2002)), even if justice should never remain theoretical. We have to see the practical side of philosophy. How can we work through it without a concern for truth? Theory and practice are closely linked; a theory that does not lead to actual practice remains abstract; a practice lacking clarification by theory is comparable to a car driving at night without headlights.

To declare that philosophy’s theoretical side is the search for truth seems obvious. If there is a difficulty, it lies in the singular designation; does it refer to truth in general or to ‘ The Truth'( assuming that there’s a higher and unique truth)?

When Pontius Pilate and Jesus had their extraordinary confrontation, The Roman procurator posed the philosophical question par excellence; ‘what is truth?’Is it not in fact philosophy’s task to show how this search for truth is an infinite and impossible quest? If the other response offered, that of Jesus(who presents himself as’ the way, the truth, and the life’) demands faith, then it is not philosophical.

The philosophical search for the truth can not claim to be exclusive without contradicting itself. For truth is not written in capital letters. Philosophy’s unique privilege is not that it can present its own truths, as superior to religious or scientific truths. Rather, it is privileged because it reflects on the very notion of truth and on the conditions that govern valid judgement. Hence philosophical thinking must be specific and narrowly conceived, not like the search for a general truth. Philosophical thought appears only at the end of a cultural evolution, that has already enabled humanity to discover many different truths at many different levels.

Is it necessary to reject everything that claims to be true? Aristotle’s answer is ‘ no one is left completely out of the gate.’He means that truth is not unified and is not given as a whole, but reveals itself bit by bit through experience and trial.( hum toh kya hain woh farishton koh azmata hai, banakar humko mitata hai phir banata hai, aadmi tootkey….sau baar juda hai yaaro……jiska koi nahin…..). Philosophy’s role is not to condemn errors, but to correct and overcome them, confirming as true only those claims whose truth and validity can be tested, which must lead us to pose questions such as the following; ‘is truth a function of the form of judgement itself, or it is a matter of a correspondence with external reality?”Is a true judgement irrefutable?”Are there truths that can not be demonstrated?”Is logical truth the only kind of truth?’and so on and so forth.

Truth and justice, justice and truth; they are the two sides of an appropriate banner for philosophy. Yet what is a banner, but a sign of pride, a sign of identity. It is what a noble fighter might use to rally members of his clan, his family, or his nation( one could well imagine the philosophers thus grouping themselves on a battlefield, but is not philosophy primarily the love of wisdom, and does not it speak to every one without grouping?) or the world.( ek lafze muhabbat ka adna sa fasana hai, simtey toh dile aashiq phailey toh zamana hai….)

ETHICAL VEGETARIANISM AND RELATED ARGUMENT–
(ref-‘The Classical Utilitarians’ by Jeremy Bentham – published in 2003, ‘Taking Animals seriously; mental life and moral status’ by David De Grazia, 1996, ‘The Basic Argument for Vegetarianism’ by James Rachels, 2007, and ‘All Animals Are Equal’ by Peter Singer, 2002)

The ethics of relations between human and nonhuman animals is a minor topic in the history of western moral philosophy.Philosophers have given it more attention since nineteen seventies, when Peter Singer’s work prompted much thinking about the interests of nonhuman animals. Singer’s signature claim is that the same interests of nonhuman animals and humans deserve the same degree of moral considerations. At the time he pressed the analogy with contemporary liberation movements, saying that nonhuman animals were unfairly denied moral status, just as women and people of color had been unfairly denied moral status. However Singer’s judgement of social status and claims of oppression contribute less to its philosophical merit than the impetus he gave to rethinking of criteria of basic moral status. The argument presented here makes claims about moral status explicit.

This argument has had more influence among non-philosophers than any philosophical argument of the past 50 years, with the possible exception of John Rawls’ ‘A Theory of Justice’ and Thomas Kuhn’s ‘ The Structure of Scientific Revolution’. Although the argument concludes that vegetarianism is morally required, the consideration adduced in its premises can be extended to moral judgement about using nonhuman animals in research, manufacturing, entertainment, and companionship.

The argument for ethical vegetarianism starts by asserting that the ability to suffer is the ground of basic moral consideration. A being deserves basic moral consideration if it deserves consideration of its own sake. In contrast something deserves derivative moral consideration if it deserves consideration for the sake of something else.

The ethical vegetarianism argument aims to show that nonhuman animals deserve basic moral consideration.

A being deserves basic moral consideration just in case we are morally required to take its interests into account when deliberating about what to do. The ability to suffer is roughly coextensive with sentience, the capacity to experience pain, pleasure, frustration, and satisfaction of desires. Anything that deserves basic moral consideration is said to have interests. If so, then any being that can suffer has an interest in avoiding suffering. Things that can not suffer might merit derivative moral consideration even when they do not merit consideration for their own sake.

Knowing that a being deserves moral consideration is necessary, but not sufficient for moral judgement. In addition, we need to know how various beings’ interests stand in relation to one another. The equal consideration of interests principle is an independent premise telling us that interests themselves are equal, regardless of the kind of being that has the interests. Thus, the equal consideration of interests principle asserts that the criteria of moral consideration, the ability to suffer, applies to both nonhuman and human animals. Thus, the same suffering ought to have the same weight in judging the rightness or wrongness of our actions, whether a human or nonhuman experiences the suffering.

The conclusion of this argument is that, causing a being to suffer without adequate justification is morally wrong. And consequently concluding that eating meat is morally wrong. The premises introduce the factual claims that industrial production of meat involves confining,killing, and causing animals to experience pain, and that by eating meat one participates in confining, killing, and causing pain.

Singer’s earlier statement of the argument is his “All animals Are Equal” published in 1974 in ‘ Philosophical Exchange’. The journal is not widely available, but the article is frequently anthologized. The quotation below is from singer’s ‘ Unsanctifying Human Life’.

If a being suffers, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. No matter what the nature of being, the principle of equality requires that its suffering be counted equally with the like suffering- insofar as rough comparison can be made- of any other being. If a being is not capable of suffering, or of experiencing enjoyment or happiness, there is nothing to be taken into account. This is why the limit of sentience ( using the term as a convenient, if not strictly accurate shorthand for the capacity to suffer or experience enjoyment or happiness) is defensible boundry of concern for the interests of others. To mark the boundry by some characteristic like intelligence or rationality would be to mark it in an arbitrary way. Why not chose some other characteristic, like skin color?

The racist violates the principles of equality by giving greater weight to the interests of members of his own race, when there is clash between their interests and the interests of those of another race. Similarly, the speciesist allows the interests of his own species to override the greater interests of members of other species. The pattern is the same in each case. Most humans are speciesists. I shall now describe some of the practices that show this.

For the great majority of human beings, especially in urban, industrialized societies, the most direct form of contact with members of other species is at mealtimes; we eat them. In doing so, we treat them purely as means of our ends. We regard their life and well-being as subordinate to our taste for a particular kind of dish. I say “taste” deliberately- this is purely a matter of pleasing our palate. There can be no defense of eating flesh in terms of satisfying nutritional needs, since it has been established beyond doubt that we could satisfy our need for protein and other essential nutrients far more efficiently with a diet that replaced animal flesh by soybeans, or products derived from soybeans, and other high protein vegetables and their products.

It is not merely the act of killing that indicates what we are ready to do to other species in order to gratify our tastes. The suffering we inflict on the animals while they are alive is perhaps an even clearer indication of our speciesism, than the fact that we are prepared to kill them.

“WILL TO BELIEVE” ARGUMENT-
(REF-‘The Will to Believe,The Human Immortality’ by William James,by Dover publications, 1956, and ” William James’s ‘The will to Believe,The Human Immortality’ and ‘The Ethics of Self Experimentation'” by Jennifer Welchman, 2006)

William James in his 1896 lecture,”The Will to Believe” gave an argument for holding on to religious beliefs, even in the face of insufficient evidence. James’ stated target in his lecture is W.K.Clifford, a philosopher who had argued in his’ The Ethics of Belief’ that’ it is wrong always, everywhere, and for everyone to believe anything upon insufficient evidence’. James’ strategy in “The Will to Believe” is first to identify what he thought would be a point of agreement with Clifford; specifically that our two fundamental duties as believers are to believe truth and avoid falsehood. James then goes on to agree partially with Clifford that at least ordinarily when someone believes upon insufficient evidence, he is irrational. This is because while believing upon insufficient evidence, does contribute to the pursuit of true belief(since the belief might be true), when someone believes upon insufficient evidence, he is usually violating his duty to avoid false belief.( since he didn’t wait for sufficient evidence before believing)

Where James disagrees with Clifford is, on whether believing upon insufficient evidence always involves, violating our duty to avoid false belief. Specifically James argues that, there exist beliefs for which the evidence of their truth would only become available, after we believed them, and therefore waiting to believe until we had sufficient evidence, would be a self defeating wait. To illustrate with an example, suppose that one has just finished medical education, and he/she is trying to decide whether to join a research team working to discover a cure for cancer. Now, to make such a substantial commitment to the search for a cure, James would argue that he/she must believe that a cure exists to be found. That is, he/she would be fooling himself/herself, if he/she thought that he/she could make such a momentous career choice while continuing to suspend belief about the existence of the cure he/she is looking for. At the very least, most people would need such a belief to sustain them, during the times in which their research was going poorly. That being said, sufficient evidence that such a cure exists, wouldn’t be available until well into the search for one. Therefore, a belief in the existence of a cure for cancer is a belief for which the evidence of its truth, only becomes available after we believe that a cure exists.

Similar to a cancer researcher’s belief in the existence of a cure, James holds that religious belief is required before evidence of its truth can become available. While this would seem to justify religious belief only for those who make a career of religious research, James argues that religious belief is justified even for ordinary believers in virtue of the peculiar way its evidence depends upon their belief. In the preface to the published version of his “The Will To Believe” lecture, James fills in this last step of his argument.

If religious hypothesis about the universe be in order at all, then the active faiths of individuals in them, freely expressing themselves in life, are the experimental tests by which they are verified, and the only means by which their truth or falsehood can be wrought out. The truest scientific hypothesis is that which, as we say ‘works’ best; and it can be no otherwise with religious hypothesis.Religious history proves that one hypothesis after another has worked ill, has crumbled at contact with a widening knowledge of the world, and has lapsed from the minds of men. Some articles of faith, however, have maintained themselves through every vicissitude, and possess even more vitality today than ever before. The freest competition of the various faiths with one another, and their openest application to life by their several champions, are the most favorable conditions under which the survival of the fittest can proceed.

PHILOSOPHY AND LOVE—

Plato’s finest dialogue ‘The Symposium’, is devoted to love, to the God of love,Eros, and to different forms of love. In the course of a convivial dinner party, each of the guests makes an effort to speak in praise of love.

Plato does not conceal the fact that love is also responsible for delirium and distraction, because it first desires beautiful bodies made of flesh and blood, and so falls far short of ideal purity. It implies that Plato completely outlawed physical love, which is not the case at all. What is true on the other hand, is that he believed that physical love needs to be illuminated by the higher harmony,of which it is a reflection. Further it represents one phase of our ascent towards the beautiful and the good. ‘Platonic love’ reveals how much philosophy, if it remains in touch with life itself, moves us the way desire moves us, leading us to transcend ourselves and inspiring us with enthusiasm, drawing us towards the divine.

The respective roles of physical desire and attachment to a person, continue to provoke discussion throughout the philosophical tradition. While sexuality was repressed for many hundreds of years, today its vindication intrudes in every aspect of life- all too often in forms that are violent or artificially manipulated by advertisements and the media. We have passed from one extreme to the other.

Do we know the right tasks for a philosophical way of thinking that is conscious of recent developments, and has been enlightened by the discoveries of psychoanalysis and the human sciences? We do know that it should not reduce human love to its most basic expression. Instead it should consider human love in all its different forms, with tolerance and sympathy, and it should give love the chance to contribute again to the search for wisdom. American philosopher Stanley Cavell ( born 1926- aged 87) put it this way- “Philosophy is the education of grown-ups”.

LOVE OF WISDOM—

Wisdom is the practical aim of philosophy. But it is outdated. Almost invariably sage is presented as a venerable old man, impressive or genial, very rarely with the features of a young girl or young man. Our age prefers extremes. Moderation repels.

Solomon had already judged that wisdom is impossible without the help of God. The monotheistic religions distrust any heightened state of soul that might be attained independently of divine grace. Clearly wisdom has very few friends.

Even western philosophy is not so sure about wisdom. Socrates, whom the oracle at Delphi designated the wisest of men, refused the title, and inaugurated this false modesty that involves saying one is only a lover or friend of wisdom. Differentiating himself from those early Greek philosophers who did not hesitate to call themselves-Sages(Sophie- in Greek).

Wisdom is something ‘sought after’ rather than possessed. But why is it considered so difficult, if not impossible, for human beings to achieve? We can understand why the religions dependent on the Bible maintain this impossibility, because for them it is the result of Adam’s sin. But why philosophy unsure?

It is philosophy’s lucidity about the human condition, feeble and controlled by passion, that leads it to scepticism and can even drive it to disenchantment.

Descartes had a more measured and confident position; lacking the sovereign, omniscient wisdom that is the privilege of God, man can endeavor to master his passions, learn how to know them,and, if he knows how to limit his desires, attain a state of bliss adapted to his own limits( just as a small vessel is easier to fill than a large one).

This is how modesty can point the way on the path to wisdom. It seems to be true that the exercise of philosophy, teaching us to be clear about the world and about ourselves, can teach us moderation and thus also the beginning of wisdom.

While our technological society emphasizes adaptation and flexibility, our decision makers(rulers) fuss about integration, responsibility, the sense of citizenship. The question of individual balance, the sense of what counts in life, seems to be downgraded to a mere accessory. And those who refuse the dominant model are considered dropouts; Our society wants to be efficient, controlling and profitable.

Something like a serious examination of what really should count in life, something a bit like pilgrimage to the source after all, is required. This does not inevitably mean a trip to India. A living practice of philosophy always includes a personal side in addition. So it is up to us to take it from here.

CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY—

Is the present period in the history of western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with the professionalization of the discipline and the rise of Analytic and Continental philosophy.

The Phrase ” Contemporary philosophy” is a piece of technical terminology in philosophy that refers to a specific period in the history of western philosophy. However the phrase is often confused with Modern philosophy(which refers to an earlier period in western philosophy), Post Modern philosophy ( which refers to Continental philosophers criticism of Modern philosophy), and with a non-technical use of the phrase referring to any recent philosophic work.

THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF PHILOSOPHY–

THE PROFESSIONAL PHILOSOPHY TODAY—

Not long after the formulation, The Western Philosophical Association, and portions of the American Psychological Association merged with the American Philosophical Association to create what is today the main professional organization for philosophers in United States, That is AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION. The association has three divisions- Pacific, Central, and Eastern. Each division organizes a large annual conference. The biggest of these is the EASTERN DIVISION meeting which usually attracts around 2000 philosophers and takes place in a different east coast city each December. The Eastern division meeting is also America’s largest recruitment event for philosophy jobs, with numerous universities sending teams to interview candidates for academic posts. Among its many other tasks, the association is responsible for administering many of the profession’s top honours. For example, the Presindency of a Division of the American philosophical Association is considered to be a professional honour, and the American Philosophical Association Book prize is one of the oldest prizes in philosophy.

The largest academic organization devoted to specifically furthering the study of continental philosophy is the Society for Phenomenology and Existential philosophy.

Since the start of the 21st century, philosophers have also seen the growing utilization of blogs as a means of professional exchange. A few notable milestones in this development include an informal listing of philosophy blogs begun by philosopher David Chalmers which has since become a widely used resource by the profession. The establishment of a partnership between Ethics blog,PEA Soup and the prominent journal Ethics, to post featured articles for online discussion on the blog, and the role of blogs like, what is it like to be a woman in philosophy?, in bringing attention to the experience of women in the profession.

THE ANALYTIC – CONTINENTAL DIVIDE–

Contemporary Continental philosophy began with the work of Franz Brentano, Edmund Husserl, Adolf Reinach and Martin Heideggar, and the development of the philosophical method of phenomenology. This development was roughly contemporaneous with work by Gottlob Ferge and Bertrand Russel, inaugurating a new philosophical method based on the analysis of language via modern logic( hence the term ” Analytic Philosophy”).

Analytic and Continental philosophers often hold a disparaging view of each other’s respective approach to philosophy, and as a result work largely independent of each other. While Analytic philosophy is the dominant approach in most philosophy departments found in english speaking countries (e.g. U.K., U.S., Canada, Australia), as well as Scandinavia, Continental philosophy is prevalent throughout the rest of the western world( e.g. France, Germany). Some contemporary philosophers argue that this division is harmful to philosophy and thus attempt a combined approach(e.g. Richard Rorty–1931-2007).

Analytic and Continental philosophy share a common western philosophical tradition up to Immanuel Kant. Afterwards analytic and continental philosophers differ on the importance and influence of subsequent philosophers on their respective traditions. The German Idealism school which developed out of work of Kant in 1780 and seventeen nineties and culminated in Hegel, is considered an important development in philosophy’s history by many continental philosophers, but was thought to be repudiated by Bertrand Russel, Moore and many analytic philosophers.

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Carl Jung (World’s First Spiritual Psychologist—- 1875-1961)

There are many aspects of Jung’s personality, out of which I am fascinated by the spiritual side and here I shall confine this blog to that aspect, which connects him to eastern philosophy, and he was very much impressed and influenced by spiritual east and openly admitted this in his writings.

The Nature Of The Psyche-
(From The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche, The Collected Works)

Jung discusses his soul-centred psychology against a historical background of scientific-materialism. Jung’s psychology is a reaction to the bleak psychology of his time. which he calls ‘psychology without soul’. But Jung refused to adopt a romantic or idealistic concept of the soul. For him it is a subject of scientific scrutiny and only a sober attitude can do justice to its complexities, functions and pathologies. Soul for Jung is not a theological abstraction, such as we find in western religion, but an empirical reality. He derives the term soul from the Greek word ‘psyche’ and thus ‘psycho-logy’ literally means ‘the logos or study of the soul’. Jung wants the discipline of psychology to return to this original foundation. He sees no reason, apart from modern prejudice and assumptions, as to why psychology has taken a turn to reductive materialism. The study of psyche ought be given back its mystery and philosophical depth. Since soul is primarily unconscious for us today, Jung’s psychology begins with the idea of the unconscious, and this marks it off from mainstream psychologies which are psychologies of consciousness.

Jung admits that in some ways his psychology is not modern, for to derive a psychology from spiritual principles is to move counter to the reductive bias that is found in everything modern. His psychology represents, in part, a return to ‘the teachings of our forefathers. He despises the fact that materialism has become fused with scientific enquiry, thus generating scientism. Jung was arguing that scientific materialism is an ideology and not a science. Materialism is destroying the thinking of our era, and hardly anyone dares to contradict it because;

To think otherwise than our contemporaries think is somehow illegitimate and disturbing; it is even indecent, morbid or blasphemous, and therefore socially dangerous for the individual. He is stupidly swimming against the social current.

Jung was aware of the dangers of swimming against the tide, and he practised it on a daily basis. We have to appreciate the personal resolve and professional difficulty that this involved. As we might say today, he must have had enormous resilience and self-belief to withstand the barrage of criticisms that he constantly received.

Jung is not content to assert an opposite position to mainstream psychology; he also turns the tables on this scientific-materialism, arguing that it is inherently irrational in its obsession with material causation. We do not even know what ‘matter’ is, so how can we pretend to be so certain about it? Matter remains, to this day, mysterious to physicists, chemists and biologists, but the popular worldview asserts a ‘materialism’ which pure science can not support.

In reality we are flying blind into the future, with a recklessness that Jung finds alarming. We have left unattended the invisibles of the psyche, and Jung’s intuition is that this is landing us in social chaos and personal despair. The invisibles require study and attention, and their needs have to be taken seriously, otherwise we face a continued downward course into violence and destruction. After the experience of the first world war, Jung adopts a social dimension in everything he writes, and he does not write as if there is no world crisis outside the clinic. He thinks it is our unsubstantiated worldview that is responsible for the rise of social, political and psychological disorder.

Jung’s Analytical psychology-

The intellect, and along with it science, is now placed at the service of a creative power and purpose. Yet this is still ‘psychology’ although no longer science; it is psychology in the wider meaning of the world.
C. G. Jung

Sigmund Freud, his mentor and collaborator from 1906 to 1913, had ruled spirituality a taboo area for scientific enquiry. Freud tolerated Jung while he was a ‘follower’ but Jung’s own interests were derided by Freud as ‘mysticism’ or ‘occultism’. In his youth, Jung had clashed with his own father, a clergyman. He was interested in his father’s profession(preaching Christianity) and expected good things to come from it, but as he approached adolescence Jung was disappointed by what he saw as the emptiness of his father’s religion. He felt his father had little faith and no experience to base it on. All he seemed to possess was a set of beliefs. To Jung, his father’s sermons were displays of religiosity without spirituality.

Thus Jung felt equally unsupported by his intellectual father, Freud, and his biological father, Paul Jung. In the language of psychoanalysis, he suffered from a father-complex, and in his life and career he had to struggle to discover a fatherly source of authenticating strength within himself. However, even in this context we can not speak of his complex as purely personal. One might say that in the modern period, there is a spirituality ‘complex’ in civilization. Scientific materialism has refused to support spirit, since it has, until recently, been obsessed with demonstrable fact and material causation. Religion has also dispensed with the experiential life of spirit, preferring to focus on the historical sources of revelation and the worship of charismatic leaders. In archetypal terms, ‘spirit’ is ‘unfathered’ by either tradition, and Jung’s life is a testimony to this problem.

Jung’s mother outwardly conformed to her husband’s religion, but in her personal life she seemed to be an advocate of popular or ‘folk’ religion. She was interested in ghosts, spirits of the dead and poltergeists. This interest seemed to be passed on to her son, and for his doctorate Jung wrote a thesis on the psychology of mediumistic or occult phenomena. But Jung’s interest in the occult was quickly outgrown, as is often the case in the intellectual development of enquiring minds. Instead of focusing on his mother’s ‘spirits’, Jung developed an interest in, and passion for, spirit as an archetypal force. Whereas spirits are conceived as literal and local metaphysical agencies, spirit is a universal force found in all things. Spirit is not just a spooky element in occult elements, but an enlivening principle that imbues culture, religion, and society. We can say that Jung’s interest in the invisible world progressed from naïve spiritualism to mature spirituality.

In eighteenth century science operated under the influence of enlightenment, in which reason was advocated as the primary source of authority. But in nineteenth century an overenthusiastic section of scientists and crusaders degenerated it into scientific-materialism, a view which denies the validity of any phenomenon not susceptible to scientific investigation. Religion was construed as the ‘enemy’ of science. Jung was highly critical of this scientific materialism, and he was intent on exploring the depths of nature as well as human nature.

Although Freud used the word ‘mysticism’ as a term of abuse for Jung, but mystics in east are revered as spiritual masters who have communion with god, and who have achieved higher consciousness. Even in west, today there is a change in perception and mysticism will not be tolerated as an abuse. Public and scholarly attitudes to mysticism changed in the 1940s and 1950s. Phenomenal interest in the writings of the poets and mystics of the east, like Rumi, Buddhism, Vivekanand confirmed that the world’s hunger for mysticism is at a high level and sustained. In this sense Freud was out of step with contemporary life and was sort of speaking from a late-nineteenth century worldview which can be said outdated now.

As a science of mind, psychoanalysis could not remain faithful to Freud’s iron-clad rationality. Freudians(word used for followers of Freud) have ignored their founder’s jaundiced attitudes towards spirituality and religion. The spiritual pole of the libido, as theorised by Jung, has surfaced in the work of post-Freudians, giving the lie to the mechanistic view they inherited. The gap between Jungians and Freudians is closing.

In our time medicine is becoming more holistic. The general practitioner is not only knowledgeable in western medicine, but often he or she has an interest in Chinese, Indian or Japanese medicine. A great many doctors practise acupuncture, herbal medicine, naturopathy, and other so-called ‘complementary’ modalities. In mental health, there is increased suspicion among professionals and patients that medication can treat complex mental illnesses. The mental health industry is moving towards a more holistic paradigm, in which Jung’s theories and methods, including his interpretation of dreams, fantasies, and visions, and his amplification of images in light of myths and cosmological systems, no longer seem out of place. In this open environment, discourse about soul or spirit no longer grates on the nerves of the medical practitioners. On the contrary, all accounts suggest that such practitioners are eager to be re-educated in a larger model in which soul and spirit are no longer seen as obsolete.

Writing of the new turn in the direction of knowledge and science in recent decades, Diarmuid O’Murchu said;

The twenty-first century will, in all probability, experience a momentum towards another view of life, namely, the holistic or systems view, which seeks to interpret all life forms, including the universe as a whole, as a process of mutual interdependence, whereby individual parts do not act independently but in relationship with each other for the good of the whole. Ironically the momentum is arising not from within Christianity but from the combined insights of biology, physics, anthropology, psychology, and mysticism.

In ‘Psychology and Literature’ Jung suggested that the psychologist has an obligation to go beyond conventional boundaries:

Since it is a characteristic of the psyche not only to be the source of all productivity but, to express itself in all the activities and achievements of the human mind, we can nowhere grasp the nature of the psyche per se but can meet it only in its various manifestations. The psychologist is therefore obliged to make himself familiar with a wide range of subjects, not out of presumption and inquisitiveness but rather from love of knowledge, and for this purpose he must abandon his thickly walled specialist fortress and set out on the quest for truth.

There is another issue that we have to deal with today : the environmental crisis and its ‘inconvenient truths’. An ecological emergency is upon us and this has placed the function of knowledge in a different light. Knowledge which continues to fragment the world, to separate the humanity from nature, to split spirit from earth and mind from body, is being viewed with a new kind of suspicion, the like of which we have not seen before. The dualistic model of knowledge , which was unrivalled until recently, is being attacked from many quarters, and Jung is coming in to favour at this point in time. Today we are in need of large theories that can comprehend the relationships between humanity and nature, and the connection between matter, physics, psyche, mind and behaviour.

One might say that at last Jungian thought has found acknowledgement and respect in a scholarly field. Eco-psychology has brought together natural scientists, philosophers, poets, environmental activists, sociologists, and educationists. This important new discourse is searching for a spiritual orientation and a philosophical foundation for the environmental movement, and is finding Jung attractive. Jung proposed unifying principles of the world which are now seen to have ecological consequences. There is a great deal of intellectual excitement about eco-psychology, because it seems to suggest a way out of our dualism, towards a holistic approach which can heal the earth as well as the mind.

The Spiritual Problem Of Modern man-
(From Civilization in Transition, The Collected Works by C.G.Jung )

The spiritual ‘problem’ of western humanity consists, for Jung, of a cluster of problems. First, the modern person has been educated to believe in reason and the evidence of the senses. This means that the truly modern person has become alienated from religion and from all forms of non-rational activity. He or she engages in logical thinking, thus preventing the psyche from expressing itself. This has created a divided personality, with the conscious part identified with society and its values, and the unconscious part unattended, unsupported and lacking in direction. The unconscious is liable to become unruly, dangerous or monstrous in this split-off condition, thus creating the social climate for conflict, war, and a general discontent that is liable to lead to addictions, compulsions, fanaticisms, and revolutionary movements. When spirit is neglected it becomes the source of many pathologies.

Second, the non-rational life of the Soul has changed. It is no longer adequately expressed by the values of Christianity, nor by any other religion that is concerned primarily with the good, the light and the holy. There has been such a piling-up of evil and darkness in the psyche that the soul can no longer identify itself with images of goodness. The soul requires a different kind of expression, one which can acknowledge- and transform- the dark forces that have gathered in the inner world. This means there can be no going back to the religious forms of the past, and the ‘spiritual problem’ is not solved by returning to religious life in the old way. Religions now appear somewhat alien to the soul: ‘For modern man …the various forms of religion no longer appear to come from within, from the psyche; they seem more like items from the inventory of the outside world.

Third, the new religious expressions, which are yet to be realized, will need to emerge from within the conditions of the modern soul and need to be experiential. The new religious life of humanity can’t be based on external belief, tradition, or moral instruction. Jung suggests that the imitation of Christ or any other messianic figures is no longer possible; instead, we have to allow the spirit within to guide and direct us. This points to a religion based on the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Jung seems to follow the tripartite view of history; an old testament world governed by God the Father, a Christian world governed by God the Son, and a future, third world governed by the Spirit. Jung’s work points to a new era as Father and Son’s completion in a higher spiritual order. The Holy Spirit- (although well known in the East as Spirituality) the least known member of the Trinity- is on Jung’s mind as a clue to the landscape of the future.

We are only at the threshold of a new spiritual epoch, writes Jung and as such, we do not have the cultural forms to direct this new spiritual life. We can’t expect religious tradition, society or governments to do the work for us; these are old world expressions which are opposed to radical change. Society wants to remain humanist and secular, religion wants to remain true to the past, and education wants to remain true to the reason. Consequently, humanity is left stranded and without resources. If change is going to come it is going to be from our own efforts; ‘Great innovations never come from above, they come invariably from below, just as trees never grow from the sky downward, but upward from the earth.’ We have to motivate ourselves to meet the spiritual challenges of our time; ‘The modern man must be proficient in the highest degree, for unless he can atone by creative ability for his break with tradition, he is merely disloyal to the past’. Jung is scathing towards the ‘pseudo-moderns’ who do not meet the challenges of the age, but who merely enjoy their freedom from the past. If spiritual life is not attended to, or we do not contribute to rebuilding it in some way, our lives are empty and we drag civilization to the edge of ruin.

Rebuilding is essential, but Jung admits that at first we do not know how to rebuild or where to start. He criticizes Theosophy(a new spiritual movement started in the west) as ‘an amateurish, indeed barbarous imitation of the East’.

Jung seems touchy about the East, and is only too aware of how much he has borrowed from it. Jung wants to arrive at its own East, by finding an equivalent introverted and experiential attitude in itself.

Jung stated ‘ It seems to be true that the East is at the bottom of the spiritual change, we are passing through today. Only, this East is not a Tibetan monastery full of Mahatmas, but lies essentially within us. It is our own psyche, constantly at work creating new spiritual forms and spiritual forces which may help us to subdue the boundless lust for prey of Aryan man.

For Jung the East is a symbol of the unexplored potential of the western psyche, and he wants to make contact with that psychic reality- and not project our interiority upon the Oriental world. Western world is empty, burnt out, needs renewal, that’s what Jung thought.

Religion and Psychology-

What does Jung mean by religious? He does not mean ‘religion’ in the conventional sense. Jung was not keen on organized religion, and rebelled against his father’s dedication to what he saw as ‘dead’ or moribund tradition. Jung’s main interest was in religious experience, namely, the fact of having been encountered by , or brought into contact with, the ‘numinosum’. This term refers to a God or Spirit as a power that can impact our experience and turn our lives around. The ‘numinosum’ he writes, is’ an experience of the subject independent of his will’. This is the hallmark of Jung’s work. He is not interested in our personal intentions, our independent actions or choices. He is riveted by something that comes to greet us which is outside our will and contrary to our intention. There is something outside consciousness which eclipses us on all sides. Those with an interest and experience in the sources of mystery from which our lives emerge will be intrigued by what Jung calls his ‘unusual argument’. ( Sahara bekason ka hai yehi insaf ka ghar hai,..yahan se maangney wala kabhi khali nahin jaata…. jahan bigdi huee taqdeer banti hai yeh woh dar hai…..taqdeer ke kab tak zulm sahen, tum se na kahen toh kissey kahen…..), (koi chaara nahin duaa ke siva, koi suntaa nahin khuda ke siva…….kaun ubhraa hai nakhuda ke siva…), (sookhi rut mein bhigi badariya, chamki bijuria saath ; doobo tum bhi sang mere, ya thamo mera haath ; maula salim chishti.. aaka salim chishti…jayega kaun pyasa aakey tumharey dar se, kuchh jaam se piyengey kuchh mehrban nazar se…yeh sang-e-dar tumhara todengey apne sar se…yeh dil agar dubara toota salim chishti….maula salim chishti..aaka salim chishti….)

‘The numinosum,’ he says, ‘is the influence of an invisible presence that causes a peculiar alteration of consciousness’.

Jung tells us how we are bound, and at the same time how we can achieve freedom. Although urging us to become aware of the invisible presence in our lives, Jung has a humanistic side, and is concerned that we find our relation to this presence, so that we discover freedom and maintain dignity. So Jung is showing the path (that is spiritual path we can say) to achieve freedom from suffering and pain (this is actually not different from what Gautam Buddha showed us through ‘nirvana’ and eight fold path to achieve it and this is the eternal truth believed in East ).

This embeddedness connects us to forces beyond the ego. The ego might feel alone, even alienated from the world, history and cosmos, but this alienation is an illusion of its own making. It is a ‘myth’ that majority lives by, and it’s a myth that Jung’s work challenges. In a way Jung’s work can be compared with that of Karl Marx (it’s so ironical because Jung was a believer and Marx was an atheist, but both of them wanted to free humanity from alienation in their own ways with pure intentions ). Both saw alienation as the modern condition, both sought to overcome alienation and achieve an authentic existence. But whereas for Marx the work of transformation was to be achieved by social rebellion against capitalism, for Jung the transformation was psychological and achieved by rebellion against the hegemony of the ego. Both are against the organized religion, but the similarity ends there. The vast difference is that whereas the doctrine of Marx leads to division of humanity and wars, the Jung doctrine is to heal the wounds of humanity through esoteric side of religion, which is so well known in the East as Spirituality. Marx’s revolution has been tried and found wanting; Jung’s revolution is a task for future, and has to succeed for the very survival of the humanity.

Literalism In Western Religion-

Jung believes that the churches have been involved in a self-deceiving falsehood. They have tended to read their images, miracles and wonders as literal events or physical facts, whereas it is obvious that such important moments in the Christian story as the virgin birth of Jesus, his physical resurrection and the second coming are not events on the stage of history but images of myth. They are myths which have been woven around the ‘bare’ facts of the historical figure of Jesus, his ministry of love and forgiveness and his crucifixion.

Today we tend to dismiss the myths as false but Jung insisted that they are true, not literally true, but they are spiritually true. That is, they express age-old truths of the spirit and timeless patterns of the soul. Jesus became a symbol of the spirit, and it can be said that spirit does not have a ‘normal’ birth, that is, it is not dependent on sexual processes or biological facts for its existence. It precedes sexuality, biology and the body, and it can be said to be ‘virginal’ in a metaphorical sense. The spirit can not be destroyed by death of the body, and thus it can be said to be immortal, to rise again after death. Jung’s theory of the metaphorical nature of the Christian mysteries does not please Christian readers, who insist on the ‘truth’ of such mysteries. Jung is saying that simple minded believers lack imagination and do not understand the nature of truth. Truth is not that one can see or touch, or an event which can be beheld by eyewitnesses. The resurrection can not be captured by photography. The outward body dies and the spirit lives on. Truth is internal, hidden from the common eye, and revealed only to the poet, the prophet or the philosopher.

Christians tend not to believe in hidden level of truth in the Bible and think of God’s word as matter of fact or non-metaphorical. That’s why Jung’s reading of these mysteries is considered heretical. Jung thinks that literalism is killing the church and destroying an otherwise good religion. So long as these events are literalised , they remain ‘out there’, lost in the past. If they are transformed into symbols of spirit, we can reclaim this heritage even in a technological age. They can come alive again in the soul.

Jung made it clear from the beginning that he was not a believer in miracles or wonders. He felt a mixture of poor judgement and bad taste on the part of churches, conspiring to read them literally.

Religious statements are not literally true, but nor are they lies, as atheists contend. Western person protests that if they are not true as facts, they can’t be true in any way. Such thinking lands them in the spiritual field, where many flounder. The mysteries of religions are truths of the spirit, but this is not self-evident to most of us today. Not even those who are professionally involved in religious life understand this. Very often, those who devote their life to religion do not perceive that religion is a call to personal transformation.

The traditions demand that people return to belief in miracles, but Jung points out that this is impossible for the modern intellect; nor does it connect us to the meaning of miracles;

Miracles appeal only to the understanding of those who can not perceive the meaning. Miracles are mere substitutes for the not understood reality of the spirit.

Literalism satisfies the religious institutions and their requirements, but not the soul or spirit, which hungers for the meaning in and behind miracles. We can no longer be fed miracles and wonders, because we are no longer satisfied by superstitious tales and need to know the meaning of transformations of spirit. Miracles are for those without faith and imagination. One does not need miracles if there is true faith. To confuse the sacred narrative of the mystical body with facts about the physical body is not a work of divine inspiration, but of cultural manipulation.

Jung felt that unless western religion could overcome its obsession with literalism, there was little hope for its revival. He wanted to bring the myths of religion to life by bringing them into contact with the soul, so they could be experienced as truths within the individual. In the current dogmatic climate, myths were dying for want of being understood as living organs of the soul.

The Difference between Eastern and Western thinking-
(From Psychology and Religion; West and East, The Collected Works by C.G.Jung )

The difference between East and West is that the West sees mind originating in the human being, and the East sees mind as a quality or dimension of the cosmos.The East can conceive of mind without a human presence. Its concept of mind is universal whereas the West’s is anthropocentric. The West asserts that there is no evidence for the existence of a universal mind, and science does not regard this as a sensible hypothesis. Jung is not including his own psychology in this generalization, as his vision allows for a universal mind, a thesis which he develops in his theory of ‘Synchronicity’. Jung is in the West but not of the West.(nineteenth century was the century of scientific-materialism and there was no place for spirituality in the West during this period, but lately some scientists had worked on mind and brain and established that mind is our true self and has access to the soul, and these developments proved that Jung’s vision was correct although scientifically it was not tested due to general reluctance to verify it by contemporary western scientists.)

Jung wrote- The development of western philosophy during the last two centuries ( he is referring to eighteenth and nineteenth centuries ) has succeeded in isolating the mind in its own sphere and in severing it from its primordial oneness with the universe. Man himself has ceased to be the microcosm and image of the cosmos, and his ‘anima’ is no longer the spark of the world-soul.

But we have to read Jung closely; he is not being as categorical as it might appear. He says the West has lost the universal mind, but he does not think we have lost it forever. Our anthropocentricism may be an illusion, a failure to see beyond certain facts. The truth may be more shocking than any thing western science has imagined. Our human mind and psyche may be part of a continuum of mind that we do not see. We have habitually and systematically blocked out the universal dimension failing to realize that our souls are ‘sparks’ of the soul of the world. It is just possible that our mind is nothing but a perceptible manifestation of a universal mind. The lost or forgotten ‘universal mind’, he supposes is to be found in our unconscious. It is the psychology of the unconscious that opens a potential bridge between Eastern and Western concepts of mind.

Jung assumed that the East has become attractive to the West, and the West is desirous of what the East possesses. He is worried about this desirous attitude because he thinks West has a consumerist hunger, which may blind westerns to see universal mind as a treasure of the East, and to go in search of that treasure with the intention of grabbing it literally. But even if West does it, the western psyche is still locked in its personalism and confinement. It has merely added universal mind as an exotic possession. The original dualism between personal and universal remains, and has merely been submerged by our acquisitive hunger. Jung is urging West to find universal mind as a buried treasure in the field.

Jung discusses a number of different, contrary points of view between East and West-‘The East bases itself upon psychic reality, that is, upon the psyche, as the main and unique condition of existence’, whereas ‘ we in the West believe that a truth is satisfactory only if it can be verified by external facts.’ ‘The West has developed its relationship with the world- the study of nature, science, technology, medicine, whereas the East has developed its relationship with the inner world and perfected the art of spirituality; Each civilization developed its strength and neglected its weaknesses and blind spots. Jung emphasises the disproportionate developments of each.’ ‘What West has to show in the way of spiritual insight and psychological technique must seem, when compared to East (Meditation, Yoga techniques originated from East, which now West is incorporating in medical science and in the treatment of chronic ailments) just as backward as Eastern astrology and medicine when compared with Western engineering and medical science.

But despite these vast differences,’ the two contradictory worlds have met’. ‘The East is becoming rapidly westernized and the West is borrowing and adapting from the East. Each side is exploring the other for what it lacks in itself.

Jung is excited about the possibilities of what he calls’ the spiritual adventure of our age’.

Jung says that ‘it is certainly more than an amusing freak of history that just at the time of French revolution a Frenchman, Anquetil du perron, should be living in India and, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, brought back with him a translation of the ‘Oupnek hat’ a collection of fifty Upanishads, which gave the West its first deep insight into the baffling mind of the East.

About Jung –

Carl Jung has been called the first new age Psychologist. His entire work has been described as,’ a psycho-religious statement, a progressive interpretation of the numinous by which man is consciously or unconsciously filled, surrounded, and led.’

Jung repeatedly defined himself as, ‘an empiricist who moved within the limits of a natural empirical science.’

He said, ‘ It is the truth, a force of nature that expresses itself through me – I can imagine in my instances where I would become sinister to you. For instance, if life had led you to take up an artificial attitude, then you would not be able to stand me, because I am a natural being. By my very presence I crystalize; I am a ferment. The unconscious of people who live in an artificial manner senses me as a danger. Everything about me irritates them, my way of speaking, my way of laughing. They sense nature.’

When Carl Gustav Jung spoke of himself as a “natural being”, he was sixty-six years old. By then he was world-famous and controversial, the first modern psychiatrist to recognize that the human psyche is “by nature religious”, and to explore it in-depth, a self described ’empiricist’ and ‘healer of the soul’, he penetrated the inner reaches of himself and his patients, linked his experience to ancient writings and cultures worldwide and offered his discoveries to an uncomprehending world.

In a letter he wrote,
” The main interest of my work is not concerned with the treatment of neurosis but rather with the approach to the numinous….(which) is the real therapy.”

Jung’s work explains-

* Man needs to become his complete self to live whole.

* God needs man to mirror his creation and help it evolve.

* The whole human being is open to God as co-creator.

Central to his analytical psychology is the individuation process. It might also be called ” coming to selfhood ” or “self realization” .

” The individual is all-important as he is the carrier of life, and his development and fulfilment are of paramount significance. It is vital for each living being to become its own entelechy (accomplishment/actuality) and to grow into that which it was from the very beginning.”

Individuation is the experience of a natural law, an inner self-regulating process by which man becomes a whole human being acknowledging and living the total range of himself. In the process the ego is ultimately faced with something larger than itself, a force that it yields to and serves. The human being thus recognizes himself as both material and spiritual, conscious and unconscious.

Individuation does not only mean that man has become truly human as distinct from animal, but he is to become partially divine as well. That means practically that he becomes adult responsible for his existence, knowing that he does not only depend on God , but that God also depends on human being.

Jung was at pains to point out that the wholeness he spoke of meant completion, not perfection. Perfection he saw as a masculine concept, completion as feminine one-

To get integrated or completed is such a formidable task that one does not dare to set people further goals, like perfection. As for instance the ordinary physician neither imagines nor hopes to make of his patient an ideal athlete, so the psychological doctor does not dream of being able to produce saints. He is highly content if he brings forth in himself as well as in others a fairly balanced and more or less sound individual, no matter how far from the state of perfection. Before we strive for perfection, we ought to be able to live the ordinary human being without self-mutilation. If anybody should find himself or herself after this humble completion, still left with a sufficient amount of energy, then he or she may begin his or her career as a saint.

Jung studied the symbolic language of alchemy, a European tradition( there is some dispute here since alchemy like algebra is an Arabic word originated from middle eastern Arabian culture) of transformative process that unites opposites to bring forth living knowledge-

Jung wrote- Only after I had familiarized myself with alchemy did I realize that the unconscious is a process, and that the psyche is transformed or developed by the relationship of the ego to the contents of the unconscious. In individual cases that transformation can be read from dreams and fantasies. In collective life it has left its deposit principally in the various religious systems and their changing symbols. Through the study of these collective transformation processes and through understanding of alchemical symbolism I arrived at the central concept of my psychology; ” the process of individuation.”

For Jung reaching to the ‘spiritual East’ was not a replacement of western culture but rather a filling of gaps in both east and west, ” a symbolic expression of the fact that we are entering into connection with the elements in ourselves which are strange to us.”

He further explains- It is not due to my intention or activity of mine that the spiritual and historical analogy with the east gets into my way of looking at things…..It is not however, the actual east we are dealing with but the collective unconscious, which is omnipresent…….I have landed in eastern sphere through the waters of the unconscious, for the truths of the unconscious can never be thought up, they can be reached only by following a path which all cultures right down to the most primitive level have called the way of initiation.

The first layer we encounter in the unconscious is what Jung called the ‘shadow’, usually those parts of ourselves we don’t like, don’t know, or don’t want to know. The shadow can be repressed in us like a cancer or projected outward onto others as qualities we dislike in a person or group. The negative shadow can present us with a shortcoming to be overcome. the positive can show us a meaningful part of ourselves we should recognize and live out.

Jung about himself- My shadow is indeed so huge that I could not possibly overlook it in the plan of my life. In fact I had to see it as an essential part of my personality, accept the consequences of this realization, and take responsibility for them. Many bitter circumstances have forced me to see that though the sin one has committed can be regretted, it is not cancelled out. I don’t believe in the tiger who was finally converted to vegetarianism and ate only apples. My solace was always Paul who did not deem it beneath his dignity to admit he bore a thorn in the flesh.

Active imagination, dreams, anima/animus, the shadow- they are all stations along the way to an acceptance of ourselves as we are, to letting life be –

Out of evil, much good has come to me. By keeping quiet, repressing nothing, remaining attentive, and by accepting reality- taking things as they are and not as I wanted them to be- by doing all this unusual knowledge has come to me, and unusual powers as well, such as I could never have imagined before. I always thought that when we accepted things they overpowered in some way or other. This turns out not to be true at all, and it is only by accepting them that one can assume an attitude towards them. So now I intend to play the game of life being receptive to whatever comes to me, good or bad, sun or shadow that are forever alternating in this way, also accepting my own nature with its negative and positive sides. Thus everything becomes more alive to me. What a fool I was. How I tried to force everything to go according to the way I thought it ought to.

Jung called this attitude ” religious in the highest sense”, adding that ” only on the basis of such an attitude will a higher level of consciousness and culture be possible.”

By hearing the opposites we can expose ourselves to life in our humanity…..We have to realize the evil is in us. We have to risk life to get into life, then it takes on colour, otherwise we might as well read a book–

The Opus consists of three parts– insight, endurance, and action–It is conflict of duty that makes endurance and action so difficult. The one must exist and so must the other. There can be no resolution, only patient endurance of the opposites, which ultimately spring from your own nature. you yourself are a conflict that rages in and against itself in order to melt its incompatible substances, the male and the female, in the fire of suffering, and thus create that fixed and unalterable form which is the goal of life. We are crucified between the opposites and delivered up to the torture until the reconciling third takes shape.

The ‘reconciling third’ that appears is the innermost nucleus of the psyche, the organizing centre that includes the ego but is not defined by it, a transpersonal, transcendent reality that Jung named the Self. The encounter with the Self is a centering which brings about a completion of the individuation process.

In a woman’s dream the self can be personified in female form as a priestess, earth mother, or goddess of love; in a man’s it appears as a male guru, wise old man, or spirit of nature. This psychic image of the transcendent can also be cosmic man, a divine or royal couple, a person that is both male and female, young and old, or an animal, crystal round stone, or mandala. Whatever the symbol, its meaning is wholeness, totality.

“People live on only one or two floors of a large apartment building which is our Mind, forgetting the rest.” The individuation process puts us in touch with the ‘rest’. Our conscious “I” is not the total psyche. There is an unconscious background that operates subliminally whether we realize it or not. Plugging into those undertones and making them conscious enlarges and deepens our experience of ourselves and life. The unconscious can be guide, friend, and adviser to the conscious. It speaks to us in the language of symbols, usually in the form of dreams.

Going inward means looking for the signs and symbols the unconscious dreams up for us naturally and spontaneously. Analysing, interpreting, and synthesizing them into our being is the work of our conscious selves. The world of unconscious is essentially an ambivalent one with both negative and positive aspects at all its levels which does not make it easy to understand. Often it begins to make itself felt out of negative state, such as boredom or stagnation, or a blow to the ego, a wounding of the personality.

Accused as Nazi Sympathiser—

In early 1930s Jung was accused of anti-Semitism and Nazi sympathies. Jung stated his position as followed-

I found myself faced with a moral conflict….should I as a prudent neutral withdraw on this side of the frontier, live and wash my hands in innocence or should I- as I was well aware – lay myself open to attack and the unavoidable misunderstanding which no one can escape who, out of a higher necessity, has to come to terms with the political powers that be in Germany ? Should I sacrifice the interests of science, of loyalty to my colleagues, of the friendship which binds me to many German physicians, and the living community of German language and intellectual culture, to my egoistic comfort and different political outlook ?….So I had no alternative but to land the weight of my name and my independent position for the benefit of my friends—-

The main point is to get a young and insecure Science into a position of safety during an earthquake. Medicine has nothing to do with politics….and therefore it can and should be practised for the good of suffering humanity under all governments…Man after all still has a soul and is not just an ox fatted for political slaughter. If I am called into the arena for the sake of the soul I shall follow the call wherever it may be…The doctor who, in wartime, gives his help to the wounded of the other side will surely not be held a traitor to his country…

In a letter he further writes about the allegation—

Dear Dr . Cohen,

Your criticism of my lack of things Jewish is quite justified. I don’t understand Hebrew. But you seem to impute a political attitude to me which, in reality I do not possess. I am absolutely not an opponent of the Jews, even though I am an opponent of Freud’s. I criticize Freud because of his materialistic and intellectualistic, and last but not the least- irreligious attitude and not because he is a Jew….

my relation with Germany is very recent and due to idiotic altruism and not at all due to political sentiment.

Freud, Mysticism, Libido, and Incest–

Jung was effectively dismissed in 1913 from the Freudian Psycho analytic movement, which was dogmatically atheist. It was also primarily Jewish, and according to Freud, Jung’s ‘mysticism’ was due to his Germanic Aryan descent, which had left its mark on Jung’s character and inclined him to a spiritual disposition. Freud had suppressed his own spiritual instinct and tended to pathologise it in others, as well as to stigmatise it as a racial trace. The highly secular Freud was suspicious of what he called the ” fairy tale forest feeling” in Jung’s work, and boasted to Karl Abraham; ‘We Jews have an easier time, having no mystical element.’ This was an error on Freud’s part. There are long-standing, highly respected and on-going traditions of mystical thought in Jewish culture, about which Freud was ignorant. Freud was talking about himself and projecting his disposition upon the Jewish people, as a whole. Moreover, it is wrong to ascribe a mystical element to a particular racial group. History shows that this element is found in all people at all times. The mystical element, however, can be suppressed or ignored in the service of a triumphant rationalism.

The intellectual argument broke out between these two giants of modern thought, when Jung attempted to expand the Freudian theory of libido. Freud defined the libido as purely sexual, and saw the problems of neurosis, as caused by sexual difficulties. To Jung, the libido was a life-force, which could include spiritual, symbolic, and archetypal as well as sexual dynamisms. Jung believed that sex was the most apparent energy-laden aspect of the spectrum of libido, and in its more subtle and elevated aspect, which he called the ‘ psychic ultra-violet’, it was synonymous with Spirit.

Jung thought Freudian theory was rubbing our noses, into our animal nature at the cost of our spiritual lives. Just as the Victorian repression of sexuality made us sick, so Freud’s remedy, in which everything lofty and noble is reduced to a construct of sexual repression, is a different kind of distortion.

Jung wrote’ It is a widespread error to imagine that I do not see the value of sexuality. I can see the importance of sexuality but did not consider it to be the only dynamic factor in the psyche. His adopted father, Freud, was concentrating too much on the biological drives and losing the elevated life of spirit.’ This was the opposite of his biological father’s position. Jung’s task was to hold the tension between these two points of view and not to succumb to an elevated or reductive view of human nature.

Jung published his ‘alternative’ theory of incest in “Symbols of Transformation” in 1912, and this brought about the final break-up between him and Freud.

Freud dismissed Jung’s theory of incest as mumbo-jumbo and as evidence of Jung’s ‘mysticism’. He thought Jung was finding the sexual theory too hot to handle, and his swiss prudishness was preventing him from accepting the strictly sexual interpretation. Freud’s habit of reducing everything to the lowest common denominator (sex) was a stumbling block not only in his response to incest but in his relation with Jung. If Jung disagreed with his emphasis on sexuality, this was attributed to sexual inhibitions in Jung -an old accusation – given the biological evidence which supports the notion that Jung had full and uninhibited sexual life. Intellectual disagreements were attributed to an oedipal complex that Freud believed Jung harboured against him. This reductive and circular strategy of Freud’s drove Jung to distraction.

The remarkable thing was not that Freud and Jung split, but that they got together in the first place. They were so different from the outset; Freud was a cheerful pessimist, explaining everything in terms of mechanistic causes and personal impulses, while Jung was the idealistic and romantic explorer of the mind, always looking for the traces of the sacred.

Divine Presence—

In his scientific writing, Jung always spoke of the ‘God-image’, pointing to its universal manifestation. In correspondence and conversations he made more direct and personal statements-

The divine presence is more than anything else. There is more than one way to the discovery of the genus-divinum in us. This is the only thing that matters….I wanted the proof of a living spirit and I got it. Don’t ask me at what price…..I don’t want to prescribe a way to other people, because I know that my way has been prescribed to me by a hand far above my reach. I know it all sounds so damned grand. I am sorry that it does, but I don’t mean it. It is grand and I am only trying to be a decent tool and don’t feel grand at all.

Regardless of what he tried to do in remaining scientific in his writing, when he talked, he left no doubt that when he spoke of God he was speaking of more than the archetype of God. This is sharply emphasized in a statement he made after he had been talking most movingly about the use and need of prayer. “why do I have to talk about God ? Because He is everywhere ! I am only a spoon in his kitchen.”

In a letter, Jung declares-

I can’t define for you what God is. I can only say that my work has proved empirically that the pattern of God exists in every man and this pattern has at its disposal the greatest of all his energies for transformation and transfiguration of his natural being. Not only the meaning of his life but his renewal and his institutions depend on his conscious relationship with this pattern of his collective unconscious.

In the last years of his life, with world events like Soviet suppression of Hungary, The Suez crisis, and Chinese invasion of Tibet as daily dramas, Jung’s communication shows repeated concern for the earth, its future, and the Individual’s role.

The world today hangs by a thin thread and that is the psyche of man…It is not the reality of the hydrogen bomb that we need to fear, but what man will do with it.

A change in the attitude of the individual can bring about a renewal in the spirit of the nations.

The whole future, the whole history of the world, ultimately springs as a gigantic summation from these hidden sources in individuals. In our most private and subjective lives we are not only the passive witnesses of our age, and its sufferers, but also its makers, we make our epoch.

We are living in what the Greeks called the right moment for a “metamorphosis of the Gods “, of the fundamental principles and symbols. This peculiarity of our time, which is certainly not of our conscious choosing , is the expression of the unconscious man within us who is changing….

As at the beginning of the Christian era, so again today we are faced with the problem of the general moral backwardness which has failed to keep pace with our scientific, technical, and social progress….

Happiness and contentment, equability of mind and meaningfulness of life- these can be experienced only by the individual and not by a state, which, on one hand, is nothing but a convention agreed to by independent individuals and, on the other, continually threatens to paralyze and suppress the individual….

The social and political circumstances of the time are certainly of considerable significance, but their importance for the weal or woe of the individual has been boundlessly overestimated in so far as they are taken for the sole deciding factors. In this respect, all our social goals commit the error of overlooking the psychology of the person, for whom they are intended- and very often- of promoting only his illusions.

Everything now depends on man ; immense power of destruction is given into his hands, and the question is whether he can resist the will to use it, and can temper his will with the spirit of love and wisdom. He will hardly be able to do so on his own resources. He needs the help of an “advocate” in heaven.

Just as man, as a social being, can’t in the long run exist without a tie to the community, so the individual will never find the real justification for his existence and his own spiritual and moral autonomy anywhere except in an extra mundane principle capable of relativizing the overpowering influence of external factors. The individual who is not anchored in God, can offer no resistance on his own resources, to the physical and moral blandishments of the world. For this he needs the evidence of inner, transcendent experience, which alone can protect him from the otherwise inevitable submission in the mass.

We have become participants of the divine life, and we have to assume a new responsibility….Man’s relationship to God probably has to undergo a certain important change; Instead of the propitiating praise to an unpredictable king, or the child’s prayer to a loving father, the responsible living and fulfilling of the divine love in us, will be our form of worship of, and commerce with God. His goodness means grace and light and his dark side the terrible temptation of power. Man has already received so much knowledge that he can destroy his own planet. Let’s hope that God’s good spirit will guide him in his decisions, because it will depend on man’s decision, whether God’s creation will continue. Nothing shows more drastically than this possibility, how much of divine power has come within reach of man.

Politics,Scientific-Materialism Vs Mindfulness and Science

Why is the distinction between Science and this philosophy so little known today and what is its significance?Scientific materialism is an academic term for a Science-based dogma developed in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century primarily by German materialist philosophers including Karl Marx and their English counterparts-T.H.Huxley,and others of the same club.These men certainly didn’t all call themselves Scientific materialists.Many of them were in fact eminent scientists.These so called science promoters firmly believed that religion was bankrupt as a useful guide to truth and that physical science held the answers to all important questions.So strong was their enthusiasm for an all-embracing scientific worldview that they often allowed their hopes,dreams,and beliefs to masquerade as facts.

They were specially impressed by Darwin’s theory of natural Selection.According to their own interpretation,natural selection meant that organisms best suited to win the competition for scarce resources survived,passing on their advantageous traits to succeeding generations-Spencer’s”Survival of the fittest”.This was a biological counterpart to the impersonal,clockwork universe of classical physics.For them,the no-nonsense hard-nosed fact of this struggle for survival was the pattern behind every facet of life.Social philosophers influenced by scientific materialism created social Darwinism,the view that nations and individuals competed for economic supremacy in an area where only the “favoured races” or toughest individuals would succeed.There was no room here for any softness or idealism,and of course,such a philosophy gave at least tacit approval to war,imperialism,and racism.In like manner,Karl Marx reduced all aspects of culture to Economics.

All of this was credited to “Science”(instead of scientific materialism).Karl Marx called his philosophy “Scientific Socialism”(later on he wrote’communist manifesto’and became first leader of Communism).By studying history “scientifically” and “mathematically”,Marx scimmed away utopian and romantic notions such as culture and consciousness(although as a token gesture of goodwill he excluded creative arts and music from his theory of capitalism )leaving the bare bones of economic struggle-capital Vs labour.Similarly by appropriating the name “Darwin” in its title Social Darwinism linked itself to the prestige of a leading scientist(Charles Darwin).

So nineteenth century scientific materialists created a philosophy based on a set of beliefs,that was not arrived at scientifically ,or to put it differently,was supported by modes of inquiry that focused exclusively on material phenomena.They speculated beyond the scientific evidence in to the realm of metaphysics normally the sphere of religion,spirituality and philosophy.

According to these nineteenth century crusaders (or scientific materialists),the message of science for human society was essentially this-

Existence is purely physical-there is no other reality.The sources of this reality are the laws of nature,forces that are entirely impersonal,having no connection with the Mind of human beings,their beliefs,or values.These laws operate in isolation from any supernatural spiritual influences,all of which are illusory.Life in the universe is an accident,the outcome of mechanical interactions among complex pattern of matter and energy.The life of an individual,one’s personal history,hopes and dreams,loves and hates feelings,desires-everything-are the outcome of physical forces acting upon and within our body.Death means the utter destruction of the individual and his or her consciousness,and this too is the destiny of all life in the universe-eventually it will disappear without a trace.In short human beings live encapsulated within a vast,alien world,a universe entirely indifferent to their longings,unaware of their triumphs,mute to their sufferings.Only by facing this reality and accepting it fully can humans live rationally.

Most people today asked if this sounds familiar and where does it come from,would answer,”This is what Science tells us about life and the universe.”This we are told is what “non-believers”(atheists) accept as the truth.”

According to its proponents this view alone is an authentic picture of the universe.Anything which deviates from it is “metaphysical”,idle speculation or sheer fantasy.In this modern “scientific” world,we are given a narrow choice.Accept either scientific materialism or religious faith(which according to scientific materialists means turning your back on reality).For the strongly religious this “message of science” is so radically opposed to their beliefs and traditions that it evokes anger,the entrenchment of religious fundamentalism,cultural war,or jihad.

Wedded to classical science,scientific materialism shared in its enormous success,prestige,and influence,particularly in the nineteenth century.By the year 1900 most physicists believed that a complete understanding of the universe was a few decades away.In the words of a supremely confident lord Kelvin,”There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now–“.All the great discoveries had already been made,leaving future generations of scientists with nothing more to do than to carry out calculations to the next decimal point of accuracy.

However,scientific-materialism was about to take a fall.Overconfident and holding tightly to a dogmatic viewpoint,it was soon tripped by a tiny detail-the atom.

FALLING DOMINOS OF SCIENTIFIC MATERIALISM-

RELATIVITY FACTOR BY ALBERT EINSTEIN-

The appearance of quantum physics at the beginning of the twentieth century was only one punch to the chin of Newton’s universe. (The universe discovered by scientific materialists like Karl Marx,Charles Darwin,Newton and their special club who claimed that there is nothing left to be discovered in classical physics.That is what they thought at the end of the nineteenth century-TOE(theory of everything) or GUT(grand unified theory)-a complete understanding of the physical universe derived from Newton’s fundamental laws.) Albert Einstein introduced relativity in two stages;a special theory of relativity(how basic phenomena such as time,velocity,matter,and energy are relative and not absolute in nature)in 1905,and his general theory of relativity(on gravity as curved space-time)in 1916.In the classical universe,time and space are absolute,the same every-where.Accordingly,if astronauts were able to travel at the speed of light to a point in space twenty light-years distant from the earth,the round trip would take forty years.The clocks and calenders in their spaceship and those on earth would be perfectly in synch.When they returned to earth,all of us would be forty years older,including the astronauts.

But according to relativity,there would be a difference in the way time passed for us on earth and for our star voyagers.Here the relative motion between bodies alters not only time but size.Although the astronauts’clocks and calenders wouldn’t pass any more slowly for them,they would when compared with clocks and calenders on earth.If there were some way for us on earth to observe the clocks aboard the spaceship,they would be seen to be moving more slowly than ours.Objects on board,including the rocket itself,would appear shorter.And if our astronauts were traveling at 99% of the speed of light to a point twenty light-years from earth,when they returned,we would be forty years older,but they would have aged only 5.7 years.At that speed,time would have slowed seven times in comparison to relatively fixed position such as that of earth.

These changes in time and size happen at all relative speeds but are only noticeable at velocities nearing the speed of light(186,000 miles per second when traveling in a vacuum).This effect has been proven in the laboratory and is important in the use of particle accelerators to explore the subatomic world.The particle accelerator speeds up subatomic particles to velocities very close to the speed of light.

One of the keys to special relativity is the speed of light,believed to be the fastest velocity obtainable,and a

constant.It’s the c in the famous formula E=m.cc(that is m into c square in which E is energy and m is mass,c already explained).The revolutionary equation showed how energy and mass are interchangeable;they are different forms of the same thing.It also suggested that there is enormous energy wrapped up in the force holding the atomic nucleus together,since to determine the potential energy in an object,we are multiplying that mass by 186,000 square -34.6 billion!This relationship was the key to understand atomic fission,which led to the powerful chain reactions of nuclear reactors and atomic weapons.

The general theory of relativity presents a completely different view of gravity from that of Newton.Its foundation is not just space but space-time-the two are in unity.According to this theory,space-time is the stage whereon the entire drama of physical phenomena is enacted.For relativity the gravity exhibited by physical objects in space does not “attract” other objects.Rather,objects create a curvature in the space-time continuum in their vicinity-the more massive the object,the greater this curvature in the fabric of space-time and the wider its reach.Following the natural contours of space-time,such objects move toward the earth because that’s where the “road” bends.This makes gravity a product of the uneven shape of space-time itself,rather than a force of attraction,as Newton thought.

Albert Einstein was a believer in Divinity and despite his role in the development of quantum physics he was far from happy with it.”God doesn’t play dice.”was his reaction to quantum uncertainty.Much of last thirty years of his life was spent trying to find a classical,realistic basis underlying the proven and accurate predictions of quantum physics.For Einstein,because it couldn’t show precisely what was going on,quantum physics was “incomplete”.

Beginning in 1927,Einstein devised a series of challenges to quantum physics.Since the experimental means were not available to test them at the time,Einstein’s doubts were formulated as thought experiments dealing with quantum principles.Later,with improvements in technology,Einstein’s challenges were tested.In each case the predictions of quantum physics were confirmed.

By the 1930s it was clear to physicists that the atom,in its three-part model(clouds of electrons,neutrons and protons) was no longer adequate to describe the physical universe.The theoretical implications of quantum physics and relativity,along with new,more sensitive laboratory instruments,were rapidly complicating the atomic picture.

Whether we call it a theory of everything,the atom,or the “mind of God”,when the quest of science is defined in such terms,the game is objectivism.That’s the age-old desire for a comforting,freestanding,transcendental universe acting behind the scenes.However,can one find such a mechanism somehow isolated from the human Mind and the human condition.

If we are after some essential physical object-matter-the theory of relativity alone would place us on shaky ground.The matter we are seeking can’t be the solid stuff Newton conceived of.As we have known,depending on the position and velocity of the observer,matter varies in mass,size and duration.This applies equally to mountains,molecules,and subatomic particles.

The change everything is constantly undergoing may be too small for us to perceive in terms of mountain,but according to physics,that mountain is made up of subatomic particles,and as per relativity,their mass,size,and duration are not fixed.The earth is moving around the sun,and the sun is moving in relation to stars and galaxies.According to current theory of big bang,everything in the universe is moving away from everything else and that motion changes matter.

Matter is undermined all the more by quantum physics.Do subatomic particles exist as waves,or particles,or some indescribable thing.

Scientific materialism closed off the physical universe from non-physical influences such as God,Soul and the human MInd.Yet in quantum wave/particle experiments it is the choice of the scientific Mind to seek either a wave or a particle that determines the outcome.In the EPR(Einstein,Podolsky,and Rosen)paradox(which suggests all phenomena may be entangled),subatomic measurements,superpositions,and elsewhere,it is information that determines the physical system.The very characteristics that make data “informative” are determined by the human Mind.It is We who determine which data are relevant information and which are only background noise.This alone suggests that the Mind is an intimate participant in physical events;it is not closed off from them.Here science is approaching an all-embracing view of Mind,which has a long and influential history in Eastern philosophies.(in Vedanta philosophy described in Upanishads known as “gyan kaand”,or in Buddhist “Mindfulness”,it is Mind which is the conduit for awareness and raising Consciousness)

THE MIND OR BRAIN ?

There is a term called “black box” in science.Dictionary meaning of a black box is”Anything having a complex function that can be observed but whose inner workings are mysterious or unknown.”If we have no knowledge of electronics,then our CD player,television,and even our telephone are all black boxes.We know only that some kind of signal,say from our TV antenna or cable,enters the box at one end,then information usable by our Mind and senses exits the other.Just how this happens is a mystery.

Oddly enough,the very science that created all of these marvellous boxes has a Mega-black box of its own;the Mind.What scientific idea has ever come from anywhere else but the Mind of a scientist?Like-wise,what observation in the laboratory has been made by any other faculty than the Mind?It doesn’t take deep thinking to reach the conclusion that the most important,indeed the fundamental scientific instrument is and always has been the human Mind.That is where theories originate,products are designed,data observed-and it is the Mind that comes to scientific conclusions.So since scientists obviously need intimate knowledge of the instruments they design to aid in their explorations-telescopes,microscopes,particle accelerators,and all the rest-how is it possible that they have so long postponed a thorough examination of their own Minds?

One natural science philosopher,Rene Descartes did speculate on the nature of the Mind.Descartes believed that the Soul could act voluntarily on the body through the pineal gland,located in the central part of the brain.All the other actions of the body were mere reflexes.This view-with a nonmaterial Mind or Soul acting independently on matter(the body)-had strong influence on science for centuries to come.However,it also played an important part in delaying the appearance of scientific investigation of the Mind,given that half of Descartes’s formula,the Soul,was a metaphysical issue considered off-limits to science.

It wasn’t until the late nineteenth century that science attempted a formal study of the Mind.Given the enormous influence of scientific materialism,it is not surprising that a physical approach-the study of behaviour and the brain-held sway.By the early twentieth century,nonmaterial qualities attributed to the Mind(thoughts,feelings,images,dreams,and so on)were neatly avoided by correlating them to the physical brain,with its internal physiology,and to physical behaviour.Thus,Mind was simply redefined as the brain.

It is clear that science’s attitude towards the Mind has been hampered by historical baggage.According to the dictates of its Christian background,science explored outer,objective phenomena and avoided the inner,subjective realm.Lack of self knowledge hampered scientist’s by blinding them to subjective distortions that have prejudiced the scientific enterprise.For example,is there a strict dividing line between the “inner”and “outer”?

Sigmund Freud and William James at least acknowledged the importance of subjective experience(personal interaction with various individuals for studying Consciousness) for understanding the Mind,without denying the complementary data provided by physiological studies.Thus,a complementary approach-comprising first-person contemplative explorations of the Mind,interviews with the contemplative subject,and physiological data on the activity of the brain and nervous system-holds promise for scientific exploration of the Mind.

WE ARE NOT OUR BRAIN–

By the grace of that supreme authority,you name according to your faith,the times we are living in enough research is done and it is clearly established that Mind is the main active part of our totality for focusing attention and making decisions whereas the brain receives inputs and generates the passive side of experience.Nothing is more confusing or more painful than when our brain takes over our thoughts,attacks our self worth,questions our abilities,overpowers us with cravings,or attempts to dictate our actions.

Brain is capable of sending out false,deceptive messages in an unrelenting fashion and that these unwanted thoughts and destructive urges can overrun our life.They can take us away from our true self(i.e.,our true goals and values) and cause us to live a life devoid of direction.And, as long as we remain unaware of what our brain is doing or believe that there is no way to alter how our brain functions, we are essentially powerless to live life on our terms.

The good news is that we have an ally that can help us sculpt our brain to work for us, rather than against us; the Mind.The Mind is involved in helping us constructively focus our attention.Why is this important? When we learn how to focus our attention in positive, beneficial ways, we actually rewire our brain to support those actions and habits. In this way, the Mind gives us the power to determine our actions, decide what is important(and what is not), and reassess the value or meaning of situations, people, ourself and events.

Another way to think about the difference between the Mind and the brain is this; The brain receives information from the environment, including images, verbal communications from others, emotional reactions, bodily sensations, and so on and then processes that information in an automatic and rote way. Once it processes these inputs, the brain presents the information to our conscious awareness.

This is where the Mind comes in. At this point, the Mind has the ability to determine whether it wants to focus either on that information coming from the brain or on something else. In comparison to the Mind, then, the brain is passive–it does not take a long-term, values-based approach to actions. In other words, the brain does not incorporate our true self or Wise Advocate into its processes, but merely reacts to its environment in habitual, automatic ways.

What makes the Mind unique is that it has the ability to consider many options and can weigh short-term actions against longer-term goals.In essence the Mind ensures we are following the path to achieving our goals as defined by our true self. How does the Mind align these goals and actions? By integrating the view of the Wise Advocate and using insight, awareness, morals, and values to guide our responses and empower us to make choices that are in our long-term interest. The brain, in contrast, tends to act in an automatic way that ensures momentary survival and a sense of safety. Remember Darwin? We can think of the brain as working in the survival-of-the-fittest mode–trying to ensure safety, comfort, or relief in this moment, no matter what the future costs.

When we are dealing with thoughts, emotions, and actions that are consistent with our true self(who we aspire to be),all is fine.But what if we have unhealthy or maladaptive routines programmed into those automatic neural structures and we are not aware that they are happening? For example, what if we’ve taught the brain’s habit centre to perform an action that is not good for us,like excessive drinking, taking drugs or indulging in amoral acts because it makes us feel good? These habits are then wired into our brain without us realizing it and can lead to devastating consequences.

That’s why learning how to focus our attention is so important–it’s the one variable we have power over that can change our brain. This is why, when the stakes are high, such as continuing to use a drug that is destroying our life, doing some unhealthy acts, or giving in to anxiety to the point that we avoid things that are beneficial to us, we need to engage the Wise Advocate to recruit the Mind to make important long-term decisions.

Unfortunately, many people, when in the grip of sadness,desire,anger,urges,anxiety,fear,or addiction, can not and do not make this distinction between the Mind and brain. They can’t see what is happening and tend to blindly follow the impulse-laden brain wherever it wants to take them. They accept momentary relief or pleasure at the price of future pains. It makes sense from a biological perspective–we are all wired to use the automatic, energy-efficient parts of our brain first, with the primary goal of survival or safety in that moment. But choosing momentary relief and placing our attention on an unhealthy behaviour come at a steep price because these choices can end up shaping the brain in detrimental ways.

DECEPTIVE BRAIN MESSAGES-

Any false or inaccurate thought or any unhelpful or distracting impulse,urge,or desire that takes us away from our true goals and intentions in life(i.e.,our true self).

DESIRE–

The experience of wanting to avoid something unpleasant or wanting to achieve a pleasant result.

TRUE SELF—

Living according to our true self means seeing ourselves for who we really are based on our sincere striving to embody the values and achieve the goals we truly believe in.

It includes approaching ourselves,our true emotions and needs,from a loving,caring and nurturing perspective that is consistent with how our loving inner guide(Wise Advocate)sees us.

WISE ADVOCATE—

The aspect of our attentive Mind that can see the bigger picture,including our inherent worth,capabilities,and accomplishments.

The Wise Advocate knows what we are thinking,can see the deceptive brain messages for what they are and where they come from,understands how we feel(physically,emotionally),and is aware of how destructive and unhealthy our habitual,automatic responses have been for us.

The Wise Advocate wants the best for us because it loves and cares for us,so it encourages us to value our true self and make decisions in a rational way based on what is in our overall best interest in the long term.

VETO POWER–

The ability to refuse to act on a deceptive brain message, uncomfortable sensation, or intended habitual response.

Now it becomes crystal clear that the human Mind is so pervasive,creative,and all-encompassing as to make attempts to bottle it in the small vial of scientific materialism seem ridiculous.

SCIENTIFIC MATERIALISM POSING AS SCIENCE—

Scientific materialism can’t be found in dictionaries and not on encyclopedias.That is why this powerful philosophy which has dominated scientific thinking for over a century and half,is practically unknown to the public.The main reason for this lack of knowledge is a state of confusion.Scientific materialism is usually considered as science itself.It acquires the prestige of science while avoiding scrutiny in to those areas where they differ.The influence of scientific materialism is therefore both pervasive(like science) and subtle to the extent that we are unaware of how much we are under its spell.

Imagine a teacher say, a Hindu or a Buddhist in a U.S public school class room telling their students that the story of creation in the Bible was only a myth and that the miracles attributed to god and Jesus never happened.Then suppose that in another public school a Christian teacher said that ‘reincarnation’ and ‘karma’ and ‘Buddhist’noble path were false doctrines.And in another U.S school a muslim teacher states that ‘jews’ are not God’s chosen people.In the United states with its laws of separation of church and state,it would be illegal for any teacher to make these negative assertions in a public school even if the teacher wasn’t promoting his or her own religion.However advocates of scientific materialism make all of the above claims in public schools and at the same time they promote their own belief systems.Dominated by the dogma of scientific materialism,classroom science denies without argument the miracles,worldviews and cosmologoies of universe.Yet the fact that many currently accepted scientific theories include non-physical possibilities is often overlooked or ignored.This omission betrays the open spirit of investigation that is the hallmark of true scientific inquiry.By limiting science in this way researchers are ignoring fields of inquiry that could lead to discoveries that lie beyond our present knowledge or imagination.

In capitalist countries like U.S,Europe,India or China(it is a capitalist economy although on paper communist) science gets a large percentage of national budgets.Weapons developement and Medical science research are well funded.The technological orientation requires a massive political mobilization which is often guided and influenced by university science departments and research centres.These are the voices that are listened,and for the most part these institutions toe the philosophical line of scientific materialism.

Scientific materialism permeated the Marxism of former Soviet union,and other communist countries also.Where it has undeniable links to the repression of religions,such as Christianity,Judaism and Buddhism.The result however is similar whether the pressure of conformity is harsh and stems from an oppressive government or it is a more subtle combination of economical,political and educational influences.Scientific materialism dominates.

What are the consequences of this closed-minded attitude towards spirituality and the distortion of the true spirit of scientific inquiry and many of its discoveries.

In the United States,surveys prove that majority of the population claim spiritual affiliation.Most Americans believe in impersonal supreme authority,namely God.Is it any surprise,then that many of them,when exposed to the very limited view of scientific materialism in the guise of “science” are put off?Scientific materialism tells them that their very Minds are non-existent or are nothing more than a meat.It denies that their personalities,intutions and spiritual experiences are anything more than secondary effects of the interactions of biological hardware and software.

The influence of scientific materialism on both scientists and the public was greatest during the 20th century.The modern world became known as ‘the scientific age’ as numerous discoveries transformed society from top to bottom.There were great benefits,specially in healthcare,transportation,agriculture.industrial production and communications.But the 20th century was also the period of human beings greatest inhumanity to one another as well as unprecedented degradation of the natural environment.During this century the most murderous despots in history including Stalin,Hitler and Mao Zedong were able to enlist the services of scientists in supporting their crimes against humanity.Indeed numerous scientists and engineers all over the world have applied their knowledge and ingenuity to develop weapons of mass destruction that now terrorize humanity as a whole.This is not the fault of Science.This is the handiwork of politics and politicians using scientific-materialism for their nefarious designs.Devil lies in politics and not in Science.

Many scientists abide by high ethical standards,but scientific materialism gives them no incentive to do so.A mechanical,clockwork world makes no reference to ethics or virtue.Indeed,reducing human subjectivity,the human Mind,to neural processes operating according to the laws of physics(which imply neurobiology,chemistry and so on) undermines any sense of moral responsibility.Given such an amoral background ,it is not surprising that crime,selfish attitudes and public indifference to the plight of less fortunate poor human section have come to dominate modern life.

Even in health care,the purely physical approach has drawbacks,since it often attacks the symptoms of desease,but not the cause.Moreover we do not know the specific causes of many illnesses both physical and psychological specially chronic deseases such as hypertension,chronic back pain,certain forms of cancer and many others,some of these causes may be of psychological nature requiring treatment of the mind through non-chemical means.Scientists are finding direct links between stress inflammation and desease.Traditional approaches do not always work.The discovery of dangerous side effects of pharmaceuticals is a common occurance.

The materialistic approach to medicine has led to the desire for a “quick fix”-just pop a pill and let chemicals take care of you.Drug,tobbaco and alcohol addiction follow the same logic.There may be more to psychological and physical illnesses than just chemicals but the physical bias of scientific materialism has largely marginalised alternative therapies that show promise.The slow grudging acceptance of acupuncture is just one example of this.There is also a growing public interest in herbal remedies(ayurvedic treatment) whose curative influences may take longer than manufactured pharmaceuticals but will not have many troublesome side effects as in the latest drugs.

People may now recognize to some extent the wisdom stored in spiritual traditions or have an intuitive sense that there is more to life than materialism’s bleak prospects.

As is abundantly clear that the Scientific materialism is often hand in glove with politics and faulty,tries to oppress genuine scientific approach and Spirituality.Accepting its conclusions may not be wise.Perhaps we still have access to a greater common sense than the assumption and mental habits we have inherited from this dubious dogma.

Such a viewpoint does not require a negation of science.The openminded exploratory,unbiased ideals of Science have already identified many of the non physical aspects of the world we inhabit.To live honestly and authentically with the hypothesis of Science does not mean we must give up all of our beliefs in the mysteries of the world.

Rather there is growing evidence that Science and Spirituality may complement each other-not in the sense of keeping rigidly to their traditional spheres,but in collaboration towards a wider and clearer understanding of life and the universe.

Students of Science should be encouraged to extend their quest in to the inner realm and to get to know their Minds firsthand,utilizing that knowledge to fathom the import of both Science and Spirituality.

Let the 21st century be one of cooperation between Spirituality and Science and perhaps some of the causes of the strife and misery that pervaded the 20th century can be avoided.

MINDFULNESS—-

So what is mindfulness?
Depending on the context and tradition mindfulness can mean different things to different people.This leads to many common misunderstandings,which need to be dispelled so that we can understand mindfulness correctly.

Mindfulness is an Activity,Not merely a State of Mind—
Most of us think of mindfulness as a state of Mind.This is a common misunderstanding because it’s not something we can just switch on like a TV and expect that it will remain in that state indefinitely.A more accurate way of thinking about mindfulness would be tuning into a special TV station because this analogy implies actively doing something and it requires us to pay attention.

In fact the best way to conceptualize mindfulness is as an activity and not a state of Mind or way of being.Unlike being tired,anxious or excited,we can’t simply be Mindful without effort.We don’t just fall into mindfulness or suddenly say to ourselves “oh I’ve been being mindful and didn’t realize it”,in the same way that we can passively be listening to music.

Mindfulness like any activity requires effort,vigilance and willingness,because in each moment of our life we are chosing whether to be mindful or not.And like most activities where focus and skill are involved,the more we practice,the better our abilities become.In this way mindfulness literally is a training ground for our Mind-a mental Gym where we strengthen our powers of observation and awareness so that we become more proficient at seeing what is happening in each moment of our Life.

MINDFULNESS IS AWARENESS—-

At its core mindfulness is about awareness being fully knowledgeable that something is happening right now,in the very moment.For example,if we are being mindful as we read these words,we are aware that we are reading.We are not engrossed in the details of each word,but we are aware of the process of reading as it happens.

When properly understood,mindfulness teaches us how to be in contact with our actual experience.For example if we are sitting in the sun and we feel the warmth touching our skin and clearly aware of that sensation,then we are being mindful.Similarly if we are eating something,we take the time to really notice what the food tastes like how it feels in our mouth,how the taste changes over time,and so on,we are also being mindful.

Mindfulness Includes Seeing That The Deceptive Brain Messages Are False–

We have already read about Deceptive Brain Messages,sensations and habits,which are false and they take us away from following our true goals and values in Life.We want to see with clear eyes that-

The content of the deceptive thought is not valid or true.

The urges,impulses and desires do not need to be satisfied.

We have choices beyond the narrow options our deceptive brain messages are presenting to us.

Mindfulness is Nonjudgemental and Judgemental at the same time—-

To think that mindfulness is non-judgemental is a serious mistake and it is one that we need to make sure that we do not make.When we conceptualize mindfulness as non-judgemental,it gives the impression that anything goes,that no matter what we do,mindfulness will accept whatever happens as perfectly fine and appropriate.

While it is true that some parts of mindfulness require us to suspend judgement so that we can see what is happening,including the ugly and unpleasant aspects of Life(e.g. our darker thoughts),there are places where judgement is absolutely necessary.The distinction lies in whether we are looking at and observing our thoughts or whether we are evaluating our choices and actions.We can’t control the initial thoughts,impulses,desires or cravings we have–it is impossible to do so.However we can and must choose how we will respond if we want to change our Life and how our brain works.

Therefore when we are trying to be aware of our thoughts and impulses(i.e. our deceptive brain messages) we must not judge them.We need to let them bubble up so that we can see what is there.Berating or shaming ourselves for the deceptive brain messages that arise is counter-productive and takes us away from being mindful.

The other side of the coin is our actions.Here we need to judge things in a rather aggressive way.Why?Think about what non-judgemental means when taken to its extreme-it implies that it would be okay to hurt someone or to act in a reckless manner purposely.Applied in this way,mindfulness would simply look at our actions,note them and accept them as perfectly legitimate.Clearly this is taking things too far and could be used as an excuse to act in a way that is devoid of values and morals.Mindfulness when properly understood does not dispassionately recognize all actions as equally acceptable,and nor should we,

The bottom line is–

Not to judge our initial thoughts,impulses,cravings,or desires(i.e. our deceptive brain messages and uncomfortable sensations).We have no control over their presence and it is not our fault that they are there.Let them be present and let’s notice them without acting on them.

We must judge our actions including mental ones,overanalyzing or “perfectionism”.We have control over our actions,including overthinking,and mindfulness does not give us a free pass to act recklessly or in a manner that would hurt us or others.We are responsible for what we do once the deceptive brain messages arise.

Progressive Mindfulness and Revaluing Ourselves—

VALUE-

What are the Values?We can define the Values as Internal/intrinsic qualities; personal characteristics that we are proud of,such as being loving,caring,giving,courageous,honest,smart,hardworking,industrious,a good provider,and more.We have used the word value here as an adjective,describing the qualities.

REVALUE-

To clearly see the thoughts,urges,and impulses for what they are–simply sensations caused by deceptive brain messages that are not true and have little to no value(they are something to dismiss, not to focus on)

PROGRESSIVE MINDFULNESS–

Using our Wise Advocate to gain deeper levels of mindful awareness(through experience) so that we can clearly see the bothersome feelings,urges,fears,worries,cravings,negative ideas,and thinking errors as nothing more than deceptive brain messages.

When we are using progressive mindfulness and actively revaluing,we approach our experiences and feelings as a direct object of observation.As we do this, we firmly and assertively label and strive to directly experience the sensations as nothing but deceptive brain messages.

As with other forms of mindful awareness, until we actually experience it ourselves- that deep knowing and progressive mindfulness that comes with practice- we will not fully understand what we mean.And it’s okay that we don’t, for the goal is not to know everything at once, but to slowly expand our knowledge and skills through experience and time.

The whole process is a matter of getting our foot in the door between us and the deceptive brain messages.Getting more and more time to look around within, to not be defined by it any longer.But mostly(revaluing helps us) start reacting differently to things, thinking differently about things, and having a different way of looking at something.Gradually over time, using progressive mindfulness and revaluing, we can really become the master, not only over what emotions or thoughts come up, but be the master over evaluation of anything that comes into our head or into our body.”

Let’s review this wonderful summary provided by Bhante Gunaratna that describes the goals of mindful awareness and chosing actions that are based on our true self, not the deceptive brain messages;

The deceptive brain messages are just perceptual mental habits. We learn to respond this way as a child by copying the perceptual habits of those around us. These perceptual responses are not inherent in the structure of the nervous system. The circuits are there, but this is not the only way that our mental machinery can be used. That which has been learned can be unlearned.The first step is to realize what we are doing as we are doing it, to stand back and quietly watch.(That is the goal,to be able to) learn to watch the arising of thought and perception with a feeling of serene detachment.We begin to view our own reactions to stimuli with calmness and clarity.We begin to see ourselves reacting without getting caught up in the reactions ourselves.(This is progressive mindfulness.)

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS—

We have arranged a global civilization in which most crucial elements – transportation,communication,and all other industries,agriculture,medicine,education,entertainment,environment,even the key democratic institution of voting -profoundly depend upon science and technology.We have also arranged things so almost nobody understands science and technology.This is a prescription for disaster.We might get away with it for a while,but sooner or later this combustible mixture of ignorance and power is going to blow up in our faces.

—CARL SAGAN

A habit of basing convictions upon evidence, and of giving to them only that degree of certainty which the evidence warrants,would,if it became general,cure most of the ills from which this world is suffering.

—-BERTRAND RUSSELL

John Holdren,President Obama’s chief science adviser explains “more and more of the public policy issues that are before us….have science and technology content.”If we are to stand a chance of containing global warming, the solutions will rely on understanding of the atmospheric effects of gases, the technologies that can generate clean energy and the psychology of behaviour change.If we are to exploit properly the advances in genetics and neuro-science to deliver better healthcare, and to spend national resources on the drugs and therapies that are most beneficial to patients, science will be central.

As a source of innovation and business ideas, science is foundation stone of growth.It is vital to the major economies of the world in food security,drugs control,forensic investigation and so on.The list of policy questions, that requires politicians to be intelligent consumers of science(not scientific materialism) is very long.

It is actually hard to think of an issue to which science is irrelevant.We need the experimental methods of science, to prove with evidence, the best tool humanity has yet developed for working out what works.Yet from the way we are governed, to the news we are fed by the media we are let down by a lack of understanding and respect for its insights and evidence.

It’s time to stop this non-sense.
We need to entrench scientific thinking more deeply into public life.What politicians think, matters less, than how they think.

Even when a challenge is so urgent that there is no time to wait for research, ministers can at least ensure that the policy solution is properly evaluated so that lessons can be learned from its successes and shortcomings.Policy decisions are not the last word(since hundreds of crores are budgeted based on policy decisions),but they are the start of experimentation that must be mined for evidence, that can be used to make better choices in future.

It’s true that we can’t study schools or prisons by setting up a controlled experiment in the laboratory, but neither can we recreate the Big Bang or rerun human evolution in a test tube to watch how they happened.Politics asks tough questions of our leaders but science provides a great tool for answering them.If it can help us to understand the first micro-seconds of creation and the descent of humans, the scientific method can surely improve understanding of how best to tackle the pressing social issues of our time.Teaching techniques,sentencing policies,policing strategies,all could be investigated with this tool to establish whether they work.

This value of science is however, seldom grasped either by the ministers,advisers and officials who take the decisions that shape everybody’s lives or by opinion-formers in the media and think tanks to whom they typically listen.

Politics suffers accordingly.Too few of our leaders understand either the conditions science needs to thrive or the powerful contribution it can make to policy-making.They see science as an optional extra, to be used when it suits an agenda and to be ignored when it does not.And they do this in large part because we let them.

Science is not a voting issue and politics is now simply a votebank politics in all democratic world of capitalism and scientific materialism.Abusing and undervaluing science carries no political cost.

It doesn’t have to be that way.

Fortunately, there is an increasingly vibrant community out there with the potential to form that constituency and to create that political cost.We are talking about vast section of science,medical science,engineering science,computer science and technology students and practitioners of these fields.If we want to get rid off money and muscle power politics then we have to challenge this corrupt system of public life,

In India the norm in politics was law degrees from London,then economics from Harvard,Bill Clinton telling the world ‘it’s all money honey’, our prime minister also following the suite and brings economic liberalization with the help of his Harward economist and our present prime minister Dr. Manmohansingh.But now the norm is changing and it is now the age of science in which scientists can run the show, without them the show is getting over.Poorly served for years by the main stream media and entertainment,we are demanding and getting, more and more attention in popular culture although not so much in politics.IItians and medicos,IT professionals are doing their bit to make the science popular in India.

Online Social networking has allowed science professionals to find more people of like mind, and to meet each other in flesh and form real communities.It does not matter how old we are(15 to 75) we can take part on equal footing.There is a huge community out there with a strong affinity for things scientific and an interest in contributing to the world.

The Science Scene- or may be we should call it the rational thought Scene- is definitely developing.It’s cool these days to actually think.Our optimistic hope is that it will become very cool to really think about things….rather than do reactive bullshit based on no knowledge.

Let’s create a political cost for failing science.Politics has had it too easy for too long.Its time for a Science-revolution.

There are 540 MPs in the Indian parliament, most of them have business,law or journalism background and they have chosen these fields because their ancestors also had same background and politics being their side business. since science professionals considered politics something below their dignity and without any work-ethics and middle class never considered it as a profession, so they opted out of it. But this has cost the nation very heavily and today when the nation and the world at large needs them in politics, there are hardly any faces from science in politics. One side of majority of politicians have completely destroyed the ethics and culture from generation to generation and other side of scientists, engineers, Doctors, are still harping on the ethical side from generation to generation. Are they waiting for somebody like Hitler to rule the nation and force them to revolt against the system?

Even in other democracies the picture is bleak such as in US, and UK politicians with science background are not even 1%. Compared to this China’s senior leadership more than 50% is dominated by engineers and scientists.

The background from which the political classes are drawn, scientific skills are missing very often, which contributes to a failure of leadership without an instinctive appreciation for how science works and the circumstances in which it thrives politicians let it down time and again.

We deserve a better class of politicians with a better appreciation of science. We’ll get them, as they begin to realise that they have to engage properly with science to keep their science constituents happy and that doing so might win them votes. We can help politicians to help science, to give it the support it needs. In time we should start to address a further failing of modern politics due to its reluctance to exploit science to design policies that are fit for purpose.

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS TO GOVERNMENT–

What politicians want is not evidence-based policy, but policy-based evidence.

The degree to which pesticide residues potentially damage health is a scientific question which science can answer.Science can also help to explain whether the higher cost of vegetables that would result if pesticides were more strictly controlled or banned would lead to better or worse overall public health.It can’t however decide how society should balance risks and benefits, that is a political question for elected representatives to take.

Science can tell us how requiring children to present an immunization certificate to attend primary school as happens in west, would improve herd immunity but not whether this is an acceptable infringement of parental rights.On drug control, global warming, embryonic stem cell research and abortion, science can describe the challenges and the likely effects of the possible solutions; The value judgements of democratic societies however also matter.

Ministers are not obliged to make every decision according to the evidence presented to them by scientists and nothing else.They should however ensure that they do take scientific advice on questions to which it is pertinent, and there are few matters of public policy to which it is not. Evidence isn’t usually sufficient for sound policy-making, but it is nearly always necessary.

Advice from scientists with relevant expertise should be sought and considered in good faith before decisions are made, rather than sprayed-on afterwards. Advisers should not be admonished, silenced or sacked for explaining their conclusions in public. If ministers decide to overrule expert advice, as they are entitled to do and often will, they should explain their reasons.

Above all, politicians and civil servants should not be allowed to get away with laying claim to evidence-based policy when decisions have actually been taken by other means.

A better appreciation of science and its methods among politicians would breed a healthier respect for the evidence, which is devalued with every act of abuse. It might also start to persuade more politicians that they need robust, high quality evidence at an early stage and that they could draw more on the methods of science to devise better policies that really deliver.

There isn’t just a need to use the solid evidence by government, but also the way it is collected needs to improve as well. We also need to make the case that the structure of government itself must embed these values in to policy-making.

Every UK government department now has a chief scientific adviser. Our Indian politics and government due to our colonial past, follow mostly UK pattern, even Indian Standard Specifications(IS code) is vastly influenced by British code and it is highly unlikely that we will discard this pattern completely, since we Indians have accepted English as our working language, then be it. Now the need of the hour is that as the world is progressing and science is taking the centre-stage, we should also adapt to the new developments. Why can’t we appoint scientific advisers(who should have science based educational background) to central as well as state governments departments.

Chief Scientific advisers need to have policy sign-off powers, just as chief economists sign-off every policy as economically viable, and lawyers look at the legal implications, someone needs to take a look at how the evidence has been used.

This wouldn’t mean replacing political choices with scientific or technocratic or undemocratic ones. Ministers would remain incharge, and at liberty to overrule their advisers. But such a system would at least ensure that science and evidence are properly considered, even if the other factors ultimately out weigh them.

The civil service and the scientific world rarely have much experience of one another, which benefits neither. Officials are unaware of research that might be relevant to their fields, and scientists uncertain how best to offer their insights to those in charge of developing policies. There is a need for more movement between the academic, industrial, and civil service section and exchange of ideas have much to contribute here.

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS IN THE MEDIA—

Bloggers can provide valuable rejoinders to media failures.They may reach initially fewer people than the original bad journalism, but when worried people take to google to investigate further, they will find an alternative point of view. Occasionally such posts can go viral in their own right, reaching surprisingly large audiences as they are retweeted, ‘liked’ on facebook. Increasing numbers of people use these sites as their chief sources of information, relying on people they respect to recommend stories of interest whether they come from newspapers, broadcasters or blogs. It is sometimes possible to build influence by circumventing the mainstream media. Nowhere is it written that traditional news organizations or media barons must be forever the only reliable purveyors of news.

The scientist’s approach to blogging is also setting new standards for transparency that the better professional science journalists are starting to follow. Science demands that sources are properly credited.

The scientific community has been slow to appreciate the importance of effective public relations.Too many scientists remain unwilling to make themselves available to the media, to promote their work, or to respond quickly and saliently when scientific issues hit the headlines. This reluctance is sometimes rooted in a feeling that media and public engagement is a time-consuming chore that distracts from the more important business of doing research.

If science is to get the public profile it deserves, everybody who works to communicate science, from PHD student who blogs to celebrity scientist, engineer or medico, should be supported and valued so long as they set things right.

For scientists who would be agents of change, communications is not an add-on, but it is central to their enterprise.

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS TO THE ECONOMY—

In the US, president Obama’s stimulus package included more than $100 billion for science, and his administration has been clear about its desire to enhance science funding on a more regular basis.The white House’s 2011 budget proposed a 5.9% increase for research in an otherwise flat settlement. Australia increased spending on science by 25% in 2009-10. Canada found an extra c$32 million for its three main research agencies in 2010-11.

Emerging economies too have noticed the potential of science-funding. They want a piece of it, and are committing vast sums to science and research accordingly. For India US and Europe were always a challenge and now there is an even bigger challenge in Asia.The Asian giant who is emerging as a superpower and challenging even US and Europe in scientific advancement and special allocation of funds in the field of science.

Since 1999 China has increased its spending on science by 20% every year and now spends $100 billion a year on research, more than 30 times as much as UK. By 2020, it intends to spend 2.5% of its GDP on science, which will mean an annual science budget of $300 billion. China, with engineers and scientists well represented among its political leadership, actually seems serious about reaching it.

A Royal society report into international science in march 2011, noted that China is fast emerging as the next research Superpower, which can soon be expected to match and even outstrip the achievements of traditional scientific nations. Since 1981, the number of peer-reviwed papers produced by China has increased 64-fold, and it is well on target to become the leading producer of scientific publications within the decade, perhaps in 2013 itself.

On current trends, China will begin to file more patent applications than the US, the current world leader, by 2015.

Public spending on science would be worthwhile even if it were a true luxury with no economic payoff. The pursuit of understanding for its own sake is a celebration of human curiosity and supporting it is a legitimate function of the state. What the evidence increasingly shows, though, is that public funding of research is not a luxury at all. it’s actually one of the best uses to which taxpayer’s money can be put, an investment that is all but guaranteed to garner a sizable economic return. Science should be getting more public funding, not less.

Why then has this message failed to resonate sufficiently with politicians ?

The answer lies chiefly in the wider failings of the political classes’ understanding and experience of science.

science also struggles in intense competition of public funds because it is perceived as something that can be cut without political penalty, while governments that spend more on research can expect little credit. Even politicians who realize that science funding pays off handsomely in the long run know there is little chance they will be around to make political capital when that happens. The timescales of science work against the sort of quick returns that politicians can use to their advantage.

India has to realize the challenge posed by China in the field of research in science.At present India is nowhere near China in this field and Indian government’s bragging about surpassing China in near future is just a hollow claim without substance. Why are we not calling for a steep rise in science funding ? Why aren’t we challenging Indian politicians to revise the research budget, if they are serious about encouraging innovation as a foundation of growth? Thinking big like this could also have tactical advantages. Spending could legitimately claim to be rebalancing the national economy with an eye on the future. Politicians are forever in search of vision and narrative. Scientists can provide these ready-made.

Science is one of the activities that governments should always support, regardless of their political complexion. It contributes to improvements in health, the environment and quality of life. It creates new businesses, while attracting and retaining established ones. There are benefits with cross-party appeal.

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS IN COURTS—-

Politicians who take charge of justice systems have a disconcerting habit of ignoring scientific evidence that they find inconvenient. And if scientists complain, they like to shoot the messenger.

If we can embarrass ministers and civil servants often enough about their refusal to use the best tools available to evaluate policy initiatives, perhaps they will start to realize that generating better evidence is neither impossible nor unhelpful.

The deaf ear that politicians turn to science is specially unfortunate for drugs policy, because science has so much to contribute. The principal justification for infringing individual liberty to control access to certain substances is to limit the harm that they cause, both to the people who take them and to society at large. The level of harm that different drugs inflict, and the best approach to minimizing this is difficult to determine and there is plenty of room for honest disagreement. But it becomes close to impossible if the findings and methods of science are not given the weight they deserve.

Scientific evidence has proved the value of harm reduction. In most European countries, harm reduction for heroin has become government policy. Randomized trials show that prescribing heroin to long-term addicts significantly improves both health and social outcomes. Many addicts on such programmes are able to hold down jobs. Criminality is also much reduced, as users no longer need to fund an expensive habit. This makes such programmes cost effective since their expense is more than compensated for by lower levels of crime.

When compared to legal drugs such as alcohol and tobacco, there is little doubt that cannabis is less harmful. Ther is no solid evidence as to whether the legal status of the drug effectively deters it’s use. On the contrary it spreads more like a wildfire when taken illegally.

A botched ministerial decision undertaken without proper scientific advice threatens the quality of forensic evidence available to the police and courts.(Remember the Jessica Lal murder trial, in which even bullets were changed with the help of police officials and forensic evidences were manipulated ).

The criminal justice system should by rights have much in common with science. Both are in the business of evaluating and testing evidence, and weighing and minimizing uncertainty. Juries are supposed to find suspect guilty only when a case is proven beyond reasonable doubt. A similarly demanding standard might be said to apply to scientific hypothesis that acquire the status of theories. Science too has much to contribute to justice. The forensic evidence it can provide is increasingly important to convicting the guilty and exonerating the innocent.

Yet neither the police officers, judges, lawyers who administer justice, nor the politicians who frame the laws and sentencing regimes they work with, are reliably intelligent consumers of science. They are apt both to place excessive weight on scientific evidence that would not survive proper scrutiny, and to cast aside more robust research that challenges prejudices and preconception.

The result can be appalling miscarriage of justice.

Politicians claim all the time that their decisions on drug-classification have an important influence on the social acceptability of drug use, and the tougher restrictions have a deterrent effect. Yet this has barely been researched. There is no evidence that classification makes any difference at all. It has never been studied. It’s an act of faith. The fundamental question is; do these laws do what they are supposed to do ? But we don’t ask it.

The effectiveness of drug deterrence is not the only question in criminal justice that might become more solvable if politicians were to bother to use the methods of science to study it. Ministers are fond of following ideology and intuition when embarking on new initiatives, but much less keen on evaluating them properly to find out whether they really work. Their habits are no different where crime and punishment are concerned.

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS TO EDUCATION–

‘Education is about enhancing learning, and neuro-science is about understanding the mental processes involved in learning.’ This common ground suggests a future in which educational practice can be transformed by science, just as medical practice was transformed by science about a century ago.

When people are asked what they consider to be the most important issue on the political agenda, education generally ranks second only to health. It is understood and accepted by politicians of all parties that providing universal access to first-class medical care and providing excellent state schools that offer opportunity to all are among the core function of the government.

Politicians and civil servants tend to overlook the importance of experiments(Random trials) on education. They see education as a political problem to which the solutions are generally political and ideological, not evidence-based and technical.

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS IN HEALTH CARE—

WHO’s evidence-based guidelines on treatment of tuberculosis have no place for homeopathic medicines, said Dr Mukund uplekar of TB strategy and Health systems unit. The office of director of Department of child and Adolescent Health and Development said’
“we have found no evidence to date that homeopathy would bring any benefit to the treatment of diarrhoea” in children…Homeopathy does not focus on the treatment and prevention of dehydration in total contradiction for the management of diarrhoea.

To lay claim to a medicinal indication without evidence, was at best a deception, a way of making money under false pretences. At worst, it could be dangerous. While homeopathic pills might be harmless in and of themselves, they could encourage the use of ineffective treatment for serious conditions in place of proven ones. Most politicians though are not true believers, their sympathy for state sanctioned pseudoscience comes about not because they particularly care for it but because they have been cleverly lobbied.

We should challenge the prevailing discourse over healthcare by insisting that evidence matters. We can achieve a lot if everybody who values the scientific method and evidence-based medicine joined the activist rank.

WHY SCIENCE MATTERS TO THE ENVIRONMENT—

The reason why Nuclear power is so heavily opposed by the Greens is not because it can’t help to solve climate change but because it can.—Mark Lynas

The Green approach has demonstrated the pitfalls of playing fast n loose with the evidence. The core of its message on climate change is that science tells us that global warming is happening, that it’s potentially dangerous, and that human activities are at least partially responsible. Each of these propositions is well founded. Green campaigning on the issue however, often goes further, stepping beyond the bounds of scientific knowledge and uncertainty for the sake of building a more colourful case.

Extreme weather is a good example. While computer projections of how a warmer world will look suggest that there will be more storms and floods, heat waves and droughts, most climate scientists are extremely wary of attributing any particular weather event to global warming. Hurricanes and forest fires may become more frequent if temperatures continue to rise, but they have always happened, always will happen, and are not necessarily caused by climate change. This is often ignored by Green campaigners, for the simple reason that linking the natural disaster that has hit the headlines to global warming makes a powerful narrative, that appears to help their case.

We need politicians who understand how science works and who use evidence responsibly to develop policy. We need a media that cooks beyond phoney balance, and covers evidence rather than hearsay. We need proper acknowledgement of how green technology can contribute to economic growth, and an education system that introduces children properly to the scientific method. And we need science lovers to use our new-found political confidence to step up the pressure.

Science has described what may well be the greatest political challenge of the coming decades.
It is going to be essential to meeting it.

SCIENCE LOVERS OF THE WORLD UNITE—-

In the early stages of the French Revolution, in 1789, King Louis xvi was forced to recognize a new national assembly. The landed supporters of the Ancient Regime chose to sit to the right of the president’s chair; their opponents gathered to the left.

Thus began a taxonomy of modern politics that has endured across many different cultures for more than two centuries. The right wing defends capital and free enterprise, supports traditional institutions and dislikes challenges to social norms. Whereas the left campaigns for egalitarian economics while embracing social change.

It’s now widely accepted that opinions about social and economic issues do not necessarily go hand in hand. Politics has a third side also, apart from right and left. It measures rationalism, scepticism, and scientific thinking- the willingness to base opinions on evidence and to keep them under review as better evidence comes along.

Ministers of all parties, and public servants of none, show a troubling reluctance to use the methods of science to investigate how best to teach children, prevent crime, fund health care or protect the environment. Many of them would prefer it if the policies they implement were never evaluated at all.

They do it because they know it no better. And they do it because we let them. If we want change, we can’t continue to sit back and be ignored. We must distil our enthusiasm and outrage into a political force that punches its weight. That’s starting to happen. It’s time to take it further. Let’s build a movement. It’s central concern must be how the policies are put together—

* We want a political culture that appreciates the power of science as a problem-solving tool, and that seeks to exploit its methods of inquiry to resolve the great questions of the day. We want leaders who don’t want just to implement their ideas, but to test them scientifically, and who are comfortable with changing their Minds.

* We want politicians to listen to scientific evidence and advice with respect and to consider it properly before they act. While we would like them to heed it, we accept that won’t always happen. But we expect them to be honest about their reasons when they go their own way.

* We want governments to create an environment in which science can thrive, to create life-enhancing technologies and to drive economic growth. We want long-term investment in curiosity, which is not interrupted when times are tight. The evidence suggests it will pay off.

* We want a media that critically evaluates scientific claims according to the evidence behind them, and that avoids damaging hype about breakthroughs and scares. It should give science the same respect it gives to business, sport or the arts.

* And we want science and critical thinking to become central to national conversation. We want as many people as possible to appreciate not only what science achieves, but how it achieves it. We know that has to start at school.

* We must challenge politicians whenever science is twisted, misused or simply passed over. There are millions of us out there. We have the online tools to assemble. Let’s make ourselves heard. We must use our voices and use our votes. Science abuse must carry a cost. Then we can become a constituency to be courted and appeased, not ignored.

* We must use the media and work to improve it. Let’s support both scientists and journalists who communicate science well, and complain constructively about those who don’t. With blogging and social media, we can also set the record straight ourselves.

* We must use every means available to us to promote a better appreciation of scientific thinking. We can volunteer in schools. We can ask businesses for evidence to support their claims and complain to regulators when they refuse. And we must discuss our views freely with our families, colleagues and friends, instead of keeping quiet for fear of causing offence.

If we are to achieve these goals, and they won’t come easily- we have to raise the political profile of Science. Every science lover has a part to play.

* In all this, we must stay true to the values we want to promote. We mustn’t be tempted to throw off the constraints of rationality and circumspection. It’s these qualities that give science its power. Compromise here, and we risk becoming just another special interest.

It is not the function of our government to keep the citizen from falling in to error, but it is the function of the citizen to keep the government from falling in to error.

Below are excerpts from ALBERT EINSTEIN; Out of my Later Years, philosophical Library, New York 1950
(Address before the English American Scientific Congress, Washington, May 15, 1940. First published in Science, vol.91, may 1940)

Science is the attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense-experience correspond to a logically uniform system of thought. In this system single experiences must be correlated with the theoretic structure in such a way that the resulting coordination is unique and convincing.

The sense-experiences are the given subject-matter. But the theory that shall interpret them is man-made. It is the result of an extremely laborious process of adaptation; hypothetical, never completely final, always subject to question and doubt.

The scientific way of forming concepts differs from that which we use in our daily life, not basically, but merely in the more precise definition of concepts and conclusions; more painstaking and systematic choice of experimental material; and greater logical economy. By this last we mean the effort to reduce all concepts and correlations to as few as possible logically independent basic concepts and axioms.

(Address broadcast to the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Sep. 28, 1941, first published in Advancement of Science, London, vol2.no.5)

The super-national character of scientific concepts and scientific language is due to the fact that they have been set up by the best brains of all countries and all times. In solitude and yet in cooperative effort as regards the final effect they created the spiritual tools for the technical revolutions which have transformed the life of mankind in the last centuries. Their system of concepts have served as a guide in the bewildering chaos of perceptions so that we learned to grasp general truths from particular observations.

What hopes and fears does the scientific method imply for mankind? I do not think that this is the right way to put the question. Whatever this tool in the hand of man will produce depends entirely on the nature of goals alive in this mankind. Once these goals exist, the scientific method furnishes means to realize them. Yet it can not furnish the very goals. The scientific method itself would not have led anywhere, it would not even have been born without a passionate striving for clear understanding.

Perfection of means and confusion of goals seem- in my opinion- to characterize our age. If we desire sincerely and passionately the safety, the welfare and the free development of the talents of all men, we shall not be in want of the means to approach such a state. Even if only a small part of mankind strives for such goals, their superiority will prove itself in the long run.

THE LAWS OF SCIENCE AND THE LAWS OF ETHICS-(From ALBERT EINSTEIN–First published as foreword to Philipp Frank, Relativity–A Richer Truth, Boston 1950)

Science searches for relations which are thought to exist independently of the searching individual. This includes the case where man himself is the subject. Or the subject of scientific statements may be concepts created by ourselves, as in mathematics. Such concepts are not necessarily supposed to correspond to any objects in the outside world. However, all scientific statements and laws have one characteristic in common-they are “true or false” (adequate or inadequate). Roughly speaking, our reaction to them is “yes” or “no”.

The scientific way of thinking has a further characteristic. The concepts which it uses to build up its coherent systems are not expressing emotions. For the scientist, there is only “being”, but no wishing, no valuing, no good, no evil; no goal. As long as we remain within the realm of science proper, we can never meet with a sentence of the type: “Thou shalt not lie.” There is something like a Puritan’s restraint in the scientist who seeks truth: he keeps away from everything voluntaristic or emotional. Incidentally, this trait is the result of a slow development, peculiar to modern western thought.

From this it might seem as if logical thinking were irrelevant for ethics. Scientific statements of facts and relations, indeed, can not produce ethical directives. However, ethical directives can be made rational and coherent by logical thinking and empirical knowledge. If we can agree on some fundamental ethical propositions, then other ethical propositions can be derived from them, provided that the original premises are stated with sufficient precision. Such ethical premises play a similar role in ethics, to that played by axioms in mathematics.

This is why we do not feel at all that it is meaningless to ask such questions as: “Why should we not lie?” We feel that such questions are meaningful because in all discussions of this kind some ethical premises are tacitly taken for granted. We then feel satisfied when we succeed in tracing back the ethical directive in question to these basic premises. In the case of lying this might perhaps be done in some way such as this: Lying destroys confidence in the statements of other people. Without such confidence, social cooperation is made impossible or at least difficult. Such cooperation, however, is essential to make human life possible and tolerable. This means that the rule “Thou shalt not lie” has been traced back to the demands: “Human life shall be preserved” and “Pain and sorrow shall be lessened as much as possible.”

But what is the origin of such ethical axioms? Are they arbitrary? Are they based on mere authority? Do they stem from experiences of men and are they conditioned indirectly by such experiences?

For pure logic all axioms are arbitrary, including the axioms of ethics. But they are by no means arbitrary from a psychological and genetic point of view. They are derived from our inborn tendencies to avoid pain and annihilation, and from the accumulated emotional reaction of individuals to the behaviour of their neighbours.

It is the privilege of man’s moral genius, impersonated by inspired individuals, to advance ethical axioms which are so comprehensive and so well founded that men will accept them as grounded in the vast mass of their individual emotional experiences. Ethical axioms are found and tested not very differently from the axioms of science. Truth is what stands the test of experience.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

Mind,Body, Soul, Consciousness and Meditation

First we will see the meaning of the three words,mind,body and soul in the dictionary and then analyse further about our life and the purpose of being here in this world in physical form,

MIND- The seat of consciousness.The mind understands reasons and initiates action and is also the source of emotions.This is a simplistic definition for a concept that has been and continues to be the subject of vigorous debate among theologians,philosophers,biologists,psychologists,psychiatrists and other doctors.These arguments are too complex for inclusion in a dictionary’s definition.

The above meaning of mind is taken from Black’s Medical Dictionary,42nd edition.

Body- bulk,carcass,corpse,corpus,system,anatomy,physique,vital statistics,physicality,physiology,neuroanatomy,neurology,neurophysiology,organology,otology.Brain also is a part of body,the meaning of which in medical dictionary is the brain and spinal cord together of human or animal form the central nervous system(CNS).The control centre of the whole nervous system is the brain,which is located in the skull.As well as controlling the nervous system it is the organ of thought,speech and emotion.The CNS controls the body’s essential functions such as breathing,body temperature and the heart beat.The body’s varius sensations including sight,hearing,touch,pain,positioning and taste are communicated to CNS by nerves distributed throughout the relevant tissues.This information is then sorted and interpreted by specialised areas in the brain.In response these initiate and coordinate the motor output,triggering such voluntary activities as movement,speech,eating and swallowing.

Now it becomes quite clear that in our body we have two currents simultaneously flowing,as in animals also,which can be named as motor currents and sensory currents.The motor currents keep us alive,by controlling our involuntarily body functions,such as the growth of our nails and hair,our breathing,and our blood pressure,which are also called central nervous system(CNS).The sensory currents which make us aware of the sense of sight,hearing,smell,taste and touch.These currents are in the body of animals also.But what makes human beings special and different from animals is the”mind”.This is detected in human beings as specialised area between and behind the two eyebrows and defined in medical dictionary as”seat of consciousness”

SOUL-atman,inner being,mind,monad,self,spirit,spiritual self,life force,breath of life,ectoplasm,etheric body,etheric force,vital force,phantom,appariton,astral body,astral spirit,eidolon,ghost,image,vapour,wraith.

Medical dictionary does not have any meaning for soul,so the above meaning is taken from The Concise Dictionary and it is significant that one of the meaning of soul is “mind”,and hence whatever meanings of ‘mind’ are described in medical dictionary naturally apply for ‘soul’ also.

It is true that medical dictionary does not contain the meaning of soul but everybody accepts the existence of soul,even medical practitioners also privately admit that there is a soul.Science,in its attempt to explore the farthest reaches of space,is looking for answers to the origin of creation.Many physicists have turned to the east to explore the possibilities of realms of existence beyond physical world.A look at new age physics reveals a generation of scientists who are exploring the possibility that there really are universes existing concurrently with ours.The subjects ‘metaphysics’and ‘transpersonal physiology’in science are the new revolution and modern humanity at large has learned the lesson that any thing is possible.While science is delving in to what happens after this life,there is another field of science also being researched which is investigaing whether higher regions of existence can be tapped during this current lifetime.

Spiritual teachers,saints,and mystics have developed a technique by which one can transcend the physical limitations of this universe to discover higher realms of consciousness.Now the seat of consciousness in our body is’mind’,which is located between and behind the two eyebrows,this much is crystal clear to us.Coming back to soul,we have a soul in our body,there is no dispute over this universal fact,but where is this located in our body.Some hint is given in concise dictionary that one of the meanings of soul is mind,but other meanings of soul like spirit,inner being,self,atman are deeper meanings and the mind only caters to the bodily functions like it understands the reason and initiates action and is also source of emotions which differs the soul from mind.That means only science wouldn’t be enough to understand the soul.We have to go to saints and mystics who spent their life for attaining the knowledge of pure consciousness,who taught us without asking for any monetary benefits.They taught us that,presently our consciousness is scattered throughout our body and goes out of our body in to this world through the five senses;seeing,hearing,smell,taste,and touch.We have to withdraw consciousness from the world outside and collect it at the seat of the soul located between and behind the two eyebrows.This is the same process that all of us have to go at the time of our death.when someone dies,there is numbness first in the feet,then the numbness continues to the legs and trunk.Finally the soul collects at the eye-focus.At the time of death we find the eyeballs turn up,and then come down.So the soul is collecting and leaving the body.This is the highest chakra in the body.It is the point from where the soul leaves the body at the time of death.There are six chakras or centres in the body.Lowest is’guda chakra’located at the base of the spine or the rectum.Then’indri chakra’located near the reproductive organs.Third is’nabhi chakra’located near the navel.’Hriday chakra’is near heart,’Kanth chakra’is near the throat and the highest is’ajna chakra’,which the saints called as third eye or tenth door and is located behind and between the two eye brows,the same location as of the mind.We need to concentrate at this third eye which the soul must pass before leaving the body.So our mind itself starts functioning as soul as soon as we succeed in withdrawing our attention from the world.This location between and behind two eyebrows is named in varius ways in various scriptures as the ‘single eye’,daswan dwar(tenth door),third eye(shiv netra),divya chakshu.

We will go in more detail about the functioning of mind,body and soul so that the things become very clear to us,and there remains no confusion at all.

The Mind/Body/Soul are the totality in the process of self-exploration.Right now if our mind does not know what the soul knows,our life could feel as if it is being pulled in different directions,our very purpose of being on earth could wind up being compromised.

This is in fact the circumstance in which most of humanity finds itself today.

What must happen if we wish to live a life that serves its actual purpose is that our mind must bring in to its database that,of which the soul is already aware,so that we can produce the experience of it.The soul holds knowledge,while the mind creates the experience of what we call reality.This is the very reason that our totality(mind,body and soul)came in to the physical realm,to experience that of which it has full knowledge.Yet if the mind’s data does not include the soul’s awareness the continuing experiences the mind creates will not be expressions of what the soul knows and that will not serve our totality.

It is very important to understand that the’database’from which we may construct any present reality(ie-the information which is stored within us)exists in two different places and is accessed in two different ways.

The challenge in human life is that most people do not know this,or do know,but have not yet learned how to shift their point of focus from one well of information to the other at will,much less bring the two together.

The data about life is held in ‘memory’within our totality-and that one kind of’memory’is physical,while the other is metaphysical.The first kind of’memory’ we have called experience and the second knowledge.The first type of memory produces desire(a yearning for more experience),the second reveals intention(a yearning for a particular kind of experience-based on knowledge,not prior experience)

The first kind of’memory’is held in the mind,the second in the soul.The mind captures,categorizes,files,and brings forward memories of every experience our body and mind have ever had.The soul is the repository of all knowledge about who we are,where we are,why we are where we are,and all other aspects of everlasting life.This knowledge is what has also been called as ‘awareness’.

The sum of these two databanks is what they call consciousness.”consciousness raising” is to increase or expand the mind’s database,its limited storehouse of experience-to include more of the soul’s unlimited knowledge or awareness.

Experience + Awareness = Consciousness

The level of our consciousness depends upon how much experience we have had not only of our physical life but also of our metaphysical life the knowledge of which exists in our soul.

When in any particular moment,our present experience(that is the experience we are having now,rather than our memories of previous experience)and our present awareness (that is awareness of our soul to which we now have given ourself access)are joined together,the mind’s desire and the soul’s intention become one.

This is truly a marriage made in heaven.The meeting of the mind and soul.

It is impossible for the mind to hold at one time all of the knowledge held by the soul.If there is too much input the mind must’ring itself out’to avoid being overloaded.Hence the mind ‘forgets’some of what it once ‘knew’.So our mind brings forward what we need to know and puts away on the back shelf what we have no urgent need for.Or in our computer analogy,while our mind is adding data to the file currently open on desktop,it is closing other files to make the operating system run smoother.

It is precisely because the mind’s capacity is finite and the soul’s is infinite that,if the mind wishes to review the data of the soul,it will need to do so in bits and pieces.We sometimes call these bits and pieces “various births”.
Mind travels with the soul life time after life time.
When a person’s mind retrieves data from a previous lifetime(an enormous amount of anecdotal evidence suggests that this is a common occurance)that person is often called a ‘prodigy’demonstrating skills and abilities,wisdom and insight far beyond what present life experience would seemingly render possible.

When within a given lifetime that blending of the mind and soul occurs,the journey on which we find ourselves will finally begin to make more and more sense,because we are taking that journey in a state of expanded consciousness.Our perspective will have shifted and greatly enlarged.

Our soul has embarked on its sacred journey in a single identity eternally.Divine purpose of our life for which we are here from ages is to expand the reality of God,by experiencing the consciousness through our mind and body,and end our journey.

Agenda of the soul is to reach completion on its sacred journey.

The spectacular physiological,psychological and theological transition in to that higher level of self-awareness occurs only once in the epochal history of every sentient species in the cosmos,and this is precisely what is happening within the human race right now.

In our material world and mind and body experiencing this outer world,following look like the path of sacred journey,

1)The pursuit of love looks like the path.
2)The pursuit of security looks like the path.
3)The pursuit of power looks like the path.
4)The pursuit of success looks like the path.
5)The pursuit of money looks like the path.
6)The pursuit of happiness looks like the path.
7)The pursuit of sex looks like the path.
8)The pursuit of popularity looks like the path.
9)The pursuit of peace looks like the path.
10)The pursuit of social justice looks like the path.

Only if we are spiritually awakened or if we have spent a lifetime working for those above things and having achieved those goals at least in part,found that’this is not it’ and we are still not fulfilled-could we know that the path of the soul must be going somewhere else.
Further only if we take the path of the soul to that somewhere else place could we know that in that place will be found all the things we were looking for and struggling to create by leaving the path including everything on the list above.
The way to know what one desires is to bring our soul in to our mind,combining the two in to one,the way to express what one desires is to then bring the body in to this process.This is called ‘integration’.It brings the whole of us in to integrity.Now the holy trinity is completely realized-made real in us.This is what is spiritual mastery all about.

The oneness of all of humanity(atman) and God(parmatman)(and of the entire universe)is a difficult concept for many people to embrace.They are not familiar yet with ‘M’theory,which today’s physicists are advancing to offer,finally a theory of everything,and which supplies mathematical evidence for the notion that we do not live in a universe,but in a multiverse,made up of an infinite number of universes,all created and connected by a single phenomenon called the Membrane.People do not know that this is not’New Age nonsense’but today’s New Science.

New science and spirituality are finally reaching to a meeting point.Old philosophies in various ancient scriptures already describe about oneness of atman and parmatman and reject any kind of dualism.Advait(non-dualism) philosophy of Vedanta(Upanishads)upheld by Adi Sankara and later popularised by Swami Ramkrishna Paramhansa and Swami Vivekananda is all about oneness of universe.In’japji sahib’ it is written”There is one reality,the unmanifest manifested,ever existent,satnam(conscious spirit),the creator pervading all,without fear,without enmity,the timeless,the unborn,and the self-existent,complete within itself”.In Sanskrit”vasudha-ev kutumbakam” means the entire earth is a family.All the saints and prophets believed in oneness of humanity.So there is no confusion at all.This is the only truth,although 98% of today’s world whether in politics or economics,in our society,the picture is quite opposite.But that does not make it any less true.

My invitation from life is to’judge not by appearances’,but to hold to the truth.This truth will allow me to see others,and to treat others,as aspects of myself.That alone could change my life.If I did nothing else,seeing others and treating others as aspects of myself would alter everything in my experience.

Can my decision be experienced ‘totally’while I am in my present physical human form ?No.One physical lifetime is too limited for the unlimited oneness to fit into.I get that.Does my true identity have to be experienced totally for my life to have meaning and to be fulfilling ?No.I am clear now that attaining even portions or aspects of the Divine(oneness being the sum of those aspects)is sufficient for me to know immense joy and fulfillment.

I am also clear that sticking to the agenda of the soul is just the challenge I have been preparing for all these years as I now move in to the extraordinary times just ahead.

The whole earth is moving through these important moments with me even now,and I want to help’create’those moments,not merely witness them.I remember now that I can best do that by focusing much more of my life on the spiritual journey.

Yet how can what I desire produce good for myself and for the world,and what does a clear focus on what I desire”look like”in life’s on the ground,day to day moments ?That is the next question.And,by going within,I am sure that I can find many answers being drawn to me,by Me.One way might be for me to continue with this blog-but as the writer,or the Reader ?

Actually I like this idea.I can easily imagine that this blog is being written to me,for me by me.I like the idea that the”me”who I am is much bigger than the one physical form that currently calls itself Me.

I have often experienced”talking to myself”,or “thinking out loud” and so allowing myself to consider that this blog is a written version of that experience is an easy transition.

I can imagine that these thoughts and words are simply being transcribed for me by the part of me whom others refer to by different name and think of as the writer of this blog.

If I were to share with others what I am experiencing right now by suddenly switching my point of view from that of the writer to that of the reader,they would surely say that I have just lost touch with reality.

There is a certain irony in that,because it feels as though I have just now gotten in touch with Reality.

It’s true….I do know all that I am encountering here.I do know that the”someone else”who has written this blog is merely another part of Me.

I’ve always understood that all of life is just another part of me.And so I know now that I called forth this blog-as yet one more way to remind myself of the largest truths of my life.

I understand the point this blog is making that We are all one,and that,therefore,what I do for me I do for others,and that what I do for others I do for me.And so,focusing on What I desire is not”selfish” at all.

I find that if I hold the idea that I am writing this blog(as against simply seeing myself reading the words of another),the words seem to have less weight somehow.

For reasons not entirely clear to me(but probably having to do with my own spiritual immaturity and a resulting refusal to see myself as my own spiritual”authority”),I feel much more open to huge insights about life when I experience that they are coming from a source outside myself.

And do you know what?The thought just struck me that”perhaps this is why we have placed God outside ourselves”.

So…..I shall herewith return to the profile of the Reader-even if in truth the writer and I are One-as my latest demo of Free Will in determining how I choose to experience life.

When we see things differently,when we bring in the Awareness of soul as our mind encounters the data brought to us by our body,our entire perspective changes.And our perspective creates our perception.And our perception creates our beliefs.And our beliefs create our behaviour.And our behaviour produces our experience.

Bringing us the Awareness of our Soul to dramitacally alter our experience is what this blog is all about.

When we experience moments of sacred journey which can occur in any one of the moments of lifetime,our immediate wish will be to experience more of that in even greater form.That is the Law Of Attraction.So our soul will begin the whole process all over again-yet not starting from the beginning,rather,starting from right where we are now.This is”karmic cycle”or cycle of births.So the Soul continues the process till the completion of the Sacred Journey,birth after birth.

We wonder-if the mind travels with the soul between lifetimes,why are we now having to”remember” what we have brought from our previous lifetime?
The answer is the mind of all human beings is reset to zero at the moment of birth.All previous data is”deleted”.And so while on our first day of life our soul had an”awareness” of all,our mind held nothing at all.
This is not by”accident”,rather the accidents are those exceptional cases,where a prodigy remembers about the past births .

Life is designed to give the totality of us a fresh start with every incarnation,or we can say’reincarnation’.In this way we can recreate ourselves anew in the next grand version of the great vision our Soul ever held about who we are.

The slate is wiped clean as part of’God’s biggest gift’-Freedom.

Life wants us to have the freedom to make today’s choices as we wish,unburdened by the decisions of our past,and thanks to the glory of our Divinity.

Right now we might say”If the Mind is reset to zero at every birth,it might as well die at the end of its previous life,because what good is it in this life if it carries no memories of what is experienced?”
The answer is No.For our mind is indeed like a computer-only much,much better.
As we know,on a computer we can not permanently erase any data.We can send data to “trash”-that is we can “delete”it,but the word’delete’is a misnomer.We have simply sent our data to a separate location on our hard drive,the ‘trash bin’,but it is also a good idea to know that it resides there ‘forever’.

Our mind is more efficient than a computer.It can send data to ‘trash'(it does exactly that with each birth),but it can reach in to its deleted files and pull out even”shreded”data(memories of experiences that we’ve had over and over and over again,from lifetime to lifetime)and decipher it.

What does this mean as a practical matter?It means that while,yes,we begin each new physical life with a’clean slate’,giving us the freedom to make choices unencumbered by our choices in the past,our mind can still access prior data from previous lifetimes when the mind determines it is beneficial,and not a hindrance to do so.Any thing that stops growth is considered a hindrance.Any thing that serves the continuance of life is not.

For all ordinary intents and purposes,the mind is free of these trillions of bytes of deleted data,having no need whatsoever to bring forward past ideas or information that will not serve us in the present.

Rising above any past thought that our mind may have harboured about our inadequacies or failures,our refreshed mind openes at each birth to the Awareness that our Soul has always held,that we are magnificent.

That is the precise reason that little children are wonderful.The closer we are to the birth of our being,with our memory cleared of all our previous life experiences in the body,we can be of a new mind about things.And so it is that we have been wisely advised;-Be as little children(little Angels)

Let this be our mantra,now and forever.
See the world with the innocence of children.
Approach the world with the daring of children.
Love the world with the readiness of children.
Heal the world with the purity of children.Change the world with the wisdom of children.
Be as little children.

So finally our idea of the self and our reason for being on the earth breaks down,to two simple choices.

CHOICE 1-
We could conceive of ourselves as a chemical creature,or a logical biological incident.That is the logical outcome of a biological process engaged in by two other biological processes called mother and father.

If we see ourselves as a chemical creature we would see as having no more connection to the larger processes of life than any other chemical life form.

We would see ourselves as having to deal with life day by day,pretty much as it comes,with a bit of what seems like “control” based on advance planning,but we would know that at any minute anything could go wrong-and often would.

CHOICE 2-

We would conceive of ourselves as a spiritual being inhabiting a biological mass,or what we call a Body.

So we conceive that we are a Soul and not a Body.Once we conclude that,then everything changes and we start identifying with the larger process,the humanity with the Soul,no difference at all,the difference which we see is only exterior, between our bodies.It is becoming conscious of the Soul,a conscious entity which inhabits the Body and the soul is a part of the eternal Soul,The Creator,God,Parmatman,Allah,wah-i-Guru,Bhagwan Buddh,the omnipotent,omnipresent.

As a spiritual being,we would know that we are here(on this earth)for a spiritual reason.This is a highly focused purpose and has nothing to do directly with our occupation or career,our income or possessions or achievements or place in society,or any of the exterior conditions or circumtances of our life.We would know that our purpose has to do with our inner life -and that how well we do in achieving our purpose may very often have an effect on our outer life.

We understand that CHOICE-2 is a better option and we are tempted to select it.Yet merely making this choice is not enough.We will have to use some tools given to us by humanity,to make our life ethical,to embrace our identity as a spiritual being,and then implement that choice consistently with the help of a magical device,that will allow us to sustain the experiences to which the other tools lead us.

So first the tools to use for an ethical life,

We have read about 4 tools,Truth,Nonviolence,love and Peace,already in the last blog and here are 4 more tools to implement-

GRATITUDE—

Let’s understand exactly what this tool is.Gratitude is not merely an emotion,it is a decision.It defines and declares our experience of Here and Now.And hence,our reality.

Gratitude can be a simple emotional reaction,or it can be a magnificent spirirual creation.It is a simple reaction when our Mind is on Automatic mode.It is a magnificent creation when our Mind has opted for Awareness mode and merged with our Soul in making a combined choice about any present moment.

In every moment of our life we have two choices—to move in to Reaction or Creation.
Reaction and Creation are very close to being the same word.Only the C and R need to be reversed.When we C what we have always been meant to C,then we R what we always R–and the course of our Life is reversed.

Gratitude is one of the most powerful tools our mind has ever been given,but at the same time it is also the most underutilized.Because most people are not aware of the immence power of Gratitude to reverse a thought that is at the foundation of all suffering.

The central cause of suffering is the idea that”something is happening that should not be happening”.Gratitude unleashes an energy that turns this idea on its head,announcing that just because something is unpleasant does not mean it is unbidden,unwelcome or unwanted.(jo sukh deh ta tujhey araadhin,dukh bhi tujhey dhyaeen..dukh vich sukh manaeen…koi aan milaaye mera pritam pyaara….from amrit vaani,guru granth sahib).

If the Mind thinks that a particular pain is ‘unwanted’,it will not abide by it–and that is precisely what creates struggle in one’s life and suffering.
Struggle is the result of the Mind rejecting what the Soul offers.It is the Mind deciding to go in another direction,veering from the path of the Soul.Suffering is the emotional product of that decision.Both struggle and suffering are creations of the Mind,which is where our reality is created.

What our Mind thinks about something is crucial in determining how we experience it-and Gratitude can cause us to change our Mind.

Yet Gratitude is not a tool with which to fool the Mind.It is a tool with which to open the Mind.It expands our normal,limited thinking to include a counterintuitive truth,that even when something seems ‘bad’ for us,it can actually be good for us.Mirza Ghalib was a great philosophical poet who beautifully expressed about pain and suffering and how to take them in our stride–

Ishrat-e-qatraa hai darya mein fanaa ho jaana
dard ka hadd se guzarnaa hai dawaa ho jaana
or
Ranj se khoogar hua insan toh mit jaata hai ranj
mushkilen itni padi mujh par ke aasan ho gayeen

A song from popular hindi film ‘dost’ also expresses similar feelings,
“Kaise naadan hai woh,gham se anjaan hai joh,ranj na hota aghar,kya khushi ki thi kadar…….dard khud hai messiah dosto,dard se bhi dawaa ka dosto,kaam liya jaata hai….aa bataa dein ke tujhe kaise jiya jaata hai….”

Underneath this truth lies a deeper one:Nothing that ever happens is ‘bad’ for us,or it would not happen.Life is incapable of producing an event or condition that does not carry us to the next place in our evolution,and that is not designed for our next expression of Divinity.Since the expression of Divinity is the reason we are here,we can be sure that everything that is placed before us appears to serve this Divine Purpose.

And so we say,Thank you,God(tera lakh lakh shukr mere maalik….).We give thanks for the opportunity to heal an old injury,to close an old wound,to alter an old pattern,to shift an old reality,to release an old story,to change an old idea,and to create a new experience of Self and Life.

ENLARGING OUR CHALLENGES—-

The greatest secret of Life is not the Law of Attraction,but the Law of Retraction.This is used to ‘retract’ old decisions and make new ones,instantly.That is what true creation is all about.

When we bear witness to our responses to Life’s current events and immediately retract what we decided in the past about similar events,we give ourselves almost unimaginable power,including the power to end struggle and suffering forever.
Gautam Buddha demonstrated this precisely,and taught it.(remember the four noble truths and eight-fold righteous path to get rid of suffering)

It is Gratitude that gives us this power.Gratitude gives us a fresh Start.It is like being born again,and having the Mind reset to zero.It wipes the slate clean of all prior negative judgements that we may have held about any person,event or situation.

Our Mind has been designed to hold in memory literally millions of experiences in order for us to notice that we are encountering conditions and events in our exterior world that are the same or nearly the same in their emotional content as we have encountered before.

The noticing of this is intended to offer us repeated chances to respond differently to conditions and events(both past and present) should we chose to,thereby recreating ourselves anew in the next grandest version of the greatest vision ever we held about Who We Are.

We see then,that a single Life offers in miniature what reincarnation offers in “maximature”:limitless opportunities to evolve.

This is the Process of Life in all its forms.

Scientists tell us that even the Universe is evolving.

Enough is Enough.It really is the time for the struggle to be over.And so a way has been found for the journey to continue,but for the struggle to be over.Tools have been given to us.One of them is The Law of Retraction,powered by Gratitude.
Using this takes us to the next stage on our sacred Journey.It is the next step to mastery.Mastery is when the challenges become greater,but the struggle disappears.

If we have been suffering,it is not because we have been following The Path Of The Soul.But it is because we have taken a detour along a trail that led us away from The Path,forgetting to remember who we really are,why we are here,and where we are intending to go(remember that song from ‘seema’by rafi saheb”kahan ja raha hai..tu ai jaane waaley….andheraa hai mann ka diya toh jalaa le….kabhi yeh bhi sochaa ke manzil kahaan hai,badey se jahaan mein tera ghar kahaan hai….”).

The Path Of The Soul does not require or include suffering.The way for the struggle to be over is to stay on The Path.Gratitude returns us there.It speeds up our evolution.It’s the fast track.

This Fast track is not conditional.We can go through one entire lifetime reacting the same way to the same kinds of events.Many of us do that.Only those who are deeply commited to evolution,would spend the time and energy on choosing and changing their emotions,shifting from anger or frustration to Gratitude,in order to produce new and grander experiences of themselves.

This requires a very high-level promise to oneself.It entails an acknowledgement that there is something Larger going on there-something more than just day-to-day Life,rolling out randomly.It implies that there is a particular process taking place in a particular way.A sacred process,an eternal process.A process that serves a Divine Purpose.

Our commitment to this Process and this Purpose is our own Calling,it is our own full-voiced declaration to the world,”My Life really is about more than just get the guy,get the girl,get the car,get the job,get the house,….I will not spend my time on the 98% of things that just don’t matter.I….will….not.”

GRATITUDE AND ROLE OF EMOTIONS—

Gratitude is a powerful tool that can change our experience of life by allowing us to focus on the only thing that matters,the question then arises-What could cause us to decide to feel gratitude in the face of events or conditions that ordinarily would invite condemnation,not commendation?
We are surprised.Are emotions to be decided to feel?We say that our emotions simply arise.They show up.Unannounced,Unbidden,Unexpectedly.We think of themselves as just having an emotional response.We often say that we were just overcome by emotion.
The truth is that all emotions are chosen-even first ones.The Mind decides to feel a certain way.Emotions are an act of Will.
This is a challenging truth to embrace.We are responsible for everything;for how we feel,for how we act with others as a result of how we feel,and for how all events in our life are experienced.We hold our emotions responsible for our sudden emotional outbursts and claim ourselves truthful also.So the human race can never evolve until we see the role we play in the creation of our emotions.

The story we’ve been telling ourselves about emotions is our admission that we have no idea how the Mind really works.
The fact is that emotions are chosen exactly the way we select our clothes to wear.Emotions are the costumes of our Mind.The Mind decides to feel a certain way.Our Mind makes its decision so fast that it can seem as though we have no control over our emotions.At least not our very first reactions.

Our Mind moves very quickly into an emotion,based on a thought it has formed.This is what it meant when we say”i felt very moved”.

Thought is Energy and our Mind’s job is to move that energy into motion(E+motion).
If we can change our thought about something,we can create a different Emotion around it-which will produce a different Experience of it.(using the law of Retraction),we could rise to a new level of preparedness to experience mastery in this Moment-because whether our Mind is caught up in memories of the past,or we are in a challenging present moment and wish to change our mind this instant about it using the same tool,we will in each case encounter Gratitude.

If we really want to create higher experience of self(and not just put a new car in the driveway),if we really want to create a better world(and not just a better necklace for our bodice),we will benefit enormously from an understanding of the mechanics of the Mind as briefed above.

As fast as the Mind works,it still works only on the Data it is working with.Programmers in the field of information technology are very familiar with the concept of GIGO.
Garbage in/Garbage out
So if we have put ‘garbage’into our Mind(about Life,about God,about any particular experience that we have stored in our virtually end-less memory),garbage is what is going to come out of our Mind about anything in the Present moment that even looks like a previous experience.Yet if we have put Gratitude in,then Gratitude is what is going to come out.

It’s still GIGO!

What we are saying here is that if we live in Gratitude for all events,then Gratitude for every one of our present moment events will arise-regardless of the event itself.

Our goal is completion but that does not mean that we have to show up as a mistake-avoiding,humanity-denying,wisdom-speaking guru every moment of our Life.In fact,everything we do moves us forward on the path of evolution,so let’s not berate or beleaguer ourselves for’not doing it right’ as we move through our days and times.

RECONTEXTUALIZATION-

Recontextualization creates a new context within which to frame life,virtually eliminating any reason or justification we might have felt in our life to be,lusty,angry,greedy,attached or egoist with or about anyone.This remarkable tool involves a repositioning of our perspective,allowing us to see what is going on at any moment in our life within a new and startlingly different context.

It should be clear at this point in our life that what brings us joy-is self-expression.It is through the fullest expression of self that the fullest experience of Who we really are is achieved.Now,a person looking at life a certain way might feel that the fullest expression of self is wonderful if it can be made to happen,but it doesn’t happen very often for many,and that life has more to it than this,and that we must all go on,whether we feel”fully self-expressed” or not.

Recontextualization,on the other hand,tells us that’full self-expression’ is the experience we came for.This creates a not-willing-to-settle-for-anything-less thought in our mind.It reformulates the days and times of our life within the context of our soul’s agenda,not our mind’s concept.The Soul’s agenda always exceeds the mind’s concept.This is true all of the time.

So this tool,Recontextualization,invites us to place the purpose of our life in to a new context-the Agenda of our Soul and the Sacred journey upon which our Soul has embarked.This is truly seeing our life and its every event in a new way.

With Recontextualization can come a sudden realization of the Self.And as we become a Self-realized being,rather than a reactive being everything changes in the way we move through the world.

We see our “job”or “work” also in a new context.Are we generous,giving,caring?Are we fair,honest,trustworthy?Are we protective,creative?All these things are aspects of Divinity that we give ourselves the ability to express freely,through the gift that life has given us of what we call ‘work’ or’job’ or ‘buisiness’ or ‘profession’ or ‘occupation’.

When we see our work in this context,we will experience it as part of a larger process by means of which we get to be particular aspects of Divinity that we have freely decided to be.We can find it easy and actually wonderful to do a work or job that we once hated,once we switch over to this new context.

The freedom of children to be authentic,pure and joyful is what we will experience,when a deep commitment to see how best and most completely we might express what one desires(One is none other than our self,Soul,a part of eternal Soul).This will move us into an Expanded Consciousness,from which all Divinity arises.

Such Expanded consciousness is the consequence when our Mind and our Soul come together.For then Experience meets Awareness.The question is how to create such Meet Ups.The first thing we have to do is eliminate any thought we may be holding that expanded consciousness is something reserved for a select few.

Expanded Consciousness is,in fact,very easy to experience,and everyone on the planet has done so.Yes,even children.Especially little children.I remember one song from an old hindi film which I will write here,

Bachhey mann ke sachhey,
saarey jag ki aankh ke taarey,
yeh woh nanhe phool hain jo,
Bhagwan ko lagtey pyarey…..

Insaan jab tak bachha hai,tab tak samjho sachha hai ;
jyon jyon uski umar badhey,tan par mayl ka lep chadhey;
krodh badhey nafrat gherey,lalach ki aandhi pherey ;
bachpan inn baton se hatkar,apni umra guzaarey…..bachhey mann ke sachhey…

The meaning is that little children are truth personified,they are the twinkling stars of world’s eye.These are the blooming flowers God loves.We human beings are truthful till we are little children,and when we grow,the dirt of greed,anger,lust,hate starts covering us.So how to attain that innocence of infants?All this effort,the tools given to us are for that purpose only.

The third tool in this second foursome is,

COMPASSION—

We should know that Consciousness fluctuates.It does not remain constant simply because it has reached a certain level,but increases and decreases depending upon the amount of the Soul’s Awareness that is integrated into the Mind’s Experience at any given moment.It’s a moment to moment experience.That is both it’s challenge and delight.The quest is never over,and it is never boring.

Yet there is a way to put an end to the “wild swings” from high Consciousness to low Consciousness that we may have encountered on our Sacred Journey.That way is to use the tool of Compassion when we observe ourselves expressing less than our higher Consciousness.

Allow our self to notice that we are just as we need to be ,just when we need to be,in order to move forward the agenda of our Soul.

A true scientist is never discouraged for long,working in a laboratory and failing to get the desired result.The scientist knows that the more sophisticated the experiment,the more nuanced each step in the experiment must be.The slightest shade of difference in approach,or in any of the many variable aspects,and the outcome can be vastly altered.Yet each approach leads toward the scientist’s desired destination.

So have Compassion for ourselves.We deserve it,we are good.
And while we are using this wonderful tool,we make sure to direct it to others as well.They are good too and they deserve it too.
The more often we use Compassion to offer others,the greater will be our familiarity with this remarkably healing tool-(daya dharam ka mool hai,paap mool abhimaan,’tulsi’daya na chhodiye jab tak ghat mein praan……from ‘Ram charit manas’by Goswami Tulsidas) and we will then find it easier to use it on ourselves.

So lets use this gifting tool very often.We will find that its effect is circular.As we give more to ourselves,we will have more to give to others.As we give more to others,we will have more to give to ourselves.We can start at either place.

It is,as all of Life….simply another form of Love.

The last but not the least tool in the series is–
This is a tool that we will use on everyone in our Life who has ever done anything in any way negative to us.The tool in question is…..

FORGIVENESS—-

Every one of the tools that we have been offered here is designed to produce one basic experience;Freedom.That is because freedom is the essence of Divinity.

A person who is absolutely and totally free…and this does not mean merely free to do anything he wants anytime,anywhere,but it also means free of any sorrow or sadness,any struggle or suffering,any wounds or injuries,any tragedy or torment-anything whatsoever in the past that could cloud or diminish or impact in any unpleasant way the Moment that is Present…a person who is this kind of free would love everybody and everything,always be at peace,experience joy,simply Divine.

So if the experience of Divinity is our Goal-(and it is,whether we have known it or not),then that which produces freedom would be the tools we try to find,so that we might construct our reality(which is totally an inner creation and experience that essentially determines what outer events and circumstances mean)in such a way that we would never be unhappy for any reason ever again.

Such a state of being would then allow us to move forward with the Agenda of the Soul,advancing rapidly and reaching Completion on our Sacred Journey,thus using virtually evey moment of our Life to serve the Divine Purpose.

This is the way Jesus lived.This is the way Gautam Buddh lived,Saint Kabir lived,Guru nanak lived and this is the way all spiritual masters have walked the earth.All of these masters,have said quite directly,that an achievable goal for all human beings was freedom from suffering-which produced everything else that a holy and good life will allow.

The tools we have been given here do just that.Gratitude will give us freedom from struggle and suffering,in an instant.Recontextualization will give us freedom from anger and resentment,in an instant.Compassion will give us freedom from self blame and lack of self worth,and from frustration from others,in an instant.Forgiveness will give us freedom from all hurt,damage,or injury in any way from any source.

On the day that we understand that we don’t have anyone to forgive,because all human expressions are ultimately an expressions of Love,if only in a distorted form,we will be free,no matter what has occurred in our life.Free from struggle,free from suffering,at last.

This is the kind of freedom that Nelson Mandela felt,allowing him to love the jailors who kept him imprisoned for 20 years,to use one recent,striking,human example.

As we have noted before,God does not and will not offer forgiveness to anyone for anything because forgiveness is not nessesary.It is replaced in the process of Divine balance with a more searingly powerful energy;Understanding.

Understanding thus replaces Forgiveness in the Mind of those who have expanded their Consciousness to include the Awareness of the Soul.The Soul knows that nobody does anything inappropriate,given their model of the world.The Soul knows that everyone is doing the best they can at any given moment.

All the tools given to us Truth,Nonviolence,Love,Peace,Gratitude,Recontextualization,Compassion and Forgiveness are highly effective in connecting our Mind and Soul.

But there is one magical device,that will allow us to sustain the experiences to which the other tools lead us,that is,

M E D I T A T I O N

If it seems predictable and spiritually trite to mention this here,it is only because this device has for so long been such a proven method of accessing the Awareness of the Soul that everyone recommends it all the time.Its predictability speaks well for its efficacy.By now we’ve heard about it from enough people.
What we may want to know,is how to do it effectively(if some of us are not already knowing)

Meditation is the process by which we withdraw our attention from the world outside and our body,and concentrate it at a point between and behind the two eye-brows,which is the seat of Soul,the meeting point of Mind and soul,the third eye or daswan dwar.By focusing our attention there,we come in contact with a current of Light and Sound which will lead us from our physical consciousness in to higher consciousness,in to the beyond.

These inner experiences are not limited to people of antiquity.Anyone in our own times who wishes to develop this for him or herself may have such experiences and verify the reality of the soul.The steps to spiritual consciousness are simple and can be practiced by people of all religions,all nationalities,and all walks of life.

The Light and Sound are the creative powers that brought all the various regions in to existence.”Awwal Allah noor upaya,kudrat ke sab bandey”is written in Guru Granth sahib,Guru Nanak stated”All knowledge sprang from” Dhun(the Sound)”.Now various scientific experiments also have confirmed this.This power of God which flows out from God also returns to him.When we withdraw our mind from the world outside and concentrate at the seat of the soul,the mind starts experiencing the soul and it can then travel on the light and sound through the higher planes,with the astonishing speed of Light and Sound,back to its source,in the purely spiritual realm.The process by which the Soul is brought in to contact with the current of Light and Sound reverberating within us is Maditation.

Meditation is a process of concentration.It does not need any difficult ‘asanas’ or any difficult physical activity.It is so simple and natural that it can be practiced by a young child or an elderly person or even by those who have some disabilities.Every human specy can have this simple process of concentration and can have access to the inner light and sound and realms beyond physical.

PREPARATION FOR MEDITATION-

FINDING A TIME AND PLACE FOR MEDITATION-

It is best to find a time and place in which we will have the least distractions from our surroundings.A time and place in which there is no disturbance of phone calls and there is quietude in the place.The time between 4 a.m to 6 a.m in the morning is the most suitable time for meditation,which is referred in our holy scriptures as ‘amrit vela'(divine moments).The place can be any one of our choice,it can be our drawing room,or any where,if other members of family are sleeping and somebody snoring then at some distance so that we are not distracted.Silence is important because we have to withdraw our sences and hearing being one of them.

We should sit in meditation only at times when we are fully awake.If we are sleepy and have not been able to sleep properly then first we should try to get proper sleep.We can say that while chosing the time and place,two conditions are to be followed,one there is silence and the other we are fresh and awake physically.

SELECTING A POSE-

We should sit in a pose which is most convenient to us.We can sit on a chair,we can sit on the floor,we can sit on a sofa,we can sit cross-legged or with legs straight.We can sit in any manner.One can even meditate standing up or lying down.The only thing that is expected of us is that whatever pose we chose should be one in which we can be still for the longest period of time.Before the mind can be stilled,the body has to be stilled.We have to be sure that whatever pose we select ,we can remain without moving,shaking or scratching an itch.For those who are physically unable to sit,they can even lie down.

Whatever pose we adopt ,there should be no tension in any part of our body.Once we select the pose ,we should not change it during the meditation sitting.We must remain still.

CONCENTRATING-

Once we select a pose,we should close our eyes gently,and there should be no pressure on the eyes.We should keep our eye balls horizontal,as if we were looking straight ahead.To provide assistance to help us bring our attention to the eye-focus and to still the mind we should repeat any mantra in which we feel comfortable such as’om shanti’pray for’jesus’,’bismillah rehmanurrahim’,’buddham sharnam gachhami’,’satnam sri waheguru’,whichever we are used to,we repeatedly recite silently,with the tongue of thought,and look ahead in the front between the two eyebrows which is the location of our inner eye and our efforts are to open the inner eye and close the outer eyes.outer eyes open outside and see outside whereas inner eye opens inside and sees also inside.The mind has experience of outside so it tries to drag outside with all our day to day problems,about past incidents,future plans,thoughts of work,family,friends etc.However if the mind is busy in the repetition of holy names,it becomes engaged with this current experience of repeating mantras,and other thoughts are temporarily sidelined.These holy names are to be recited silently,slowly,at intervals and not in quick succession or fast.There should be a slight pause between each name.

When we are fully collected at the eye-focus,we become absorbed in the field lying in front of us.We will begin to see some flashes of light,or lights of various colours.We should continue to gaze with full focus inside in to our inner eye in front of us.

We should begin with fifteen minutes and over time increase to thirty minutes a day.

The second practice is listening to the inner sound.As already explained we concentrate our attention at the seat of the soul and listen to the inner Sound current.This Sound is the holy Word,or Naam which brought all creation in to being.The Soul is of the same essence as of God and the Sound Current.Thus,when Soul is magnetized to the divine melody,can then travel on the Sound currents through the higher regions.

We have to increase the time of meditation gradually.Because if we think that by giving thirty minutes or an hour out of 24 hours to God we can get him,then we are grossly underestimating almighty,allpowerful,omnicient,omnipotent God and his creation.We have to literally surrender to him giving preferential treatment to the Agenda Of the Soul over every thing else.

THE JOURNEY IN TO HIGHER REGIONS-

As we become more absorbed in the inner Light and Sound that we see and hear in our meditation sittings(the progress depends on our level of concentration,which again depends on the time devoted and our single mindedness of the purpose which is spiritual journey and nothing else )we travel beyond the physical level and enter the spiritual region.The physical world which is made of whole matter is left behind and we find ourseleves in a plane of more consciousness.Here we travel in a covering known as the astral(spiritual) body which is ethereal(made of ether which is light,airy and of unearthy,heavenly delicacy of substance) region and is full of wonderful Divine Light and Sound.

As we practice more and more on our concentration we will travel beyond the astral region(which ofcourse in our day to day working life can be going too far because initially sitting for hours together and achieving total concentration depends upon an individual’s circumstances and his or her economic conditions.For instance a factory worker or a labour with meagre earnings and hard physical labour for daily survival depending upon daily wages may not find enough time and suitable place to concentrate whereas a well to do person with enough money for survival is better placed if he or she grabs the opportunity.But nothing is impossible for a human being so we will leave it to the individual.)and we enter the causal region.Our human body is the result of Cause and Effect as all other products,with an addition of consciousness and our practice of meditation is an effort to separate our consciousness from the matter.As we progress in concentrating more and more we succeed in our attempt to separate them.The causal region is consisting of equal parts of matter and consciousness.In this region we shed our astral body and we travel in our Causal body.

Our Spiritual journey is to be continued further as in the words of Iqbal Saheb”abhi ishq ke imtihan aur bhi hain”.

Going still further while continuing our concentration,we enter the supracausal region,which has more and more light and celestial sounds and bliss.The supracausal region has more of Consciousness and only a small amount of matter,which we call an illusion and we have to come out completely from this illusion to see and experience the truth with our mind and body given to us for this divine purpose.In this region,the causal body is left behind and our Soul is covered only by a thin layer.At this state of expanded Consciousness we recognize ourselves as a Soul.This is a state where we have the Self realization that we are “Soham”(This is a Sanskrit word the break-up of which is So+Aham,the meaning of so is’that’and the meaning of’aham’ is’me’or’I’ and the total meaning of the word “soham” is “I am that” or as written in vedas”aham Brahmasmi”means I am the brahman or pure self).We realize that we are of the same essence as that of the creator and creation,One in all and all in One,none else.Ultimately,we reach the realm from where the power of God emanated,the spiritual region known as “Sach Khand”(those who read Guru granth Saheb,and are aware about”Jap ji Saheb”,in 37th paudi described is”Sach khand vasai Nirankar,kar kar vekhai nadar nihal”,Nirankar is the formless,almighty creator whose abode is “Sach Khand”,abode of Truth.),Maqam-e-Haq,Realm of truth.This is the purely spiritual region of all light and divine melody,all bliss in which coverings around the Soul are all shed.There is not an iota of matter in this region.The Soul merges with the Eternal Soul,Super-Consciousness(the fourth state of “turia” in Mandukya Upanishad,the other three states being,”waking state,dream state and deep sleep state”),the drop of water merges with the Ocean and becomes the Ocean.A ray of sun-light merges with the Sun and becomes the Sun.

At each stage of our spiritual journey we experience more and more bliss which permeates our Soul.One by one the layers covering our Soul are peeled off until we return to our pristine state.At each region we think we have reached the highest state of rapture,only to find that the next stage fills us with greater ecstasy.The ultimate bliss is when our soul merges into God,the creator.This is the state we all need to achieve to realize eternal peace and happiness,which will last forever.This bliss and happiness we experience in meditation stays with us even after we come out of meditation.It is a wellspring of love and peace that we can tap into any time we wish.The experience is so powerful and deeply fulfilling that it helps us to transcend the pains and sorrows of life.No matter what happens to us in life,we have a fountain of nectar within us from which we can drink at any time.This is the gift of God we can achieve through Meditation.

NEAR DEATH EXPERIENCES(NDEs) of Mind,Body and Soul –

A new field of research which has opened up in the west is called “near death experiences” or NDEs.Doctors and scientists are researching the experiences of people who due to some fatal accidents or because of some desease,are declared clinically dead in operation theatres and are back to life after some time.One recent survey showed that 8 million people had NDEs all over the world which is a monumental numerical strength we can not ignore.Their experiences were found to be similar.They entered the regions which were different from physical world.They found themselves floating above their bodies lying on the stretchers,watching the doctors and nurses working on them.Shortly thereafter these people go through a tunnel in which they emerge in a world of light.The light is very bright bur it is not hot or scortching.These people say that their hands are also made of light.Then a radiant divine Being comes forward and hugs these people with love,warmth and caring never before experienced.The light brings them peace and happiness.Most of the people said that they did not want to come back from that region.Since it was not their time to leave the body,they were suddenly sucked back in to the body.They then found themselves back in to the hospital room and place where their body was lying.Many of them could describe seeing the operation being performed on their body and hearing what the doctors and nurses said during the time,although they were clinically dead.It was difficult for the medical professionals to understand how people who were declared dead could see and hear from a vantage point outside their body.While there are variations in the events of various NDEs,one element is common to all,that is experiencing inner light.

More and more research in to this phenomenon has been taking place.These out-of-the-body experiences are new to the scientific community ,but we find references of these experiences in the lives of great sufi saints and mystics who have described poetically about their sojourn in the beyond,their flights in to spiritual regions where there is nothing but bliss,love and beauty.The founders of world’s religions and faiths have spoken of their journeys in to the beyond.

In the holy Bible we can read about journey beyond,
Enter ye at the strait gate….Because strait is the gate,
and narrow is the way,which leadeth unto life,and few there
be that find it.
(Matthew 7;13-14)

Guru Nanak in Japji Saheb wrote-
Sach khand vasai nirankar,kar kar vekhai nadar nihal
tithai khand mandal varbhand,jeko kathe ta ant na ant
tithai lo-a lo-a aakar,jiv jiv hukum tivai tiv kaar
vekhai vigsai kar veechaar
nanak kathna karna saar :
(Jap Ji Saheb,Paudi XXXVII)
meaning,
Sach khand or realm of truth is the seat of the formless,
where he creates,rejoicing in creation.
Here are many regions,heavenly universes
To count which were to count the countless.
Here,out of the formless,
Everything came in to form,
All destined to move according to his will.
He who is blessed with this vision,rejoices in its contemplation,
But,O Nanak,such is its beauty that to try to describe it is to attempt the impossible.

While doing research on NDEs,Personality assessments revealed that the people having these experiences were reliable individuals.The findings of the doctors showed startling similarities which crossed the boundries of nationality,religion and social backgrounds.Today these experiences have been given great attention by the media and have become a popular topic of conversation within medical circles.

A COMPLETE EXPLANATION OF “COMPLETION”

Completion of the Secred Journey is the Soul’s Agenda.Divine purpose of our Totality(Mind,Body and Soul) is the expansion of the reality of God through the experience of Consciousness (experience of Mind +awareness of Soul) and thus reaching Completion of The Sacred Journey .
The Mind and the Body daily cry out in bewilderment-There is so much to see!There is so much to do!There is so much pleasure to seek!So much to be afraid of,to get excited,to be concerned,to spend time on,what should I be focusing on?What should I be paying attention to?
It is the Soul that daily answers the cry of the Body and Mind by telling our Life what to focus on and pay attention to.

The Body and the Mind,however,are not always convinced that ‘this is the way to go’.For one thing,traveling The Path does not always seem to the Mind and Body to be as much fun,and not as much an adventure as say a drinking session,watching pornography, doing drugs,compared to these pleasure seeking devices,The Path may seem boring.But the pleasure seekers also know that the said devices can give momentary pleasure only,not permanent.

Yet because the journey has been described as “sacred” does not mean that one can not seek and find pleasure and excitement in worldy pursuits.It does not mean that one can not enjoy the thrills of life or grab all the joy that one can experience on a human level.

In fact,just the opposite is true.Because there will be less and less for us to be worried about-and eventually,nothing at all for us to be afraid of-we will at last be able to live our life to the fullest.

Yet what is living life “to the fullest”?What does a full life look like?A life filled with achievement?With fame?With the love of one’s family?With children raised wonderfully?Just what,exactly,is a “full life”?

It is a life that brings the greatest satisfaction,which transcends all of these things.It is a life that follows the path of the Soul.

As we follow the Path of the Soul we will find ourselves doing many,if not all,of the things that we may have done if we had “strayed” from that Path-but we will do them for a’different reason’,and in a brand new way;a way that produces the body and Mind’s full physical expression of the Soul’s metaphysical Essence.

When Metaphysical Essence becomes Physical Expression,Experience and Awareness become One,and The Totality of us has achieved Completion.And when our Totality(mind,Body and Soul) achieves completion,we behold the greatest joy and satisfaction we could ever imagine:the bliss of knowing Divinity,flowing through us,as us.

This process is not a one-time thing.It can,in fact happen many times during a single day.Indeed,it is the Soul’s agenda to create the perfect conditions for it to happen in ‘every moment’and to make every moment a Holy Experience.And that is a”full life”.

This achieving Completion is not only important to our spiritual well-being,but to our physical,psychological,emotional,social,and even financial well-being as well.

There is nothing else in life that can bring us security,health,prosperity,happiness,and inner peace faster or more abundantly than the achieving Completion.This is,of cource,the opposite of what we have been told.We have been advised that there are many other things to which we must pay attention.

We have been told that to be happy in life we need to get the guy,the girl,the car,the job,the spouse,get the kids,get the promotion,get the better house,get the grand kids,get the grey hair,get big money,own office or shop,get the retirement benefits,get the sickness,get the burial plot,and get out.

Our mind has been filled with many other messages that have created a day-to-day reality so far removed from our real reason for being on Earth that it is a wonder we find any joy,satisfaction,or excitement in our life at all.

Now we are being told that the only thing that matters does not have to do with any of this.The missing puzzle piece revolves around how we reach Completion on the Sacred Journey of the Soul.Can this be True?

It Can,and It is.

But not to worry.Going where our Soul seeks to go will not deny us the Good Life.Completion of the Agenda of the Soul will get us everything that our Body and Mind signal to us that they desire to enjoy.This is not about giving up one aspect of Life for another.

Trust that,we.We pay attention to the Soul’s Agenda,and to what it takes to complete it,and the rest of Life-not only what we desire,but all that we may imagine that we need-will take care of itself.It will take care of itself by itself.Like so well said in this verse,

Don’t go around asking
“What are we to eat?”
“What are we to drink?”
“Wherewithal shall we clothe ourselves?”
Seek ye first the Kingdom of Heaven,
and all else shall be added unto you.

The “kingdom of Heaven” and “Completion of The Sacred Journey” refer to the same experience.
The Kingdom of Heaven is not a physical location,it is a state of Being.It is the state of being “Complete”.
It is literally “heaven” for humans to find themselves in a state in which there is nothing left to be,do,or have in any given moment in order to experience inner peace,total love,and absolute bliss,because all that is and all that one could ever desire is fully present,fully expressed,and fully experienced Right Here,Right now.
We are Complete.
The Agenda of the Soul is to bring The Totality of Us to this very state,so that the aspect of life that is called”I” may express,experience,reflect,demonstrate,and ‘personify’ the aspect of Life that is called Divinity.

This is our Basic Instinct.

Survival is the Basic Instinct of most chemical or biological life forms.It is what makes flowers turn towards the sun.It is what makes birds fly to warmer climates.
Survival is not,however,the Basic Instinct of human beings (this is same what Swami Vivekanand said when he was asked about theory of evolution and survival of the fittest,and Swami further clarified that Consciousness is the reason of human evolution and revolution )nor of any sentient creatures in the cosmos who have evolved in to Self Consciousness.For such beings,The Basic Instinct is Divinity.
If our Basic Instinct was survival,we would run away from the flames of the burning house.but we run into the flames,because we’ve heard a baby cry.In that moment ‘our survival is not the issue’.(During the shooting of “Mother India”,actor late Sunil Dutt ran in burning inferno in Mehboob Studios to save late Nargis who was engulfed in the flames,without caring for his life,A soldier in war for his mother nation does not care for his life and sacrifices,which is nothing else but Divinity,Consciousness.

Something deep inside of us,something we can not describe or name,calls to us in such moments to demonstrate at the highest level Who We Really Are.

People who have done this,when interviewed later,never put it that way,of course.They say they simply acted on ‘instinct’.But it surely could not have been survival instinct,because their actions defied survival.Yet they had no fear-not even a thought of fear-at that time,because Who They Really Are know that survival is not the issue.There are no questions about whether they will survive ,the only questions are:How?In what form?Why?And for what purpose?
These become,in moments of self-realization,Life’s Only inquiries.And in such moments,The Mind and the Soul answer as One.
Instantly.
As a human,our Basic Instinct is on display when the complete Being that We are completely Remembered,Recreated,Reintegrated,and Reunited with Divinity.

Even as the tiniest cell within us is a member of our Body,so is every element of physical life a member of the Body of God.When the Mind’s Experience and the Soul’s knowledge combine to produce higher Consciousness,human beings choose to experience themselves once again as members of the Body of God.They are thus said to have Re-Membered.

This is what is meant by Completion.

EVOLUTION NEVER STOPS-

The Experience of Completion is sheer ecstasy for our Totality because it is a reunion of our spirit with THE SPIRIT.
It is a Holy Re-Membering.It is a coming Home.In the words of Em Claire…

….with great innocence I pushed off
in to the open sea
and have been away from my Home
so long now that I would not recognize my own face
but I know that Home
Home
remembers me….
This holy awareness can occur in any moment during our life.It is the nature of The Sacred Journey that makes this possible,since the journey is cyclical upwards(a rarest of the rare human specy involved only in misdeeds the likes of Hitler can go cyclical downwards),undertaken and completed over and over again at ever-expanding levels of manifestation.It is very much like going through school,finishing one grade at a time.
When we are in third grade ,we encounter again what we were introduced to in first and second grade,and we now have an opportunity to apply it.We now encounter what we had not encountered in earlier grade.New and greater challenges,an opportunity to master more.
Like the tree outside,whose seed carried within it all the coding required to grow into what it has become,we arrived here knowing everything we needed to know to be everything we were designed to be.
As part of encoding we have been given a higher level of consciousness than the tree,of course,but we are in some ways like the tree,in the sense that we are also growing in stages.

Is it our idea that we live in a cruel and heartless world?That we are simply unappreciated,unrewarded,or even worse,unworthy?
Nothing could be farther from the truth.It is,in fact,exactly the opposite.It is because we are deeply appreciated,richly rewarded,and gloriously worthy that our life is presenting us with this current invitation.We have reached completion before and we have done it again,and now we are being elevated to the next level,as we advance onwards.
This is The Agenda of the Soul(Remember the Soul is same from billions of years,the drops of ocean longing to merge back in to the ocean),and this process is called”evolution”.It is a process of which we are a Living demonstration.

Evolution is not a process that stops.Completion,therefore,does not mean that we have finished something and reached the dead end.Because the instant we reach Completion the Soul conceives of a grander experience and design,because the bliss,the joy are infinite,without limits.And this limitless journey is not a source of frustration.Nor would we ever desire this process to end.The bliss of evolving to higher and higher levels of divinity is the ultimate attraction.It is the attraction of Life to More Life.It is the attraction of God to God.It is the Impulse of the Divine,in us.This Divine impulse is our basic instinct,that pulls us to the part of us,craving for the highest truth,the grandest love,the deepest wisdom,the greatest compassion,the largest understanding,the longest patience,the strongest courage-all these aspects of the Divine.

In the beginning was the word (‘bani”bani guru,guru hai bani’)and the word was made flesh and dwelt among us.This word has been uttered in many ways over a million years.Some of those ways-Adonai,Allah,Buddha,Elohim,God,Hari,Jehovah,Krishna,Lord,Rama,Vishnu,Waheguru,Yahweh……
…….and not one of these ways does not include us.

Will we consciously give Divinity the experience of knowing itself and showing itself in,as,and through us ?

THE PATH AND THE PURPOSE-

There is no suggestion in all that has been said here ,that in the process of Divinity Expressing,what one is doing is irrelevant or unimportant.

All of life -including the ‘spiritual’side of life-involves “doing”,Everyone is always doing something.It is impossible not to be doing something.
Even when we sleep ,our body and mind are doing something-beating our heart,growing our hair,dreaming,even sometimes giving solutions to our problems.

Seeking to experience ourselves as who we are is the Path of the Soul.Throughout our life we are moving ever and ever closer to Self-Realization.When we demonstrate Who we are,we achieve Self-realization and having reached Completion of the Sacred journey,our Divine purpose is fulfilled.
And this can occur many times in our life-and does(like so many times people sacrifice for their fellow humans or their motherland)
We have experienced more than a few moments in which we expressed the qualities of the Divine.Our humility(or our culture) may prohibit us from labelling it as that,but a rose by any other name is still a rose.We have behaved with utter magnificence on many occasions.

And now,during this unique time in the evolutionary cycle of humanity,and as we move forward with expanded Consciousness in our life ,with our sensitivity to everything much higher than ever before,it is important to understand that sometimes a demonstration of Divinity may not look like what we would call the “easiest” path.

Life has a reason and a purpose.All people yearn to know what it is.Most have not yet clearly understood.
Our Soul is not on a wild-goose chase.It is not moving through Time and Space forever without a clear objective.There is a Divine purpose,as already written earlier,to expand the Reality of God.How this divine purpose is fulfilled?

Divinity can be experienced only through the ‘expression’ of it.Divinity can be imagined,it can be thought about,and it can be held in Awareness by the Soul,but until it is expressed,it is merely a concept.Unless it is expressed,it can not be experienced.
In short,God is using life in order to experience himself.
We can talk about Love,we can imagine love,we can think about Love,we can hold Love as an idea conceptually,but until we love ourselves,we can not experience it.
We can talk about Compassion,we can imagine Compassion,we can think about Compassion,we can hold Compassion as an idea conceptually,but until we become Compassionate,we can not experience it.
We can talk about Forgiveness,we can imagine Forgiveness,we can think about Forgiveness,but until we Forgive,we can not experience it.(Remember Gandhiji,who practiced Truth and Nonviolence and thoroughly experienced these virtues,thats the way of experiencing Divinity.)

To help the Mind better grasp it,let’s use that aspect of human life called Sexuality.We can talk about Sexuality,we can imagine Sexuality,we can think about Sexuality,we can hold Sexuality as an idea conceptually,but until we do it,we can not experience it.

Divinity is all of these things,and much more.It is Patience and Kindness,Goodness and Mercy,Wisdom and Clarity,Gentleness and Beauty,Selflessness and Nobility,Benevolence and Generosity.
We can imagine all of these things,we can think about all of these things,we can hold all of these things as ideas conceptually,but until we express all of these things in us,through us,as us,we have not experienced Divinity.

And we will never have an opportunity to experience these things unless Life provides us with such an opportunity.This is what Life is doing every day.Indeed,this is the purpose of Life itself.

Therefore,when Life brings us challenges,difficulties,and unique conditions,situations and circumstances that are ideally suited to bring out the best in us,we be a Light unto the darkness,that we might know Who We Really Are-and that all those whose lives we touch might know who they are as well,by the light of our example.

Why God works this way?Because god can not experience all that without the life .The Spiritual realm is the place where God is all there is.So there is no relativity factor.unless there is bad we don’t know what is good,unless there is darkness,we don’t know what is light.Unless there is finite we don’t know what is infinite.There has to be something small to know what is big.

In simple terms,God is growing,becoming more of himself through the process called Life.God IS this process.He is the creator and the created.

The cycle of life is occurring simultaneously everywhere.God is experiencing more and more of himself as the individuations of god experience more and more of themselves.This is called Evolution.This was accomplished by the whole dividing itself,from itself,re-creating itself in smaller and finite form.

No finite form,by the very reason of its being finite,could hold the infinite consciousness,awareness,and experience of the Whole,yet each individuated form was designed uniquely to reflect an aspect of Divinity itself.Putting all these aspects together,as one puts the pieces of a puzzle together, produces a picture of what all the pieces create.
Namely-God
All the pieces are part of the picture,and no piece is less a part of the picture than any other.
Get the picture ?
Now certain living things are given a quality called Self-Consciousness.
Human life was designed in such a way that what we call “Consciousness raising” is possible.In fact,human Consciousness can expand even to the point where it once again knows itself as part of The Whole.

Jesus,for instance,said-I and the Father are one.He understood his relationship to God perfectly.He understood that the picture which the puzzle created was not complete without him.He was The Completion.

So are we All.(har zarra chamakta hai anwar-e-ilahi se,har saans yeh kehti hai,hum hain toh khuda bhi hai……hungama hai kyon barpaa…from a ghazal sung by Ghulam ali saheb)
Take one piece of the puzzle away and the picture is not Complete.

The experience of becoming fully self conscious occurs through a process by which the individuated aspect becomes more and more aware that it truly is,in its individuated form,Divinity itself.

The individual piece recognizes itself as The Puzzle itself,simply divided.

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER-

The immense power that is ours has to do with the tools we have been given with which to create the experiences of our life.With these tools,we can end suffering in our personal life forever and eliminate struggle from our encounters.

At first,we will not find these powerful tools in our Mind’s array of resources.Not until we have trained our Mind to include our Soul in our consideration of everything that is happening around us.Then our Mind can utilize these tools in the face of any circumstance,past or present,that invites our next demonstration of Divinity.
Moving into such a demonstration is not required or demanded of us.We can choose for the expression and experiencing of Divinity to be the purpose of any given moment in our life,or not,as we wish.Nothing “bad” will happen to us at the end of our present life on earth if we do not choose.The choice is entirely ours.This is described as “Free Will”.

In physical life there are forms of Divinity-some complete,some incomplete,some pure,some distorted-but there is no such thing as ‘absence’ of Divinity,since physical life,in its entirety,is an expression of The Divine.

The more thoughts we hold that are limited to the Mind’s Experience rather than including the Soul’s awareness,the less pure will be the energy that fills our being.Yet that energy will still and always be the essence of the Divine.

Let’s see if we can come up with an example that places this concept “on the ground” in everyday life.We use here a common experience,
FEAR
All Fear is a distorted form of Love.
If we think about it,we will realize that if a person loved nothing,that person would be totally free of fear,anger,hatred or violence,because there would be no need for such emotions to arise.
Exploring this further,we see that fear,anger,hatred,and violence are expressions of the ‘loss’ of something which is loved.
If there is no love of anything,,there is no sense of loss or deprivation,and therefore no negative emotion of any kind attached.
Because humans,in their limited perspective,misunderstand how to express their love,they behave in ways that appear to be the opposite of love-but which are,in fact,distorted wailings of love.

All expressions of anger and fear,hatred and violence are distorted wailings of love.If we grasp this,we grasp at the edges of Divinity.
Where Divinity expresses,forgiveness is never necessary,for it is rendered pointless in the presence of absolute understanding-which is,of course,what Divinity is.

This was the whole point of the biblical story of Jesus forgiving the thief on the cross next to him.
Jesus,in his absolute understanding,recognized that the thief acted out of his love for something when he stole and simply expressed that love in a distorted form.
God perfectly understands everyone and everything and God has no need to create a place of eternal damnation,indescribable suffering,unspeakable torment and unending torture.Heaven is all there is,and that paradise includes life on Earth.

If we do not experience life on Earth as a paradise,it is because we have not yet understood the true purpose of Life Itself,or how to manifest it in and through our daily lives.Yet evolution is the process by which all human beings come to that understanding,and evolution will not be denied to anyone.

Evolution’s extraordinary insight is that the worst crimes and behaviours of humans will never be forgiven by God.
Never.
Not because God refuses to forgive,but because absolution is not necessary,since all human action is based,at its roots,in love,however confused,mistaken,or distorted its expression.

Healing message is this-Evolution is not a sin,and God does not punish confusion.

“God may not punish Confusion,but God does punish disobedience.It is one thing to say we just didn’t know,but it is another thing to be told,outright,what is so,and then completely ignore it.”
We may have heard these words before.They spell out the Fundamental principle of most of the world’s religions.They tell us that god and Life are not One,but that God created Life,and Human as part of Life in God’s image and Likeness,but that Human can not become God,and must not attempt to be God,lest Human commit the greatest sin,for which condemnation to eternal damnation is,absolutely without a doubt,the punishment.

This,these organized religions teach us,was the great sin of Satan–and it is the sin that Satan is trying to get us to commit,so that we will join him in perdition.Satan is doing this,apparently,to get back to God for sending him to that awful place,Hell.Satan wants to ‘rob’God of his Souls by claiming them as Satan’s own,so that he can punish God for himself having been punished by God,so settling scores with God.
We have heard such commentaries as the doctrines of organized religions before,but now it may be useful to look beneath the dogma to what generated the idea of Right and Wrong/Good and Evil in those doctrines in the first place.
The dogma surrounding ‘sin’ is based on the theological doctrine of Separation.
Religions understand this.That is why religions teach us that God is ‘over there'(in the sky) and Human is ‘over here'(on this earth),and never the two shall meet,except on Judgement Day,when–even though we are not supposed to try to be God–we will,in fact,be judged on how much like God we have behaved.

Humans are told to be like God,but they have to do so without being God.They are told that they are made in the image and likeness of God,but they do not have the abilities of God.So they are consigned to failure before they begin in this business of being as much like God as they can be.

Still God will forgive them for their failures if they will try.But if they do not try,or if they try but fail,God will judge them,condemn them,and punish them to everlasting torture and pain.

This is organized religion in a nutshell.
But now,let’s consider this–If separation from God is not the ultimate Reality,If God’s revealed identity as That-which-created-life,But-which-is-‘Other-Than’-Life is not the true state of things,then the basis of organized religions is faulty,and their doctrines crumble.

Should humanity choose to lay aside the doctrine of Separation,life on Earth could be lived according to a new Theology(call it Spirituality which does not believe in the Soul and God’s Separation)in a new way–not as an attempt to get back to God in heaven,but to get back to creating heaven on Earth;not as an effort to make sure we are not excluded from God’s Kingdom,but as an effort to make sure that God’s Kingdom is not excluded from us–and to make sure that this whole place(Earth) is treated as part of that Kingdom.

Ironically,this would be achieved by us being as much like God as we can be.So here is the Supreme Irony-First we are told that Satan was punished for thinking that he was Divine,then we are told that we were made ‘in the image and likeness of God’ and that we will be punished if we do not behave in Godly fashion.

Our ancient organized religions have landed human species in a peculiar situation where we are facing a future-creating choice;Old Theology or Spirituality,Outer God(Separated) or inner God(One with Life).

The Second choice offers Life’s most tantalizing enticement ever–to live the life we were designed to live,to experience our self in our truest form,to express the Essence of Who We Really Are in the next grandest way.

This is not something that is outside the capability of humans.”Regular People” just like us have done this,expressing Divinity in the next grandest way,and that is an ongoing,everexpanding process.

The good news is that even expressing a tiny portion of Divinity can change one’s life so dramatically that struggle and suffering,anxiety and worry,fear and anger,grief and misery can be removed from one’s daily encounters forever.

Completion of the entire process of Divine Experience through expression in the Realm of the Physical is impossible due to the limitation of physicality itself.Yet in the Totality of the three-part Kingdom of God(tha Realm of physicality plus the Realm of the Spirituality plus the Realm of pure Being)the Totality of Divinity can be known,expressed and experienced by our Totality (Body,Mind and Soul).

In Summary now,we can put all the contents together,this way-

The GRAND DESIGN – God created physicality as the means by which to express his Totality in relative terms,so that he can experience Divinity in all of its aspects.

The BLUEPRINT of PHYSICAL HUMAN LIFE- We are a three-part being,made up of Soul,Mind and Body.There is no separation within this triad,which we call”The Totality”.The Totality of us is,in fact,an individuation of Divinity itself.Even as Divinity is a Triune(Being,Knowing,Experiencing),so,too,are we(Soul,Mind,Body).We are,just as it has been said in many theological circles,made in the image and likeness of God.

THE AGENDA of THE SOUL -To express and experience every aspect of its true identity as an individuation of Divinity by reaching completion of The Sacred Journey in moment-to-moment expressions of Life,to collaboratively create,with other souls,the right and perfect conditions,situations and circumstances within which it becomes possible to experience this.

THE SACRED JOURNEY- An ongoing,eternal expression by the Soul of the Essential or primal Energy called Life,in specific and particular forms,fulfilling the Divine Purpose by means of physicalizations,which are referred to in human terms as “lifetimes”.

THE DIVINE PURPOSE- Continual Completion.That is,the complete experience of Divinity in any and every one of its aspects through ongoing physical expressions reflecting the nature of the Divine insofar as any physical manifestation is capable of doing so at any particular evolutionary stage.

Unlike flowers or trees or other less developed biological Life Forms,the Life Expression called human beings is capable of expressing and experiencing wisdom-specifically,the wisdom of soul-through which,when added to the Experience held in the Mind,a state of “partial Completion” can be reached many,many times,during many moments across one physical life span.

Humans have reached a level of Awareness that may be the highest of any Life Form on the Earth.

Our Life Form is now reaching a new level of Consciousness as a result of the Mind now playing much more attention to the Awareness of the Soul–even as a primitive human at some point became aware that the reflection seen in the water was himself.
Through the process in which we have engaged ourselves right here,we have seen our own reflection and recognized it as our self.

To use the Life Path Metaphor–It is when our Mind and Body deviate from The Path of the Soul that the Mind forgets the Self.And the Body and the Mind are not required to follow the Path of the Soul,as has been explained,and so can be lured by other attractions.Yet,there is a safety device built into this process–a device that guarantees that we will eventually make it safely to the top of the mountain.Like all good mountaineers,the three parts of the Totality of us,The Mind,Body and Soul,are tethered(Some call this connection a ‘silver cord’).

The connecting cord is very long,so the Mind and Body can stray quite far from the Soul before the rope becomes taut.(It could be said that God has given us “plenty of rope”.)But at some point,the rope becomes tight.It is then that we begin to feel that we are being pulled in three different directions.

Everyone has experienced this feeling.We may be feeling this way right now.If we are,it is because we have left the Path of the Soul.But we need not worry.We are on our way back to the Path.

THE CALL OF THE VOICE WITHIN—

There are instances in Life when a small voice inside us tells us that there is more to Life than what we know of in this physical world.It may be triggered by any developments.We suddenly begin to question the meaning of Life,who we are,and what happens to us after death.This nagging little voice begins to cry louder and louder.We start having a pull to search for the answers.This is God’s tug on our heart to pull us back to divinity.The moment he gets an opportunity, as soon as he sees that we have doubts about the reality and importance of this world and its attractions,he takes advantage of this situation and plants the seed in us which leads us to start our spiritual quest in search of the answers to life’s mysteries.His love starts working within us,and we begin to long to know God.That is a great day for us.We are hearing the voice of our Soul and its desire to meet its true parent.
As we pay more and more attention to this voice crying to go Home,(remember the Home…Home knows me)God eventually leads us to a place where someone can put us on the road back to Him.He leads us to a spiritual teacher who tells us of our true nature,that we are Soul and a part of God.He then shows us a method whereby we can rise above the body(similar to out of body experiences or NDEs detailed earlier)and see for ourselves our true heritage as drop of that Omnipotent,Omnicient Ocean of love,God.He teaches us how to meditate and invert our attention to the inner world of eternal love,bliss and peace.He puts us in contact with the stream of Light and Sound,called Naam(sadaa sift salah teri naam mann vasaaye,naam jinkey mann vasya vajey shabd ghanerey,kahai nanak sachey sahib kya nahin ghar tere,…sachha naam mera aadharo…..from anand sahib)which issued forth from God when He created this universe.That same stream flows back to Him.It is a stream made of the same essence of God,all Light,all Music,all Love,all peace,all compassion,all truth, and we all human beings,all living species deserve this Heaven which is our original Home.It is like our Home-coming.(subah ka bhoola sham ko ghar aa jaaye,woh bhoola na kahlaaye re bhaie bhoola na kahlaaye).When our mind with the awareness of our Soul comes in contact with this stream,it experiences a fulfilment and enjoyment because it is a part of the same essence as that stream.We(our totality of mind,body and soul)begin to feel more satisfaction and happiness from coming in contact with the current of Light and Sound than we feel from any physical pleasure.This contact is the power of Love which will turn our attention Godward.Our mind once turned inwards and experienced awareness,our consciousness starts raising and then there is no stopping for this ecstatic experience,it wants more and more and more,until our Consciousness reaches the abode of God,and merges with God,atman and Parmatman become One,no separation,which is the ultimate state of Bliss.This merger is the greatest bliss any of us can ever experience,and this bliss and this ultimate state of evolution will not be denied to any one,however confused,mistaken or distorted we may be.(Bada kamzor hai aadmi,abhi lakhon hain ismen kamee…par tu jo khada,hai dayaluu bada,teri kirpa se dharti thami….ai maalik tere bandey hum,aisey hon hamare karam neki par chalen aur badi se talen….)

This love and merger with God involves no physical union,this is a Divine Union and has no end.It knows no death.Even if our body may perish,the Soul is forever at one with its Creator and this is possible for all of us as we read in earlier paragraphs,”human Life is designed in such a way that what we call ‘consciousness raising’is possible.In fact human consciousness can even expand to the point where once again it knows itself as the part of the whole,that is God.”

MARRIAGE AND THE SACRED JOURNEY—

Married couples very well understand the role of Love and companionship in their Life and this same life together is on Sacred journey fulfilling the Divine purpose by means of physicalizations.Divine purpose is complete experience of Divinity in any and every aspect through ongoing physical expressions reflecting the nature of the Divine insofar any physical manifestation is capable of doing so at any particular evolutionary stage.So the marriage is a compulsory aspect through ongoing physical expression at our evolutionary stage.(In fact prophet Muhammed went to the extent of saying that’those who are not married,are not of my group’).The two partners in Life should assist each other while fulfilling the agenda of the Soul.When both Souls are filled with God’s Love,they will both be swimming in the same ocean of Love,bliss,the same ecstasy,the same Divine union.What greater common experience can two souls and two minds enjoy,(ek se doh bhaley,doh se bhaley chaar,manzil apni dooor hai rasta karna paar).This way both the partners will become even closer for they both experience the same indescribable delight,the same ineffable bliss.They will share a closeness with each other which is more than any physical union,once their Minds experience awareness of their Souls and their Consciousness starts rising.

SELFLESS SERVICE—

Among muslims all over the world,it is compulsory for them to take the pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime.There is a story about a person who was not able to make it to Mecca and when asked about it,he replied that he was a poor man and somehow finally saved enough money to make the trip,but a neighbour approached him,asking for money for his starving family and he gave the money he saved,and was not able to make the trip.The questioner then told him,”Your pilgrimage has been accepted,God has told me that you are his greatest devotee.By serving your neighbour with the savings of your lifetime,you proved yourself to be the true devotee of God.”Selfless service is one of the greatest acts one can do in this lifetime.

True selfless service encompasses helping more than our own physical family-it includes all humanity.This is the true service to the God.Human beings are the only form of creation that has the godly capacity to love and serve others.To become a complete human being,we need to have this ability.

To truly perform selfless service,one must act without any desire for any reward,remuneration or recognition.It is given freely,motivated by a desire to help another.At the time of giving,one forgets one’s own needs,as well as one’s comfort and safety,to help someone else.There are people who give their own lives to save others.The underlying paradox of selfless service lies in the fact that while wanting no reward,selfless service elicits the highest reward-the pleasure of the Lord.Performing selfless service is as great as putting in an equal amount of time in meditation.Through selfless service we speed up our progress towards the attainment of inner peace and ecstasy.

There are various ways through which we can offer help to humanity and other life forms.We can help by doing physical,intellectual,spiritual service or service of the Soul.Volunteering these services through our time,money and efforts to save others or educate them or to make them happy through creative arts or writing to help people learn a skill or gain knowledge that can benefit them in their lives.Life gives many opportunities to help others grow intellectually,to better humanity as a whole.

We all have spiritual needs.There is an inherent need in humanity to know who they are and find out about God.Throughout recorded history all civilizations had a system to understand the Soul and God.All sections of human beings have tried to find solutions to the mysteries of Life and Death,the Soul and God.Even in modern times,people belonging to any religion spend time exploring the inner mysteries.Selfless service is helping seekers satisfy their spiritual quest.Theoritical side of Divinity can be explained to the seekers and rest we can leave it to the seekers,because a selfless approach is to show the path honestly,walking on that path is the prerogative of the seeker and nobody can interfere in his freedom or what we call a”free will”.Anyone who applies diligently to the spiritual practices can reach the goal.”What one person has done,another person can also do.”

Most of us wish to see an age in which there is no war,no crime,no violence and no hunger.Each of us can help to bring a bit of the kingdom of heaven on earth.All spiritual adepts tirelessly work throughout their lives and pray that the kingdom of heaven comes on earth so that the world becomes a paradise of bliss,peace and love.If each of us radiates god’s love,we each become one less person to cause pain and suffering to others on this planet.We also serve as an example for all with whom we come in contact.

By serving selflessly,we expand our hearts from our self to our family,to community,our mother nation,the world and the cosmos.Selfless service comes from an understanding that we are all members of one family of God.If we re-read the Agenda of the Soul written above the whole picture becomes clear about selfless service,”To express and experience every aspect of its true identity as an individuation of Divinity by reaching completion of the Sacred journey in moment-to-moment expressions of Life to collaboratively create with other Souls,the right and perfect conditions,situations and circumstances within which,it becomes possible to experience this.”Such conditions can not be conceived without considering the entire humanity as a single entity.

Many people have given of themselves and have helped improve the quality of life on this planet.Scientists have worked tirelessly to cure deseases,make discoveries.Many Saints,Sufis,Mystics,Prophets devoted their life for humanity,to make people safer and for their spiritual upliftment.We are nowhere near these greats,but they can be an inspiration for us so that we contribute our little bit of knowledge and skill selflessly to make the world a better place to live.

There are so many songs in hindi films expressing selflessness and humanity,some of these songs are mentioned here-

Lata ji in ‘Pooja ke Phool'”apne liye jiye jo woh aadmi nahin hai…..chal iss tarha ke jaise chalti hain yeh hawaaen,phoolon ko yeh hasaaen…”
a song by Manna de saheb is “apne liye jiye toh kya jiye,tu ji ai dil zamaney ke liye….” in a film ‘Badal’
one song by Mukesh saheb is”kisi ki muskrahaton pe ho nisaar,kisi ka dard mil sakey toh le utaar,kisi ke vaastey ho tere dil mein pyaar….jeena isi ka naam hai…” from film ‘Anari’
Rafi sahib sung many such songs,one is”Insaf ka mandir hai yeh,Bhagwan ka ghar hai…hai paas tere jis ki amanat usey de de..nirdhan bhi hai insan muhabbat usey de de….jis dar pe sabhi ek hain,bandey yeh who dar hai…”
Kishor sahib sang”pyar baanthte chalo…kya hindu,kya musalman,hum sab hain bhai bhai…” ”
A song sung by yesudas saheb “madhuban khushboo deta hai,sagar sawan deta hai,jeena uska jeena hai,jo auron ko jeevan deta hai….madhuban khushboo…”became very popular.The popularity of these songs prove that they touched the heart of humanity.
So many songs can be cited which convey the message of selflessness and humanity,in English and other languages.All scriptures are full with such messages.We have to learn from these messages to live a life which is more humane and selfless.

EGO AND PRIDE—

It is said that God proclaimed to humanity”Where you are,I am not.Where you are not,I am there.”Right now our condition is that we believe we are the body,looking in the mirror,making up ourselves with good clothes and cosmetics,with a good name and status,a religion,nationality,applying our mind sharply to only our outer appearance.The mind is a lover of enjoyments and is led by the senses to seek pleasure,and in the process does not respond to the awareness of the Soul.So the experience of the mind is without awareness.Even then we think that we are powerful,all-knowing,and endowed with great qualities.We are filled with ego.Ego keeps us from knowing our true self and so knowing God.If we are ever to escape its web,we need to respond to our awareness,which is our Soul,(We have to be aware of the truth that we are Soul,mind and the body,not only body),so that we can steer our way out of the devious trap of our ego.

MANY FORMS OF EGO—-

Ego manifests itself in many forms.we usually refer to ego as pride.We can have pride of knowledge,pride of power and pride of wealth.Means we think we are responsible for our possessions.We attribute all our belongings whether power,money or knowledge to our individual efforts and then think that our achievements are more than others in many ways.

But no matter what religious background we come from,we all are taught that God is the creator.Considering this alone should be enough for us to realize that we are but small specks in the entire scheme of creation.He is all,and we are all but tiny insignificant beings,like a drop and God being Ocean.How many times do we think of God as our Creator ?How many times do we realize He is the giver of everything we have ?How nicely Saint kabir said’dukh mein simran sab karey,sukh mein karey na koi’.There are atheists,who do not believe God exists.For many years,scientists removed God from their view of the universe because He could not be verified by their scientific instrumentation.

We can see how far our ego can get the better of us.This has resulted in placing too much importance on the individual self and our personal capabilities and powers.Our Soul in the body works in this world through the Mind.The tool of the Mind is the brain.The brain is a complex organ that receives sense impressions from the world.Many think that the brain is the seat of Consciousness,but the fact is that the Mind controls the brain.The Mind has access to the Soul and the brain does not have any contact with the Soul.The Mind is a product of the causal plane of creation.This region consists of a mixture of spirit and matter.When Mind forgets about the Soul and uses only brain for sensual pleasures of the world,creates new ideas and new inventions,it thinks that it is the doer.It forgets that the wonderful brain it uses to communicate with the world is a creation of God.We are so full of pride of knowledge,that we have forgotten that the tools we use are inventions of God.

Our pride of knowledge has several harmful effects of which we need to be aware.We not only forget God when we think we are the doer,but very often we injure others also.We think the other person is wrong,incompetent or stupid.So many lives have been lost because one ruler thought his or her way was right and wanted to do away with anyone who thought otherwise.So many wars were fought because the leader of one nation felt his or her ideology better than that of other countries.

Most of the arguments echoing throughout countless homes and offices are based on pride of knowledge.bosses and employees argue,co-workers argue,parents and children argue,husbands and wives argue.The contents of most of these arguments are ego battles over who is right and knowledge also is sidelined very often,and money becomes the sole criterian.During these useless ego-clashes,Mind loses the track and does not involve the awareness in its experiences,so the energy is often negative and a sheer waste.This way so much time in our lives is wasted.

So this pride keeps countless individuals from realizing our true self by keeping apart the mind and the Soul,(remember the equation,Mind’s experience+Soul’s awareness= Consciousness).Consciousness can raise only when the Mind starts experiencing and expressing awareness.Pride makes us like an inverted or overflowing cup.How can anything be poured in to a cup that is turned upside down or overflowing.If we are sincerely interested in returning to our Home,then we need to be aware of this impediment on our Path.

We make arbitrary decisions to show how powerful we are.Sometimes we are insensitive to the needs of those below us.We try to force our views on others.If we wish to have compassion and mercy from him,we must ourselves first become compassionate and merciful to others.We have pride of wealth,and we never think of wealth as a gift from God.When we lose it we blame God,but when we gain it,we give credit to our efforts.And when we have plenty,do we ever think of sharing it with those less fortunate than ourselves.We need to treat everyone equally,whether or not they have riches.

Saints,Mystics have love for all people,regardless of their social status and position in life.They see the Light of Divinity shining in all persons irrespective of their material possessions.We must do away with this false pride and recognize that everything we have is by the grace of God,(Hookmay andar sabhko,bahar hookam na koi,nanak hookmay je bujhai,ta hau’main’ kahai na koi…..from japji sahib),Guru Nanak Dev sahib said that everybody is under God’s command and nobody is beyond it,if we understand his command then we can get rid of our false ego.

We can eliminate the various forms of pride by thinking about God.We must remove our I-ness and replace it with Thou-ness,with God.When we meditate,if we block the door by standing in it,then God can not enter.But if we step aside then God will come in.He will fill us with His love.The more we empty ourselves of our ego,the more Divinity can enter in to us.Ultimately,our entire Totality will be permeated with Divinity until we become one with him and our Divine purpose is fulfilled.

THE FIRST GIFT—-

And so with eight marvellous tools and one magic devise we are now able at last to take our mind off of the 98% of things that really don’t matter in our life,but they crowd our mind every single day of our life,to the point where it’s been months,since we’ve asked ourselves;How can I best serve the agenda of my soul?

“What in the world is that?And what does that have to do with how we’re going to pay the mortgage,or the car loan or our family’s expences?Good God,get your head out of the clouds.”
And that’s how “real life” can get in the way.That’s how what’s happening now can look like it has nothing to do with our eternal journey.That’s how everything that’s going on ‘outside’ can feel like an obstacle to everything that’s wanting to go ‘inside’.And there’s no way we’ll be able to use any of those tools consistently unless we first give ourselves a special “gift.”

This gift precedes all the tools,and creates the space for us to be able to use them.Its the very first gift we must give ourselves on the Sacred JourneyIt’s our “ticket to ride”.

We must be in the possession of this gift if we’re going to even see the potential of changing a moment,much less our life-to say nothing of actually doing it,using the wonderful tools that life has given us.
The gift we must give ourselves is….

WILLINGNESS

This is the essential ingredient in any truly transformational experience.Without it,nothing we have read about here will be possible.With it,everything we’ve described here can occur.

So how does one move into Willingness?It’s a choice.It is quite literally,an Act of Will.To engage it,we must have ‘will power’.We must understand what is meant by the phrase “Free Will”.

One must free one’s will.

Our will and God’s will are One.This is another way of saying That God wants for us what we want for us.It is also true that what we want for us is what God wants for Divinity itself.

Divinity and Humanity want the same thing-the highest expression of Life that is possible and conceivable in any given moment.Yet our human will can be,in a sense imprisoned.We can,for sure,build our own jail.step into it,and close the door behind us.

We sadly and mistakenly think this jail will get us to where we earnestly yearn to go;a place of safety.We want protection,finally from Life.We’ve had enough sadness,suffering,enough attacked,made wrong.Enough,already.Enough.

So we retreat to the fortress of our Mind’s limited experience.At least it’s familiar territory.At least it’s common ground.At least it feels safe for the moment.

Or is it?Soon,while sitting in this mental bunker,we find that we’ve not gone to a Safe House after all,but to a Jail House.We see that while we thought we were going to be safe,the people here are always angry and afraid.

We can now always tell if we have slipped back into that place.It is when our current thought is not connected to our Eternal awareness,when our Mind is not combined with our Soul.

We stand where the Mind and Soul come together and the Soul’s positivity converts whatever negativity the Mind may at any Moment hold.The tools given to us cause the sheer uplifting power of the positive to supersede the draining energy of the negative.But none of it will happen-none of it-without we first entering fully into Willingness.

(TO BE CONTINUED FURTHER)

Truth,nonviolence,love and peace Versus Destructive Forces

There are evidences that unbridled violence and insatiable greed have always been extremely powerful driving forces in human life.This brings the question about the nature of human beings and the proportion of good and evil in the Homo sapiens(Human species).Are humans at the core of their being just’naked apes’ and is violence wired in to the software of human brain ?Destructive behaviour that surpasses anything known in the animal kingdom.Senceless slaughter in wars,mass murders,nuclear and Nazi Holocaust,Stalin’s Gulag,Iraq-Iran-Afghanistan destruction.Riots,terrorism,tortures,crimes seem to be escalating.Billions of dollars are wasted in arms race worldwide,while half of the world lives in poverty and starvation or die of deseases for lack of money.Scientists say that human species are the crown of natural evolution,philosophers say human body is ‘hari mandir’ full with consciousness,then this crown seems to be terribly flawed in some fundamental way.In ‘katha upanishad’,it is written that,

As the sun,the eye of the whole world,is not sullied by the external faults of the eyes,so the one inner soul of all things is not sullied by the evil in the world,being external to it.

Since cosmic creation is considered by scientists and philosophers as creation out of nothing,it has to be symmetrical.Everything that emerges in to existence has to be counterbalanced by its opposite.Hence the good and evil.From this perspective the existence of polarities of all kinds is an absolutely necessary prerequisite for the creation of the universe.Some modern physicists have stated that in the very first moments of the universe,that is billions of years ago,particles and anti-particles were present in equal numbers.That is good and evil in equal proportion,balancing the world.The existence of negative or evil side of creation enhances its positive or good aspects by providing contrast and gives extraordinary richness and depth to the universal drama.The conflict between good and evil in all the domains and on all the levels of existence is an extraordinary source of inspiration for fascinating stories.A disciple once asked swami Ramkrishna Paramhansa,the great Indian visionary,saint and spiritual master”swamiji why there is evil in the world?”After a short pause swamiji replied “To thicken the plot.”At the outset this answer might appear cynical in view of the sufferings due to the evil forces of the world.But a deeper thought can help us to get a different perspective.

Let us imagine that,God eliminates from the universal scheme anything that is considered bad or evil or destructive,such as deseases,oppressive regimes,fundamentalism,genocide and wars.Now with deseases goes the entire history of medicine and medical research,medical cures and hard work done in this field by medical scientists,surgeons.We eliminate a significant part of human history,the heroic acts of freedom fighters ,their triumphs over evil empires.The elimination of violence from the universal drama will have reverberations in the world of art.We will lose best works of art,literature,music,paintings,sculptures and movies inspired by the conflict between the divine and the demonic.
If God continued this process of purging the universal evil,creation will lose its immence depth and richness and eventually end-up with a very colourless and uninteresting world.If this kind of reality were portrayed in a movie ,we probably would not find it worth seeing.Script writing for movies stresses the importance of tension,conflict and drama as necessary prerequisite for a successful movie.A widely used manual for screenplay writing warns that portraying life in a goody goody happy form is a guarantee for a certain flop at the box office counter.

The film makers who have a free choice to select story for their movies,do not usually choose sweet uneventful stories with a happy start,happy interval and happy end.They include suspence,serious emotional conflict,violence and evil in their drama,as in the words of swami Ramkrishna Paramhansa”to thicken the plot”.So God the creator of universe naturally applied same principles that govern creative activity and entertainment in our world.Good and evil,both aspects of human activity and existence,antagonistic towards each other,they are both necessary elements in creation.Triumph of good over evil also is a universal phenomena,which is at the heart of all holy scriptures.Even the movies which entertain us all over the world ,depict always the triumph of good over evil.It is a universal law which can not be reversed,triumph of good over evil.

The weapons given to the mankind by sages and saints like Bhagwan Buddh and Gandhiji,to fight the evil forces in the world are ‘truth and nonviolence’.Gautam Buddh told us that there are four noble truths which are always to be kept in mind,
1)Our physical existence in this world is’dukkha’,which means suffering.
2)This suffering is due to transient nature of our existence,like childhood,adulthood,old age out of which nothing is permanant but everybody among us wants permanance like permanant happiness,joy which is not possible,finally everybody has to die and hence the’dukkha’,for the death of our near and dear ones and for our imminent end bodily.
3)Everybody can get rid of this’dukkha’or suffering and attain’nirvana’which is a state of permanent bliss and the way for it is only spiritual path,which is eightfold fourth truth as told by Gautam Buddh,
4)Right understanding,Right thought,Right speech,Right efforts,Right action,Right livelihood,Right mindfulness,and
Right concentration.

Now if we study Gandhiji’s life,then we understand that he tried throughout his life to follow the eightfold noble path recommended by Gautam Buddh.Gandhiji believed in preaching what he practiced himself.He always used to preach for truth and nonviolence,which he followed honestly during the entire period of freedom struggle.Once a mother with her son came to Gandhiji and asked him to tell her son to stop eating sugar.Gandhiji told the lady to come after some days.The lady came again alongwith her son after three days and requested Gandhiji for telling her son to stop eating sugar and this time Gandhiji told the boy to stop eating sugar.The mother was perplexed and asked incredulously’If that is all you are going to say to him,why could not you tell him that when I first came to you?’Gandhiji replied ‘Because that time I was eating sugar myself,and I stopped it when you left.’This example illustrates the high ideal of speaking only what we actually practice ourselves,and actually covers the eightfold path of noble truth shown by Bhagwan Buddh.So for those who want to fight the evil forces and attain permanant happiness, truthfulness is one of the ethical virtues they need to inculcate.

Another ethical virtue which Gandhiji taught us is nonviolence(Ahinsa).There is a proverb in sanskrit’Ahinsa Parmo Dharmah’means nonviolence is the greatest religion and Gandhiji followed this vigorously.Dr.Martin Luther King jr,who fought for the rights of black people,also preached and followed nonviolence during his struggle in America.By using nonviolent methods Gandhiji led India to independence and Dr King helped move America to its vision of equal rights.Today we are living in a free democracy,and America has a black leader Barack Obama as president of United States Of America.This is the triumph of truth and nonviolence over evil forces of colonial rule and apartheid.

Humanity recognizes the greatness of those souls who control their anger and refrain from violence.Every year someone receives a noble peace prize for his or her work.Many other awards are given by religious,social groups for efforts towards peace.If peace is so much valued in our society why does it remain so elusive?Is peace possible in this world and if so,how can we attain it?These issues are critical not only for the future of our planet,but they are critical for those who want to attain peace and happiness.

So if we want to follow the doctrine of eightfold path,then Gandhiji’s weapons of evil destruction,truth and nonviolence are essential in our armoury,and alongwith these come their natural allies love and peace.

When we talk of love,there is a dilemma that what is love afterall ?Millions of poems are written about love.Philosophers,poets,writers have written from ages to explain love.One of the greatest philosopher poets of his times Iqbal sahib has written,

“Sitaron se aagey jahan aur bhi hain,
abhi Ishq ke imtihan aur bhi hain ”

means,there are many universes beyond the moon and stars,and still mankind has to pass many tests to succeed in love.The Urdu poetry that time was mostly about wine and women and poets used to compare the beauty of females with moon and stars,but Iqbal sahib through his poetry was showing them the path of spirituality and asking them to raise above physical level,realize the soul(rooh)which is the real self of everybody,and when humans realize that then they realize also that there are many worlds beyond this physical world,and the love which the poet is refering is divine love which can only be with God,the creator of all universes.We are all one with that creator.This oneness is to be attained and this is the real exam of mankind which Iqbal sahib is reffering to.This is the state which Gautam Buddh called’nirvana’,of eternal bliss and peace,divine love.

So the love is much more than the ordinarily perceived physical love between male and female.Love between mother and child,love between friends,love for humanity,love for our nation and ultimately the love for God.Our body and mind are full with desires and when love is desire then it becomes the cause of suffering as Gautama Buddha has told us that’Desires are the cause of all the suffering in the world.’Another great Urdu philosopher poet of his time was Jigar Muradabadi, who has beautifully expressed the painful nature of our physical state of desires of love and impossibility of success,

“yeh ishq nahin hai aasan,itna hi samajh leeje
ek aag ka darya hai aur doob ke jaana hai ”

So the poet is warning that the love,which the Urdu poets described in their Urdu poetry full with wine and women and pleasure is not that easy virtue,but it is a ocean of fire,and one has to drown herself or himself in to it and obviously it will burn us and we will meet with painful end and there is no escape from it,as Gautama Buddha has stated in four noble truths that our physical existence is full with suffering.

In Love for something of this world,there is an element of attachment for the object of one’s love.And we have fear of losing the object of our love.Whether it is one’s family,friends,lover,belongings or country,we have feeling of happiness in their company.This feeling of love,completeness which we have for our near and dear ones is to be broadened.Most of us have love for a small circle of people which includes our family and close friends.The ultimate state of love is having love for all creation in the universe.This sort of love is pure,divine,the kind of love God has for his creation.When one can reciprocate this love then the God is not far from his or her sight.

Another ethical virtue which is a natural ally of truth and nonviolence is peace.Whenever an object breaks it becomes fragmented and disjointed.We feel agitated when something breaks and we want to either discard it or piece it back together.When anything we admire is shattered to pieces,the peace of the atmosphere and our peace of mind is disturbed.We find that we have within us an innate sense of oneness and unity.This does not only extend to objects but human relations also.We crave for unity and peace in our family,among our friends,within our team and within our country and within the world at large.There is peace and contentment when a mother holds her child.The peace we feel in unity is a reflection of our true state of existence.It is a state in which there is only oneness.No duality.In the beginning there was no division,no separation.God is a formless ocean of all consciousness,all bliss.There was no caste,no religion,no nationality.It was only when God decided to bring creation in to being that unity became duality.What was one became many.If we look at the condition of the world,we are appalled and shocked by the suffering and pain each form of life is undergoing.We find countries at war,we see religious groups at odds with each other.Even within families we find discord and disharmony.We find human beings killing other human beings.

We wonder how there can be so much pain and turmoil caused by people who have within them the same divinity of God.Our craving for peace and unity is always there but the world we see seems to be totally out of tune from that original true self.So how to return back to that state of peace and unity.There is a ray of hope here ,those fortunate people who discovered the peace within themselves.Having found their true selves and the creator they are often moved to share their experience with their fellow beings.The bliss they enjoy is so great that they want everyone else to experience it as well.These compassionate souls are known by us as Saints,mystics,prophets,and spiritual masters.Jesus Christ,prophet Muhammed,Bhagwan Buddh,Saint Kabir,Guru Nanak,St.John,Guru Ravidas,Mahatma Gandhi and so many have taught us about our inner self,about peace and union with god.They wanted to eliminate the sufferings in this world caused by ignorance of our true nature.In various scriptures they refer this as prayer,contemplation,worship or meditation.Whatever we call it the process is the same.We must concentrate our attention within us.When great saints and mystics came to this world they taught this technique to their disciples.

It was in the fifteenth century in India that great saints such as Kabir sahib and guru Nanak began teaching the practice of meditation as science.They taught that the art of rising above the body to experience the beyond was a science that could be practiced by any one irrespective of one’s religious background.Thus,they taught this method to both Hindus and Muslims alike.Their tradition has been carried on,and since that time the practice of meditation has been given out as a method that can be followed by people of all religions and from all walks of life.Through this method it is possible to find peace,happiness which is eternal.Like any field of learning we need to have the proper education,an experienced spiritual teacher,and the right technique as in bhagwan Buddha’s words’right concentration’.

So we have to tread the path of truth,nonviolence,love and peace to fight the evil forces of the world,keeping in mind the universal law that ultimately good will triumph over the evil.But we should never underestimate the enemy,who is very powerful,because it has got the dangerous weapons of science and technology,which very often are misused by evil forces.Some scientists have recognised the spiritual experiences of great philosophers,Like great Albert Einstein,Carl Jung and modern physicists,however there are some western psychiatrists and psychologists who interpret the visionary and transcendental experiences of great saints and prophets as menifestations of serious mental deseases,without any medical data and explanation supporting this position.St.John of the cross has been called a ‘hereditary degenerate’,prophet Muhammed’s mystical experiences and conversation with God have been attributed to ‘epilepsy’.Bhagwan Buddha,Jesus Christ have been seen as suffering from ‘psychoses’and their experiences of realms beyond physical,as’delusions’.So this section of psychiatrists who are atheists indulging in blasphemy can be described as part of evil forces which are to be conquered by humanity with the weapons of truth,nonviolence,love and peace.The war is on and we know the outcome of this war,but we have to resist and fight,we have to put our efforts,like Gandhiji and Dr.Martin Luther King jr,because wars can not be won without fighting.

The mystics base their convictions on experiential evidence.They do not need churches or temples.The context in which they experience the sacred dimensions of reality including their own divinity,are their bodies and nature.And instead of officiating pundits and priests and mullahs they need a supportive group of fellow seekers or the guidance of a teacher who is more advanced on the inner journey than they are themselves.

At the cradle of all great religions were visionary experiences of their founders,prophets,saints,and ordinary true followers.All major spiritual scriptures are based on direct personal revelation.Once religion becomes organized,it often completely loses the connection with the spiritual source and becomes an institution exploiting the human spiritual needs without satisfying them.Instead it creates a system focusing on the pursuit of power,control,politics,money,possessions and other concerns.

There is no doubt that the dogmas of organized religion are generally in fundamental conflict with science. But the situation is very different in regard to spiritual experiences.In the last twenty five years systematic study of these experiences has become the main focus of a special discipline of science called transpersonal psychology.Spiritual experiences like any other aspect of reality,can be studied scientifically.They can be subjected to careful,openminded research.There is nothing unscientific about unbiased and rigorous study of these phenomena and of the challenges they represent for a materialistic understanding of the world.

Finally here are words of wisdom from Mahatma Gandhi,to fight the evil forces with truth,nonviolence,love and peace.Gandhiji had used these weapons successfully,and taught us that wars can be won over with these weapons,so we should also take up the challenge to combat the common enemy,

When truth is seen,there is self realization.

Worship truth at all times with all your heart.

Satyagraha is the same as truthfulness,love force or soul force.

Truth,Purity,Self control,Firmness,Fearlessness,Humility,Unity,Peace,and renunciation,these are the inherent qualities of a civil resister.

A Satyagrahi has no enemies.He discovers truth by fasting and prayer.God alone is his abode,refuge and friend.

Truth never damages a cause that is just.

To a true artist,only that face is beautiful which,quite apart from its exterior,shines with the truth within the soul.

Truth implies love and firmness engenders and therefore serves as a synonym for force.I thus began to call the Indian movement Satyagraha that is to say the force which is born of truth,love and nonviolence.

Silence becomes cowardice when occasion demands speaking out the whole truth and acting accordingly.

The way of peace is the way of truth.Indeed,lying is the mother of violence.A truthful man can not long remain violent.He will perceive in the course of his search that he has no need to be violent and he will further discover that so long as there is the slightest trace of violence in him he will fail to find the truth he is seeking.

If we are to be saved and are to make a substantial contribution to the world’s progress ours must be emphatically and predominantly be the way of peace.

A peace-bringer must have a character beyond reproach and must be known for his strict impartiality.

Generally there are previous warnings of coming storms.Where these are known the peace brigade will not wait till the conflagration breaks out but will try to handle the situation in anticipation.

Peace will never come until the great powers courageously decide to disarm themselves.

If we are to reach real peace in this world and if we are to carry on a real war against war,we shall have to begin with children.If they grow up in their natural innocence,we would not have to struggle.We wouldn’t have to pass fruitless,idle resolutions,but we shall go from love to love and peace to peace,until at last all the corners of the world are covered with that peace and love for which consciously or unconsciously the whole world is hungering.

A man or woman ends by becoming what he or she thinks,and it will be the same for India if she remains firmly attached to truth by means of love.

I am but a weak aspirant,everfailing,evertrying.My failures make me more vigilant than before and intensify my faith.I can see with the eye of faith that the observance of the twin doctrines of truth and nonviolence has possibilities of which we have but very inadequate conception.

It is no nonviolence if we merely love those who love us.It is nonviolence only when we love those who hate us.I know how difficult it is to follow this grand law of love.But are not all great and good things difficult to do? but by the grace of God,even this most difficult thing becomes easy to accomplish if we want to do it.

The moral to be legitimately drawn from the supreme tragedy of the bomb is that it will not be destroyed by counterbombs,even as violence can not be by counterviolence.

Mankind has to get out of violence only through nonviolence.

Love is a rare herb that makes a friend even of a sworn enemy and this herb grows out of nonviolence.

True nonviolence is an impossibility without the possession of unadulterated fearlessness.

In nonviolence the masses have a weapon which enables a child,a woman,or even a decrepit old man to resist the mightiest government successfully.If your spirit is strong mere lack of physical strength ceases to be a handicap.

Nonviolence is not a garment to be put on and off at will.Its seat is in the heart and it must be an inseparable part of our very being.

The true democrat is he who with purely nonviolent means defends his liberty and therefore his country’s and ultimately that of the whole mankind.

My notion of democracy is that under it the weakest should have the same opportunity as the strongest.That can never happen except through nonviolence.

I believe that true democracy can only be an outcome of nonviolence.The structure of a world federation can be raised only on a foundation of nonviolence and violence will have to be totally given-up in world affairs.

I firmly believe that freedom won through bloodshed or fraud is no freedom.

The cause of liberty becomes a mockery if the price to be paid is the wholesale destruction of those who are to enjoy liberty.

Liberty and democracy become unholy when their hands are dyed red with innocent blood.

Mankind is at the crossroads.It has to make its choice between the law of the jungle and the law of humanity.

The spirit of democracy can not be established in the midst of terrorism,whether it is state sponsored or individual.

Having flung aside the sword,there is nothing except the cup of love which I can offer to those who oppose me.It is by offering that cup that I expect to draw them close to me.I can not think of permanent enemity between man and man,and believing as I do in the theory of rebirth,i live in the hope that,if not in this birth,in some other birth I shall be able to hug all humanity in friendly embrace.

Love is the strongest force the world possesses and yet it is the humblest imaginable.

No man could be actively nonviolent and not rise against social injustice,no matter where it occurred.

Nonviolence implies voluntary submission to the penalty for non-cooperation with evil.

It is the acid test of nonviolence that in a nonviolent conflict there is no rancor left behind and in the end the enemies are converted in to friends.

It is a bad outlook for the world if the spirit of violence takes hold of the mass mind.Ultimately it destroys the human race.

My prayerful search gave me the revealing maxim’Truth is God’ instead of the usual one ‘God is Truth’.

So long as we have not cultivated the strength to die with courage and love in our hearts,we can not hope to develop the nonviolence of the strong.

The golden way is to be friends with the world and to regard the human family as one.He who distinguishes between the votaries of one’s own religion and those of another miseducates the members of his own and openes the way for discord and irreligion.

My goal is friendship with the whole world and I can combine the greatest love with the greatest opposition to wrong.

If there were no greed,there would be no occasion for armaments.The principle of nonviolence,necessitates complete abstention from exploitation in any form.

As soon as the spirit of exploitation is gone,armaments will be felt as positively unbearable burden.Real disarmament can not come unless the nations of the world cease to exploit one another.

Peace can not be built on excluvism,absolutism and intolerance.

If the mad race for armaments continues it is bound to result in a slaughter such as has never occurred in history.If we are to be saved and are to make a substantial contribution to the world’s progress ours must emphatically and predominantly be the way of peace.

It may be long before the law of love will be recognized in international affairs.The machineries of governments stand between and hide the hearts of one people from those of another.

Fundamentalism in India

It has emerged in the formation of modern nation states that there are two principal paths available.One is to allow individuals to chose their own beliefs and values freely(within the framework of law of a free secular democratic set-up).The other is to insist that beliefs and values should be imposed or enforced on everybody top-down.The former might be described as a pluralist society in which people respect those whose views differ from their own,but the latter the top-down enforcement of values,describes a fundamentalist view that does not allow for disagreement.Fundamentalists are determined,agressive,dogmatists,insisting that they and they alone are right.You are either with them or you are their enemy.

Fundamentalism is often used in terms of religion.We will also stick to this interpretation of the word,which is popular in public debates and everyday conversation,for religious narrow-mindedness.

It is true that the word ‘fundamentalism’ has emerged from a christian context.It was first used in the early twentieth century by American protestants who saw themselves as defenders of the fundamentals of the christian religion against the onslaught of modern,liberal theology and critical textural scholarship that seemed to undermine the special status of Bible.

We will use the word ‘fundamentalism’ here to describe social phenomena in islam and hinduism in India.We are not covering Christian,Buddhist and Sikh faiths although there are fundamentalist leaders and literatures in these faiths,like sikhs have a word ‘moolvad’connoting a polity and society organized according to scriptural,religious authority,like some sikhs want a separate sikh state named’Khalistan’.But in a broader sense even after the partition of India in 1947,hindu-muslim differences are the core issue in India.Population-wise also muslims are the second largest community(about 20 crores) of India.So fundamentalism of islam and hinduism,in my view affects the entire sub-continent and has to be dealt in detail.

THE STRUGGLE FOR POLITICAL POWER-
One of the defining characteristics of fundamentalist movements is their wish to halt or reverse the trend of modernization and secularization,so that religion can reassert the influence it has lost in the modern world.States or governments weild ultimate power in the modern world and sometimes fundamentalist organizations and movements with high ambitions work to take control of the state.Some fundamentalist movements have an all-embracing vision of how to establish a state that is guided by the religious values and laws and how to mould a nation observing those values and laws.Sometimes these visions have motivated violent struggles against state authorities.

THE ISLAMIC STATE-
Maulana Maududi’s ideas from 1930 to 1950 had a profound impact on fundamentalist thought and action across the sunni muslim world.During his lifetime Maududi witnessed the establishment of a new country for south asian muslims-‘Pakistan’.’we want to replace the existing system with the islamic order’,Maududi said in a speech in Lahore in july 1950.At this time Maududi was disappointed with the lack of religious values showed by the state leaders,such as Muhammed Ali Jinnah and he worked hard to set Pakistan on a more islamic track.Maududi,one against the world,asserted pointing to the fascists in Italy,Nazis in Germany,the impirical states in America and Britain and communists in Russia,everywhere an elite group get themselves as rulers and made the rest of society in to slaves.In a true islamic society its members must render all authority to Allah.No law given by Allah may be changed or removed.A government running an islamic society is entitled to obedience only in its capacity as a political agency set-up to enforce the laws of Allah.He said that every believing muslim has a direct relationship to Allah and that nobody stands between man and Allah either in a religious or a political sense.

Where did these ideas of Maulana Maududi leave Indian muslims,who are a minority in a hindu majority nation.India is a democracy and what Maududi was doing in Pakistan was not a democracy in the western sense.But the problem with fundamentalist thinkers is that they do not bother about even their co-religious brotheren in other countries,where they are not in majority.To Maududi and other fundamentalist muslim leaders,the creation of a muslim homeland in Pakistan was an event of mythic proportions and in the carnage following the partition of India in 1947,hundreds of thousands of muslims(as well as hindus and sikhs)had lost their lives for the realization of this dream.It was of paramount importance to Maududi that the sacrifices should not be wasted by establishing a secular state instead of the promised muslim land.

Maulana Maududi’s goals were typical of the militant brand of muslim fundamentalism that expanded and finally joined hands with international jihadist movements of Osama Bin Laden in the aftermath of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1980s.The result was the birth of a new fudamentalist breed named’Taliban’.Everybody knows about the fundamentalist regime of Taliban and their strict adherence to ‘sharia’and their cruelty against women.

HINDU RASHTRA-
The centre of gravity of hindu fundamentalism in the 20th century and 21st century is the organization called Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh(RSS) which was founded in Nagpur,a city of Maharashtra state of India,by K.B.Hedgewar(1889-1940)to promote hinduism during the colonial times of 1920s and 1930s,when large sections of Indians were engaged in a struggle for independence from British rule.The RSS stood on the sidelines that time,not participating in the freedom movement,because they did not share the vision of an inclusive nation envisaged by leaders and freedom fighters such as Mahatma Gandhi,Jawaharlal Nehru,Maulana Abul Kalam Azad,Vallabh Bhai Patel, Muhammed Ali Jinnah,Jai Prakash Narain,Bhagat Singh and millions of Indians.Hedgewar,Golwalkar and such other fundamentalist leaders of RSS saw patriotism based on secular democracy as a greater threat to a future Hindu Rashtra of their dream,than british colonialism.

Through its strict,centralized and authoritarian organization,the RSS controls a host of sister organizations devoted to the infusion of hindu culture and values in different spheres of Indian society.The other side of this strategy is the militant and aggressive stand against muslims and christians who do not fit in to the vision of their Hindu Rashtra.The RSS and its leaders have always been motivated by hatred against muslims and they have created several militant organizations devoted to attacking minorities in India.Most famous among them is ‘Bajrang Dal’.Then they have ‘Vishva Hindu Parishad(VHP)’,a religious wing of RSS to destroy mosques in order to make room for temples.

A recent addition to this Sangh Parivar calling for a Hindu Rashtra is a terrorist outfit named ‘Abhinav Bharat’which was established in 2007.The activists of this branch were caught in Bomb blasts of ‘Samjhauta Express’a train running from India to Pakistan,and a mosque in Malegaon.Col.Purohit and Sadhvi Pragya who are currently in jail,are members of Abhinav Bharat.

Hindus in India are not a homogenious entity,because among them are literates,half literates and illiterates.Mostly literate section of hindus are one with minorities and want to live peacefully and believe in a inclusive secular democracy,but the half literate and illiterate sections,be they hindus or muslims or any other community,most of them are traders,tend to believe fundamentalist ideology and hindus among them are easily lured by RSS and similarly muslims are lured by muslim fundamentalists like SIMI(students for islamic movement in India),Indian Mujahiddin etc.Both hindu and muslim fundamentalists are engaged in spreading extremism,and plotting to hit each other all the time.Fundamentalist hindus are a sizable section in India,and L.K.Advani,the first president of Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP),a party formed by RSS members in 1980s, defected from earlier Janata Party(JP)which was a secular party formed by Jai Prakash Narain,tapped the potential of this hindu vote bank by playing fundamentalist hindu politics,influencing large sections of fundamentalist hindus in north India.L.K.Advani and other leaders of BJP created a law and order problem by organizing a’Ram Rath Yatra’from Somnath temple in Gujrat state,and climaxing the yatra by demolishing ‘Babri Masjid’in Ayodhya.There were hindu-muslim riots in many cities in which another fundamentalist party ‘Shiv Sena’ led by late Bal Thackray also participated.The communal politics of BJP and Shiv-Sena finally succeeded temporarily and captured power in 1999 by forming a coalition government headed by A.B.Vajpayee,a hindu brahman.

Between 1999 and 2004,the democratic system in India ensured that BJP enjoyed government power and its leaders immediately initiated policies to make India more hindu.The establishment of a hindu rashtra proved difficult for BJP,RSS,VHP,Shiv Sena and Bajrang Dal although in one part of the country the fundamentalists penetrated the state appratus to the extent that we may reasonably call it a fundamentalist state.This is Gujrat in western India.A federal state with more than 50 million population,where the BJP government with the help of RSS,VHP and Bajrang Dal has supported a policy of hinduization and massacre of muslims,to completely finish them off,like jews in Germany of Hitler and Nazis.

LAW-

ISLAMIC LAW-
Important controversies about religion and law in India have raged over conceptualization of secularism and multiculturism particularly with regard to Muslim law.

By the reform of Hindu law ,Hindus,Sikhs,Buddhists and Jains were brought under a more secularized and uniform personal law code,whereas Muslims,christians and Jews were left with their own religious codes.Christians and Jews are a tiny minorities in India,but muslims constitute 15% of the total population of india.Many political parties in India have protested loudly against attempts to change Muslim Law and the congress party has been careful in its approach to the issue because they have feared inter-religious conflicts and loss of votes.

The Shah Bano case which reached the Supreme court in 1985,is the most famous symbol of the clash between the idea of a uniform civil code and muslim demands for minority rights in the area of family law.The Supreme court in this case claimed that after reading Koran their view is that husbands should pay their divorced wives alimony longer than 3 months stipulated by Muslim personal law and the Supreme court judgement contained blunt statements about the need of Indian muslims to modernize their ideas about family law.

Lately a Muslim Indian feminist movement has emerged led by Ms Shabana Azmi and other leaders,that demands changes to Muslim personal law.The Muslim feminists refer to the Koran and the Hadith to justify their call for more gender equality and they reject the religious authority of the traditional elite,the ulama.

The realization that the change is happening to Muslim law,just as it happened to Hindu law is probably the reason why the Hindu fundamentalists did not make the lack of uniform civil code in to a big issue once they gained government power in 1999.

During British rule the British magistrate’s task was to administer Islamic law,’Sharia’and in order to do this well the magistrates had local muftis, specialists on sharia to assist them.Over time many magistrates were recruited from muslim population but the judiciary was trained in english law.The result was the development of a unique blend of islamic legal content,which became known as Anglo-Muslim law.

HINDU LAW-

Similarly for Hindus there was developed an Anglo-Hindu law By British rulers.When India was freed from British rule in 1947,the Indian secular leaders thought what to do with complex Anglo-Hindu law.The leaders like Mahatma Gandhi,Pandit Nehru,Sardar Patel who took over from British rulers in free India wanted to get rid of many of the hindu customs that the British had incorporated in Anglo-Hindu law to appease hindu fundamentalists.This was a process to reform Anglo-Hindu law to make it more secular Indian-law.These reforms met with resistance from fundamentalist hindus. leaders of Jan-Sangh(earstwhile political wing of RSS before the creation of BJP)and Hindu-Mahasabha opposed the proposed changes concerning widow marriages,bigamy and daughter’s inheritance rights.Hindu Mahasabha headed by V.D.Savarkar(who was thought to be the master-mind behind the assasination of Mahatma Gandhi by Nathuram Godse)and Jan-Sangh were later developed in to Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP)a right wing Hindu party.The politicians of these fundamentalist outfits believed that their supporter hindus belonging to upper castes could not accept the legal changes.

Inspite of reforms of Anglo-Hindu law modern Indian law has not been completely purged of religious content.There is considerable divergence between the secular rhetoric used by Indian elites and the realities in Indian courts on matters of personal law.

ISLAM AND SCIENCE-
Sayyid Ahmed Khan,who founded Aligarh Muslim University,one of the most important centres of learning in India,took a very positve stand towards modern science.Khan demonstrated how the koran if interpreted correctly could be reconciled with modern biological and geological theories.One key figure of modern Islam during nineteenth century Jamal ad-din Afghani held religion and humanity above natural sciences but did not discard science altogether.He praised religion as the upholder of honour,shame,trustworthiness,and truthfulness.Such virtues are vital for societies and cultures to survive he said.These values are linked to religious beliefs about humans holding a special position in the cosmos and to assumption that humans have the capacity for attaining the perfection that will transfer them to a better world,heaven.Scientists have often called themselves socialists,communists,athiests or nihilists but the godless philosophy leads to destruction all the same,Afghani said.

Khan and Afghani were both modern muslim thinkers,but what about the fundamentalists ?In the 1940s Maulana Maududi wrote that the theory of evolution was in conflict with Islam’s belief in a creator God,Allah.He dismissed suggestions by modernist muslims that the koranic story of the creation of Adam from clay could be read allegorically as evolution from simpler forms of matter to complex life forms.Maududi’s rejection of evolution as fundamentally opposed to islamic views has been crucial to muslim fundamentalists attitudes.Evolutionary thought equaled materialism,Maududi asserted,and materialism caused humans to see themselves as unfettered by religious and moral constraints and to treat each other in terrible ways.Darwinism and materialism placed humanity in the centre of universe and resulted in moral decay and political catastrophe,Maududi wrote.

ANCIENT HINDUISM AND SCIENCE-

Swami Vivekanand said that Darwin’s theory of Evolution,the struggle for existence,survival of the fittest,natural selection,so on and so forth,was not sufficient to explain developement among human beings.Mankind developes not through physical competition and destruction but rather through conscious development of the spirit.Swami said the ancient hindu philosophers had in fact given a better and more comprehensive explanation than Darwin.In vedanta(upanishads)long ago Indian philosophers had given the most complete explanation for development and change in nature and on human history.Swami praised science and spirituality both and to him the east and west were two fundamentally different cultures.The east had spirituality and religious insight,and the west had science and technology.Both cultures were necessary and the problems facing mankind were because of its inability to strike a balance between the two.

This imbalance was openly exhibited by hindu fundamentalist organization RSS,when it managed to put its leaders and ideologues in to government through BJP between 1999 and 2004.RSS wants to create a hindu culture where hindu religion infuses all spheres of life.Sushma Swaraj,a minister in this government once said(when onions were being sold at Rs 100/-per kg)that why do not people eat apples instead of onions.Onion is an important ingredient while cooking for majority of indians,but there are strict vegeterian hindus and jains who do not allow onions and garlic in their food.But how can apples replace onion,this is beyond the understanding of fundamentalist hindus,because they can do without onions so others should also follow them,simple fudamentalist funda.They are even critical of secularism and they see it as a preferential treatment of minorities.During this government the Minister of Human Resources development(HRD),Murli Manohar Joshi,a senior figure in the RSS and BJP,an important hindu fundamentalist thinker in the sphere of science,changed policies in the Department of higher education,with the aim of making scientific department and higher education more Hindu.

ISLAMIC SCHOOLS-OR NESTS OF TERRORISM

In Brirish India the colonial government saw that reform of the madrasas(islamic schools)clearly undermined the status and authority of the muslim religious elites in society.this was also obvious to the muslim religious elites themselves who often saw government initiatives to reform the madrasas as a conspiracy to destroy Islam.

Muslim fundamentalists are not among the defenders of the traditional madrasa system.The people who lose out from the decline of the traditional islamic system of education are the religious scholars with traditional education,who cling to the religious authority.Fundamentalists seldom belong to this class of religious scholars.They are found among the much larger group of people with education in main stream educational institutions,even in engineering,medicine and they are concerned about religion and its place in society but often they see the ulama as useless and outdated.

What then about the dangerous madrasas?One of the recurrent themes in media in recent years has been the fear of islamic schools and their role in creating fundamentalist culture associated with terrorism.Such media reports are often based on very dubious sources.Madrasas account for less than 1% of overall school enrollment in the country.

So the important conditioning factor in the sphere of education for muslim fundamentalism is probably not the madrasa system as such but rather the spread of higher education of modern type,as in Hindu religion also.

SAFFRON-COLOURED EDUCATION IN INDIA-

In 2004, NDA(Coalition of BJP,Shiv Sena and some other parties)government was voted out of office and after leaving his post as minister of HRD,Murli Manohar Joshi was interviewed by the magazine,’Organizer’which is published by RSS.Joshi was asked what he thought of the plans announced by the new government for reversing the changes he had made to Indian education.Joshi explained that policies aimed at saffronization of education were in line with the constitution and the demands of the people(naturally BJP supporters).In fact saffron is the colour that represents the very ethos and psyche of this country(and what about other two colours in our national flag?They are not the ethos of hindu fundamentalists,naturally.)Saffronization means to go back to holy tradition of this country.If they want to remove it,people will judge it.In fact people have judged already and BJP was defeated in 2 parliamentry elections consecutively.From 2004 to 2013,BJP alongwith its ally Shiv Sena had not been able to capture power at centre,which proves that majority of Indians do not approve their policies of fundamentalism.In fact their strongest ally Shiv Sena is now devided in two parties,and the divided part named ‘Maharashtra Nav Nirman Sena’led by Raj Thackray plays caste politics,but can not be said fundamentalist.Other part ‘Shiv Sena’ also is not openly supporting fundamentalism and may join a third front also if such situation arises.Another ally of BJP named JD(U)has openly revolted against fundamentalism and warned BJP that it will severe ties with them,if they continued to follow the policies of fundamentalism.So the overall picture in India is that majority of the people do not like religious fundamentalism.

Murli Manohar Joshi further said that modern science has proved that the ancient hindus had been right all along,as when modern physics reached conclusions about the dissolution of strict distinction between cause and effect.Modern physics approached the truth about oneness of universe,described in the upanishads,texts composed several centuries before christ.

WOMEN IN ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM-

Maulana Maududi’s views on women and purdah had great significance for Jamat-e-Islami and for south Asian sunni muslim fundamentalism.Maududi wanted muslim women to be confined to the home and purdah,but women took a different stand and came out against Maududi and claimed that Islam in fact allowed women to take on important political and economic roles in society and did not demand veiling and seclusion.Prophet Muhammed’s first wife was a prominent business woman of that period and prophet was her employee,to whom later on she proposed for marriage.Today Jamat-e-Islami’s branches in India have edged closer to mainstream democratic views about the position of women in society.Several muslim women such as Mohsina Kidwai,Najma Heptullah are active in politics and others such as Parveen Sulatana,Late Nargis Dutt,Wahida Rahman and many are popular in the field of music, art and cultural activities.

Muslim fundamentalists also are aware that their movements need the active participation of women.Islamic terrorist organization Lashkar-e-Taiba(LeT)fighting with the support of Pakistani authorities,who has masterminded the 2008 attack in several establishments in Mumbai,and many terrorist acts in Kashmir valley,owes part of its success to a campaign to involve women in militarism,by playing the emotions of mothers and sisters of young men who enter the movement as terrorists(or for them freedom fighters dying for the liberation of muslims from suppression at the hands of hindus).Through a women’s wing and publications targeting women,the LeT has been far better in creating a sustainable militant fundamentalist culture.The women of LeT are expected to take part in the fight for Islam by wearing burqahs and covering completely they signal that they embrace the fundamentalist ideal of purdah which has no roots in muslim tradition.Muslim women of Turky,Labnon,Syria,Egypt live like any other women in European culture.

SITA OR DURGA?HINDU FUNDAMENTALIST WOMEN

In the modern hindu fundamentalist concept Sita gave the best illustration of the ideal wife,mother,but now secularist women have questioned the submissiveness of Sita that why should she have gone through so severe tests to enhance the status of lord Rama.Motherhood is given a high status and the perfect mother sacrifices her own needs for her children,specially for sons.In many parts of India specially north India,where literacy rate is below 50%,sons are more valued than daughters and many families discourage the birth of daughters.Some families go to the extent of illegal sex determination tests and get their daughter-in-laws aborted,if she is to deliever a baby girl.The intellectual and reformer Rammohan Roy(1772-1883)was very critical of the way women were treated in the Hindu tradition.He was committed to ending the practice of ‘sati’,a ritual in which a widow let herself be burned on the funeral pyre of her husband after the model of the perfect wife in Hindu mythology.Swami Vivekananad was impressed by America because of the position of American women.He observed that’nowhere in the world is woman so free,so educated,so cultured.They are everything in society.’

Female Hindu fundamentalists in modern indian politics follow RSS,VHP and they have a Rashtriya Swayam Sevika Samiti,a women’s wing of RSS.The political and militant roles of fundamentalist women are popularised through goddesses like Durga,fierce,unmarried goddesses,who carry weapons and slay demons.

Since 1980s most vocal supporters of violence against Indian muslims were Hindu women.Hindu fundamentalist women of Gujrat actively participated with their male couterparts during 2002 Gujrat riots,and looted,plundered,murdered thousands of muslims.Muslims have consistently been presented as a dangerous threat to Hindu women and to India.”They deserve to die,they should be killed.They spill our blood,they rape our women.Let their blood be spilled,the bloody bastards”These are the words of a firebrand hindu fundamentalist woman.

Thousands of Hindu women have played key roles in Hindu fundamentalism for decades and will probably continue to do so in the future.

Scientific-materialism,Religion and Spirituality

We will start this subject with the writings of Karl Marx and Ludwig Feuerbach.Feuerbach says there is no meaning
to the world,save what we create ourselves and impose upon the world.For Feuerbach humanity needs to find solace
in consoling thoughts such as the existence of God and heaven.Both in his view are complete fabrications,the inventions
of sad and lonely souls desperately craving for meaning in a universe conspicuously devoid of purposes and goals.

Karl Marx took the above views of Feurbach a stage further and argued that the human longing for consolation was the
direct result of unjust social and economic conditions.The miserable meterial situation of humanity was the direct cause
of its religious yearnings.Abolish social and economic misery,for example,through a communist revolution-and people would not
need to dream of heaven any more because it would have been created on earth in a communist state.

Karl Marx adopted the crude progressive scientific-materialistic outlook so popular in the early nineteenth century.Marx said religion is just outmoded superstition which dulls the ability of the working class to rise up and overthrow the ruling class.’It is
the opium of the people’ which enables them to endure their sufferings,when they ought to be throwing off the shackles that condemned them to such sufferings in the first place.We find Lenin(heir to Karl Marx)also expressing similar views-‘Religion is opium for the people’,a kind of intoxicant in which the slaves of capital drown their humanity and blunt their desire for
a decent human existence….The class-conscious worker of today,leaves religion and heaven to the priests and bourgeois
(capitalists)hypocrites.He fights for a better life for himself here on earth.

The above thoughts of Karl Marx and Lenin influenced a vast section of working class all over the world,brought Russian revolution,and made Soviet union a super-power.This all could be called a progressive scientific-materialistic revolution,because Karl
Marx in his most valuable work’Das Capital’ proved all his ideas scientifically and mathematically,such as exploitation of workers and their labour,by creating’Surplus value’which went in to the pockets of capitalists as profit,making them richer and richer and turning the workers poorer and poorer.

Feurbach had explained why people believed in God.But the important thing Marx argued ,was to get rid of the idea altogether.
He said ‘The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways;the point is to change it’.For Marx,the origin of
the spurious human belief in God was socioeconomic alienation.Religion dulled people to the pain and tragedy of life.People believed in God because they needed hope and consolation.Why did they need this ?Because they had been alienated by the iniquities and injustices of capitalism.Get rid of human alienation and the need for religion would disappear with it.Hence the coming of communist revolution would eliminate the factors that disposed people to believe in God and ultimately erode faith in God altogether.

Once materialism had been declared to lie,cheat,exploit the innocent,simple,straightforward labour,at the heart of soviet ideology,a rigidly hostile attitude to religion followed as a matter of course.

Like many young people growing up in the 1960s,i also began to become intrigued with Marxism and Leninism.I came to see religion in negative terms,as an evil force that held back intellectual and social progress.The events of that time seemed to signal that a new era in the history of the world was about to dawn,in which outmoded habits of thought-such as religion
would be replaced by more progressive ways of thinking and living.

But a sense of unease remained with me.My grand mother taught me ‘gurumukhi’language and to read ‘Guru Granth Saheb’and ‘Japji Saheb’became by heart to me and silent recitation of which was going on inside me repeatedly,throughout
even during the times when i was under the influence of Marxism.This i believe is the spirituality,the inner side of religion.As i wrote in my earlier blogs also that religion has two sides,external and internal.So even if we dismiss external side of religion,as the cause of conflicts,socio-economic or religious conflicts due to different faiths,internal side or spirit or soul will always ramain although medical science will not accept it.

We all know that Soviet union disintegrated and the crude progressive scientific-materialistic revolution could not sustain pace.One of
the most distinctive features of the last few decades has been a rediscovery of the spiritual dimension to human existance.
In many parts of the world there has been a surge of interest in the concept of the transcendent,with a growing reaction
against what are seen as the unsatisfactory reductionisms of various materialist philosophies and worldviews.Everyone
wants to find something that is really worth pursuing and possessing rather than the chimeras whose lustre vanishes once
they are secured.Scientific-materialism has given us communism and organized religion(outer side) has given us capitalism out of which we have already
seen the fate of the former,and we know that nothing is permanent,so we can very well predict that the future of capitalism
also is shaky.What will remain is humanity,love,the soul and the spirit inside the soul.I remember one song sung by late
Rafi saheb-

“Hazzaron rang badlega Zamaana ,
Na badlega mohabbat ka Fasaana ”

The meaning of the above couplet is that the world will change thousands of colours,but there will remain love,which will
never change.

This love is life,soul and God which is expressed in another song of Rafi saheb,

Mandir mein masjid mein tu aur tu hi hai eemaanon mein,
Murli ki taanon mein tu aur tu hi hai aazaanon mein,
Tere dam se deen-dharam ki duniyan hai aabaad,
Zindabaad-zindabaad ai mohabbat zindabaad….daulat ki zanjeeron se tu rahti hai aazaad…

The meaning of the above lines is that love is present everywhere,in temples, mosques, honesty,in the music of flute or the prayers,and this is love due to which all religions are existing.love immortal,you are free from the chains of capitalism.

Soul can neither be created nor can be destroyed,as science also says’Atom can neither be created nor can be destroyed’.Scientists doing research on ‘Big Bang’ have recently claimed that they have found the “God particle”.why are they
calling it ‘God particle’ although they are non-believers(athiests).So they don’t deny the omnipresent God and hence soul and spirit.The clash is between scientific materialism and organized religion or rather religions,and spirituality is emerging as the shining light out of these clashes.

The natural sciences have nothing to say concerning the existence or otherwise of God.The observation-driven agenda of the
natural sciences is constrained by its very methodology,to deal with only sensorily perceived reality.They can not simply comment with competence on matters that can not be observed or detected,directly or indirectly.’It can not be observed’ can never be restated as’It does not exist’.The distinctive character of the sciences thus means that they can say nothing about
the existence or otherwise of a transcendent reality beyond interesting but ultimately speculative assertion or conjectures
for example-that it is just another interesting invention of the human mind,resulting from certain neural configuration.

In the popular sense ,scientific materialism long ago discredited religion.Facts replaced faith.Superstition was gradually vanquished,that’s why we look to the’Big Bang’as the source of the universe rather than to a creation myth populated by
one or more religions.

But religion is not the same as spirituality-far from it.Organized religion may have discredited itself,but spirituality
has suffered no such defeat.Thousands of years ago,in cultures across the globe inspired spiritual masters such as Buddha,Jesus,Muhammed and Lao-tzu and later sant Kabir,Guru Nanak,Mira proposed profound views of life,they taught that
a trascendent domain resides beyond the everyday world of pain and struggle.The eye beholds rocks,mountains, trees and sky
which is only a veil drawn over a vast mysterious unseen reality.Beyond the reach of the five senses lies an invisible
realm of infinite possibility and the key to unfolding its potential is consciousness.Go within,the sages and seers instructed,and you will find the true source of happiness,your own awareness.

It was this possibility that religion failed to deliver on.If the kingdom of God is within as Jesus Christ declared,if nirvana means freedom from all sufferings as the Buddha taught,Every thing is inside and not outside and those who seek
outside are confused under illusion said Guru Granth saheb,and if knowledge of the universe is locked inside the soul
as the ancient rishis and upanishads taught,we can not say that those teachings bore fruit when we look around the world.
Jesus and the Buddha had no doubt that they were describing the reality from the position of true knowledge,but after
more than 2000 years,non-believers as during that period also say that’we think we know better’.

Even if we miraculaously eliminated pollution and waste,coming generations will still have no model for the good life except the one that has failed us;endless consumption,exploitation of natural resources,and the diabolical creativity of war-fare
(nuclear bombs,weapons of mass destruction).Religion can not resolve this dilemma.It has had its chances already,but it wasted them and preferred religious conflicts among various religions.But spirituality can resolve it.We need to go back
to the source of religion,that is consciousness.Wisdom traditions included an impersonal God(Parmatma) who permeates every atom of the universe and every fiber of our being and an impersonal God does not need to be a threat to those believers who want to believe their one and only personal faith.

Think of someone you love.Now think of love itself.The person you love puts a face on love,yet surely you know that love existed before this person was born and will survive after he or she passes away.There lies the difference between the personal and the impersonal God.As a believer you can put a face on God,that is a matter of your own private choice,but i hope you see that if God is everywhere,the divine qualities of love,mercy,compassion,justice and all the other attributes ascribed to God extend infinitely throughout creation.This idea is a common thread in all religions.Super consciousness allowed the great sages,sants and seers to attain a state that science feels threatened by but that is okay.Our common understanding of consciousness is too limited to do justice here.

Spirituality had been around for many thousand years and its researchers were pure souls,living in a higher plane of super
consciousness.They were the very Einsteins of their times.Anyone can reproduce and verify their results as with the principles
of science.The future that spirituality promises,one of wisdom,freedom and fulfillment has not vanished,as the age of faith,
religion has declined.Since the dispute between science and religion has persuaded everyone that either you face reality and
deal with the tough questions of everyday life or you passively retreat and contemplate a realm beyond everyday life.

The either/or choice was forced on us when religion(outer)failed to deliever on its promises.But spirituality,the inner deeper source of religion has not failed and is ready to meet science face to face offering answers consistent with the most
advanced scientific theories.Science could add to self knowledge by expanding its sights.It could take heed of Einstein’s core belief-‘I maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scintific research’.

Just because religion(outer) did not succeed does not mean that spirituality based on consciousness of inner self(self realization) won’t.We need to see the truth and in the process we will awaken the profound powers that were promised to us
thousands of years ago.Time awaits.The future depends on the choice we make today.

The further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances,the more certain it seems to me that the path
to genuine religiosity does not lie through the fear of life,the fear of death and blind faith but
through the striving after rational knowledge.
-ALBERT EINSTEIN

Who looks outside, dreams !
Who looks within, awakens !!
-CARL JUNG